Consumer attitude research paper


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Consumer attitude research paper

  1. 1. ABSTRACTMarketing concept starts with consumers’ needs and their behavior in meeting their needs. In order tosatisfy their needs consumers make many buying decisions every day. And marketers need to studythese consumer purchase decisions in order to find answers to questions about what, why, where andhow much they buy and align their marketing program to that effect.For making a successful marketing program it is necessary for marketers to study the consumerbehavior so that they would know the psychology of consumers. Consumer psychology has variouscomponents such as perceptions, knowledge, attitude, intention, motive and the like. This researchpaper is done particularly on the two components of consumer psychology namely perception andattitude.The purpose of this study is to survey the perception and attitude of Ethiopian consumers towards St.George Beer. St. George Beer is the pioneer and still the dominant beer brand in Ethiopia. And inrecent days the Brand’s market share has significantly increased and it is becoming a synonym of beerin some areas especially in Addis Ababa. This wide acceptance and dominance in Ethiopian’s beerindustry, indirectly signifies a positive consumer attitude towards the brand. But the actual attitude ofbeer consumers towards St. George beer, the reason behind the attitude and its implication on thebehavior or consumption of the beer is the rationale of this research.The study based itself on the information collected from primary source by taking a sample of 80 beerconsumers from bars and restaurants around Mexico and Stadium areas in Addis Ababa anddistributing self administered questionnaires. Secondary sources such as books, journals and researchpapers written on similar topic are also reviewed. Appropriate statistical analysis such as frequency,ANOVA and correlation analysis are used according to respective objective and descriptors.Based on the findings of this research, it can be concluded that most beer consumers have positiveattitude towards the beer St. George Beer and this is resulted due to its product quality andpromotional activities. The St. George Beer’s taste, aroma, foam and thirst quenching attributes arefound to be very satisfactory. And the advertisements are also different from the other competing beerbrands in a way that they are creative, seasonal, cultural (Ethiopian) and entertaining. With regard toother promotional mix, the public relation efforts such as participating and sponsoring sports andsupporting other programs and festivals are positively perceived by the respondents which in turncontribute to the increase in sales volume and market share of the Brand.One important point pointed out is the intention to switch, even though most of the respondents likeand consume St. Gorge Beer, still 50% of them want to switch to other brand only half of them areloyal, and this is an assignment for St. Gorge Beer because it requires it more work not only to attractbut also maintain its consumers. In other words it should catch the hearts of its consumers and createloyalty. 1
  2. 2. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS1. Attitude: a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given product, product category, brand, service, people, advertisement, internet site, price, medium or retailer.2. Beer: alcoholic beverage made from cereal grains, usually barley, but also corn, rice, wheat, and oats.3. Beer foam: a mass of bubbles of gas or air on the surface of the beer.4. Consumer: is one who buys good or uses a service.5. Hangover: illness after drinking with a set symptoms including headache, nausea, thirst, and sickness that result from drinking too much alcohol6. Marketing stimuli: any communications or physical stimuli that are designed to influence consumers.7. Perception: process of receiving, organizing and assigning meaning to information or stimuli detected by our five senses.8. Stimulus: any physical, visual or verbal communication that can influence an individuals response. 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study In order to stay profitable and competitive in today’s market, satisfying customers is vital. So as to meet this goal, understanding the customers’ behaviors should be given a top priority. These days, organizations are expected to perform more than producing products and delivering services. Before producing products or delivering services, there is a need to do customer research. The customer research enables to answer questions like what the market buys, why the market buys, who participate in the buying, how the market buys, when the market buys, where the market buys and the like. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behavior is not so easy the answers are often locked deep within the consumer’s head. Marketing is the art of creating, attracting and keeping profitable customers, in order to convert occasional purchasers into brand loyalists; habits must be reinforced by appealing to the factors that shape consumer behaviors which include the cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics; because they hold the key to success or failure of any product. Among the aforementioned factors which influence consumer purchases, this research focuses on the psychological factors particularly attitude and perception. Consumer’s attitude towards a product according to Kotler and Armstrong (2006) is being shaped and influenced by psychological factors such as motivation, perception, learning, personality, attitude and belief. Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. Two individuals may be exposed to the same stimuli under the same apparent conditions, but how each person recognizes, selects, organizes and interprets these stimuli is a highly individual process based on each person’s own needs, values and expectations. (Schiffman and Kanuk: 2000) Attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object (specific consumption or marketing related concepts, such as product, product category, brand, service, possessions, product use, causes or issues, people, advertisement, internet site, price, medium or retailer). Attitudes have motivational quality that propel a consumer toward a particular behavior or repel the consumer away from a particular behavior. (ibid) 3
  4. 4. This research paper analyzes the consumers’ perception and attitude taking the case of St.George Beer.Beer is an alcoholic beverage made using a process called fermentation, in which microscopicfungi called yeast consume sugars in the grain, converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide gas.This chemical process typically produces beer with an alcohol content of 2 to 6 percent. Over 70styles of beer are available today. Each style derives its unique characteristics from its ingredientsand subtle differences in its brewing process. (Encarta: 2008)Beer is believed to be over 10,000 years old. Although no one knows its exact origins, someagricultural historians believe that the first beer may have been produced accidentally when a stashof grain was soaked by rain and then warmed by the sun. If this mixture were spontaneouslyfermented by wild, airborne yeast, which thrives in just these warm, moist conditions beer wouldhave been produced.Early beer makers used a very simplistic brewing process and fermented beer for only a briefperiod, one to two days at most. By around 1100 AD, brewing techniques had become moresophisticated. In Europe brewers banded together to form guilds societies that protected their tradewhile setting standards for beer making. Hops were introduced to the brewing process around1300. While many European brewers embraced the use of hops in making beer, English beermakers refused to add the bitter tasting plant to their brews until the 16 th century. The first beerbrewed with hops in England was bitter ale.For centuries brewers heated grain over open fires, resulting in dark, smoky malt that producedequally dark beer. With the advent of the industrial revolution in the mid-1800s, brewers invented away to dry malt in large rotating heated drums that left the grain light in color and produced a pale,golden beer. The next major technological development occurred in the late 19th century with theinvention of compressed gas refrigeration. Brewers no longer had to schedule the various heatingand cooling phases of the brewing process according to seasonal outdoor temperatures.Refrigeration also meant that beer could be shipped greater distances without spoiling. Thisinnovation paved the way for the proliferation of today’s large brand beers.With technological developments, some breweries turned to mass production, employing large-scale, and state-of-the-art brewing equipment to produce large quantities of beer. (ibid)In Ethiopia, the introduction of capitalist economy system brings enormous investment opportunityto different economic sector of the economy in the form of private and foreign direct investment.The brewery factory is not an exception. There were three beer factory owned by the state duringthe Derge regime; St. George Brewery, Harare Brewery and Meta Abo Brewery. But currently the 4
  5. 5. Ethiopia beer industry is comprised of five major breweries which include three state ownedenterprises, foreign investor and local private producers. These are BGI Ethiopia, Dashen, Harar,Meta Abo and Bedele. The other brewery; Habesha brewery, Raya Brewery and KangarooBrewery are underway to join the industry soon.Beer consumption in developing countries is often seen as one revealing (if crude) proxy forgauging the strength of economic activity. Economic growth, rising incomes and a growing shareof disposable income all tend to drive the consumption of beer in a country. (Access Capital: 2010)According to News Business Ethiopia report (2010), even though beer consumption in Ethiopia hasgrown fast over the past few years, Ethiopian still consume less as compared to the neighboringcounties. With estimated consumption of 3.1 million hectoliters and a population of nearly 80million, annual beer consumption per head is only around 4 liters, which is a third of that inneighboring countries and roughly one twentieth of the consumption levels seen in South Africa.In addition to economic factors, marketing activities like promotion, product innovation andconsumer preference has contributed for the growth of market share of major breweries.Consumers have got lots of brand to choose. Report from the sector revealed that the market iscurrently dominated by BGI Ethiopia Castel Group, which is owned by French investor andproduces St. George (Giorgis) brand with a share around 50 percent nation-wide and even higher inAddis Ababa. Its current production level is around 1.5 million hectoliters, having two large plantsin Addis Ababa and Kombolcha. (Access Capital, 2010) It goes without saying that consumer hasdeveloped positive attitude towards the brand, which is reflected by the company dominancy of themarket over the last ten years.Ethiopias oldest brewery Saint George, founded in 1922 is located in central Addis Ababa. Thebrewery was set up with modest premises to produce the country’s first bottled beer. It is situatednear the Mexico Square, Addis Ababa, and occupies an area of 20,000 Sq. meters of land.The founder of St. George Brewery, according to some sources, is Mussie Dawit Hale who is aBelgian and later he sold it to German company. When the brewery began operation, themachineries were manually operated and not more than 200 bottles (half liter size) were produceddaily. Transporting of the raw material to the silo, fermenting of the malt, boiling the barely,filtering the beer, filling the materials, etc. were done manually. Basic raw materials like barelyand hops were imported from Europe. The management staff of the factory and the leadingtechnicians who controlled the Brewery’s activities were all foreigners.In those, days liquor houses were not many and people had no choice apart from drinking thetraditional ‘tella’ and ‘tejj’. At that time, going bars, in the manner that people are doing now, wasnot practiced by most people. 5
  6. 6. Some unauthentic sources say that the Brewery was closed during the five years of Italianoccupation. The factory resumed its work after the occupation and according to some reports therearose problems of ownership. The exact nature of the argument stood unclear. Eventually,however, an Ethiopian company took over the Brewery in 1952/53. This company was said to havebeen organized as a share holding entity, the larger share of which was owned by Emperor HaileSellassie.Generally, St George Brewery could be said as having scored good results in the 1940s and 1950s.Towards the end of the 1950s the annual production of the Brewery had reached 50,000Hectoliters.In the years of the 1970s the Brewery was in good shape in terms of its machineries, physicalbuildings, vehicles, marketing network, etc. It even had a plan to open a new plant for theproduction of soft drinks. In 1974 the Brewery was nationalized. Even though this created someobstacles the improvements particularly with some manpower development and betterment inworkers management, it also started to produce draught beer that enjoyed popularity and big sales.On the other hand the Brewery was lacking the finance it needed to introduce new technologiesthat came in the 1970s. The name of the Brewery was also changed as “Pilsner Brewery” and lateras “Addis Ababa Brewery”.Most of all, the workers showed great commitment and dedication to keep the Brewery and itsproduct popular. The role played by the Brewery was significant in supporting and promoting othersocial activities including St. George Sport club.St. George Brewery is once again privatized. The factory is now owned by BGI, an internationallyacclaimed Brewing Company that operates in many countries. It has excellent reputation inproducing quality beer and brought St. George to the same standard.Today, St. George is the oldest beer in Ethiopia and is certainly also the youngest with freshdynamism. (Adey Public Relations Consultancy for BGI Ethiopia: 2010)Ever since it became privatized, and along with the opening of a sister company in Kombolcha, St.George Brewery bas played an important role to improve the supply of the beer and promotemodern marketing in the country.In this connection, St. George Brewery has done a lot with regards to marketing its products. Theseincludes: the improvement of the type, quality and quantity of the product; advertising the productby erecting artistic notice boards in towns, at main public squares, sight-catching places, majoroutlets and inlets, public service stations and on vehicles; contributing to popular events by meansof sponsoring various exhibitions, music festivals, public gatherings, religious events, research 6
  7. 7. forums, sport events, mass media programs; using modern distribution network to sufficientlysupply its products to all parts of the country at an affordable price; providing training in thecountry and abroad, to production, technical and marketing personnel and thus importing theircapability and capacity; supporting retailers by providing refrigerators , Co2 gas for draught beer,signboards and maintenance and cleaning services without charge.In addition, the Company carries out social responsibilities with regard to health, sport, art, urbansanitation, road construction and supporting war victims. (ibid)These improvements in the Company’s production as well as marketing activities are paying off,since the Company’s market share has grown significantly in the past few years.According to the Current market share of Ethiopian Breweries, BGI Ethiopia has 48%, Meta 16 %,Dashen 13%, Harar 11% and Bedele 10 % of the national market share of beer. BGI claims almosthalf of the Country’s market share and has a particularly dominant share (of nearly two thirds) inAddis Ababa. (Access Capital: 2010)Until 2004/2005, Meta was the leading brewery having the lion’s share of the market, followed byDashen and BGI Ethiopia respectively. However due to promotional activities, productioninnovations and consumer preferences; market shares have shifted markedly in the recent years.The point that the St. George has gained wide acceptance and preference become the leading brandin the Ethiopian beer market, induced the researchers to survey on the underlying factors thatresulted in this positive attitude among the Ethiopian beer consumers. 7
  8. 8. 1.2 Statement of the problem In today’s highly competitive, dynamic and challenging business environment, the level of consumer product acceptance and preference are critical to survival of business. Each day consumers are becoming more rational and speculative in their spending, willing to spend their hard earned money on product they believe will give them value and maximize their utility. This dynamic nature of consumers’ attitudes towards a product or a brand is clearly exhibited in Ethiopian beer industry for the past ten years. According to Access Capital research (2010) until 2004/2005, Meta was the leading brewery having the lion’s share of the beer market in Ethiopia, followed by Dashen and BGI Ethiopia respectively. However, market shares have shifted markedly in recent years, in which BGI claims almost half of the country’s market share and has a particularly dominant share (of nearly two-thirds) in Addis Ababa. And this consumers’ attitude and preference shift towards St. George beer which is the dominate product of BGI Ethiopia in the past few years, is the rationale for undertaking this research. The study reveals the underlying factors which helped this brand to overtake its competitors’ market share and win the mind and hearts of the majority of the Ethiopian beer consumers.1.3. Objectives 1.3.1 General objectives Broadly, this study plans to examine current consumers’ attitude and perception towards St. George beer. And, hence, draw a significant and feasible suggestion based on the findings. 1.3.2 Specific objectives • To identify the reasons for consumers wide acceptance and preference of St. George beer against other competing brands in the past few years • To identify the specific marketing factors that contributed for in the formation, change and maintenance of these acceptance and preference of St. George beer • To point out the opportunities and challenges of St. George beer with regard to the psychology of its consumers 8
  9. 9. 1.4 Research Questions The research intends to give answers to the following questions: • Why consumers choose St. George beer over the other brands? • Does the quality and taste of St. George beer contribute for the building positive attitude? • Do the Company’s promotional activities contribute for the building positive attitude? • What are the other factors that helped the brand to get wide acceptance in Ethiopian beer market?1.5 Scope of the Study This research covers the issue of consumer perception and attitude taking the case of St. George beer in Addis Ababa with particular emphasis on consumer around Mexico and Stadium areas.1.6 Significance of the Study The research provides a clear picture of the consumers’ attitudes towards St. George beer, factors that contributed in the formation of these attitudes, the opportunities and challenges to the brand with respect to understanding, improving and preserving its image. And the study apparently presents how St. George beer could improve or maintain its consumer’s attitudes and get the maximum out of it. The study enhanced the knowledge of the researchers with regard to the concept of consumer perception and attitude, and their importance for the success of a business. The research also benefits new companies who are under formation to join the beer industry by providing information pertinent to attitude of beer consumers. Furthermore, the research lays a ground for further studies on similar topics.1.7 Limitation of the Study The major constraint in the course of the study was time which prevented the researchers from undertaking in depth study and analysis on the topic as planned. 9
  10. 10. 1.8 Organization of the Study This paper has five chapters, in which the first is the introduction part containing background of the study, the statement of the problem, research questions, objective, significance, scope and limitation, budget, research schedule and organization of the study. The second chapter is all about reviewing literatures written on consumer perception and attitude. In chapter three the research methodology used to gather, analyze, interpret and present the data are discussed. In chapter four, the data gathered and analyzed on the perception and attitude of consumers of St. George beer is presented. And finally, conclusion and recommendations are given based on the findings of the research. References used for the study are listed at the end of the research report. In addition supplementary documents are attached to the report as appendices. 10
  11. 11. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Introduction The theoretical framework of this study focuses on customer attitude and perception with regard to the meanings of core concepts, their importance for the success of a business and the challenges for marketers to set marketing plans and programs inline with these concepts. First, this chapter discusses the concepts of attitude and perception. And in the subsequent section the researches previously done on similar topics are reviewed.2.2 Perception and Attitude Perception One of the key elements of a successful marketing strategy is the development of product and promotional stimuli that consumers will perceive as relevant to their needs. (Henry Assael: 2001) Perception is the process of sensing, selecting and interpreting the stimuli of the external world into an internal (mental) world. In other word, perception is the process by which the brain attempts to describe objects and events in the external world based on sensory inputs and knowledge. (Schiffman and Kanuk: 2000) Kotler (2005) states that the process of perception formation passes through four steps: in the first step, consumer receives information from outside; in the second step, he/she selects the information; in the third step information is organized and in the last step the information is interpret. Perception is regarded as the keystone of building knowledge, not just about products but about everything else in the world. People have their own perception of products and everything else. The way people select and interpret products will be very different from the way someone else selects and interprets them. Perception plays a major role in the stage of buying decision making where alternatives are identified. What we perceive depends on the object and our experiences. Every day we come in contact with an enormous number of marketing stimuli. The product and its components (package, contents, and physical properties) are primary (intrinsic) stimuli. Communications designed to influence consumer behavior are secondary (extrinsic) stimuli that represent the product either through words, pictures and symbolism or through other stimuli associated with the product (price, store in which purchased, effect of salesperson). (Henry Assael: 2001) 11
  12. 12. Two key factors determine which stimuli consumers will perceive and how they will interpretthem: the characteristics of stimulus and the consumers’ ability to perceive the stimulus. These twoinfluences interact in determining consumer perceptions. Stimulus characteristics affectingperception can be divided into sensory elements and structural elements. Both have implicationsfor product development and advertising. Sensory elements are composed of color, smell, taste,sound and feel. The structural elements applied primarily to print advertising, such as size,position, contrast, novelty of the ad.Consumer characteristics affecting perception are ability to discriminate between stimuli andpropensity to generalize from one stimulus to another.One of the basic questions regarding the effect of marketing stimuli on perceptions is whetherconsumers can discriminate among differences in stimuli. Do consumers perceive differencesbetween brands in taste, feel, price and shape of the package?The ability to discriminate among stimuli is learned. Generally, frequent users of a product arebetter able to notice small differences in product characteristics between brands. However, in manycases, the consumers’ ability to discriminate sensory characteristics such as taste and feel is small.As a result marketers rely on advertising to convey brand differences that physical characteristicsalone would not impart. They attempt to create a brand image that will convince consumers thatone brand is better than another.Consumers develop not only a capacity to discriminate between stimuli but also capacity togeneralize from one similar stimulus to another. The process of stimulus generalization occurswhen two stimuli are seen as similar (contiguous), and the effects of one, therefore, can besubstituted for the effect of another.Brand loyalty is a form of stimulus generalization. The consumer assumes that positive pastexperiences with the brand will be repeated. Therefore, a consumer does not need to make aseparate judgment with each purchase.Perceptual categorization is also a form of stimulus generalization. As new products areintroduced, consumers generalize from past experience to categorize them. (ibid)When the individual constructs a perception, he or she assembles information to map what is happeningin the outside world. This mapping will be affected by the following factors (Blythe: 2008):  Subjectivity: This is the existing world view within the individual, and it is unique to that individual. For example, the information is subjective in that the consumer will base decisions on the selected information. Each of us selects differently from environment and each of us has differing views. 12
  13. 13.  Categorization: This is the “pigeonholing” of information, and the prejudging of events and products.  Selectivity: This is the degree to which the brain is selecting from the environment. It is a function of how much is going on around the individual, and also of how selective (concentrated) the individual is on the current task. It will depend on the individual’s interest and motivation regarding the subject area.  Expectations: It leads individuals to interpret information in a specific way later.  Past experience: Sometimes sights, smells or sounds from our past will trigger appropriate response. If the consumer has had bad experiences of purchasing products, this might lead to a general perception that these products are of poor quality.AttitudeAfter consumers perceive and process information, they develop beliefs about and preferences for thebrands based on the information they have processed. These beliefs and preferences define consumerattitudes toward a brand. In turn, their attitudes toward a brand often directly influence whether theywill buy it or not. (Henry Assael: 2001)Attitudes are not directly observable but must be inferred from what people say or what they do.Consistency of purchases, recommendations to others, top rankings, beliefs, evaluations andintentions are related to attitudes. (Schiffman and Kanuk: 2000)Attitudes may be positive, negative, or neutral (valence); may vary in intensity (extremity); can bemore or less resistant to change; and may be believed with differing levels of confidence orconviction. (Keith Walley et al.: 2009)According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2000), attitude consists of three major components: a cognitivecomponent (belief), an affective component (feelings or emotions) and a conation component(behavioral intention).The cognitive component is related to knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by acombination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from varioussources. This knowledge and resulting perceptions commonly take the form of beliefs, i.e. theconsumer believes that the attitude object possesses various attributes and that specific will lead tospecific outcomes. And affective component of an attitude constitute the emotions and feeling of aconsumer about a product or brand. And this component indicates the extent to which theindividual rates the attitude object as ‘favorable’ or ‘unfavorable’, ‘good’ or ‘bad’. The conation 13
  14. 14. component is concerned with likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specificaction or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. Cognitive Component Brand beliefs Affective Component Brand evaluation Conative Component Intention to buy Behavior Figure 1: Three components of attitude Source: Henry Assael (2001)The formation of consumer attitudes is strongly influenced by personal experience, the influence offamily and friends, direct marketing, mass media and internet. (Schiffman and Kanuk: 2000)A primary means by which attitudes toward goods and services are formed is through theconsumer’s direct experience, marketers frequently attempt to stimulate trial of new products byoffering cents-off coupons or even free samples.The family is an extremely important source of influence on the formation of attitudes, for it is thefamily that provides us with many of our basic values and a wide range of less central beliefs.Impact of advertising messages on attitude formation is the level of realism that is provided.Attitudes that develop through direct experience (e.g. product usage) tend to be more confidentlyheld and more enduring.Attitudes are relatively consistent with behavior they reflect. However, despite their consistency,attitudes are not necessarily permanent they do change. One method for changing motivation isknown as functional approach. According to this approach, attitudes can be classified in terms of four 14
  15. 15. functions: the utilitarian function, the ego defensive function, the value expressive function and theknowledge function. (ibid)• The utilitarian function When a product has been useful or helped us in the pat, our attitude toward it tends to be favorable. One way of changing attitudes in favor of a product is by showing people that it can serve a utilitarian purpose that they may not have considered.• The ego defensive function Most people want to protect their self images from inner feelings of doubt. They want to replace their uncertainty with a sense of security and personal confidence.• The value expressive function Attitudes are an expression or reflection of consumer’s general values, lifestyle and outlook.• The knowledge function Individuals generally have a strong need to know and understand the people and things they encounter. The consumer’s ‘need to know’, a cognitive need, is important to marketers concerned with product positioning. Indeed, many product and brand positioning are attempts to satisfy the need to know and improve the consumer’s attitudes toward the brand by emphasizing its advantages over competitive brands.An attitude can serve more than one function, but in many cases a particular one will be dominant.By identifying the dominant function a product serves for consumers (i.e. what benefits itprovides); marketers can emphasize these benefits in their communications and packaging. Adsrelevant to the function prompt more favorable thoughts about what is being marketed and canresult in a heightened preference for both the ad and the product. (Michael Solomon et. al.:2006)The Fishbein modelThe most influential multi-attribute model of attitude is the Fishbein model, named after itsprimary developer. The model measures three components of attitude:1. Salient beliefs: people have about an attitude object (those beliefs about the object that are considered during evaluation).2. Object-attribute linkages: or the probability that a particular object has an important attribute.3. Evaluation: of each of the important attributes. 15
  16. 16. Note, however, that the model makes some assumptions that may not always be warranted. Itassumes that we have been able to specify adequately all the relevant attributes that, for example, astudent will use in evaluating his or her choice about which college to attend. The model alsoassumes that he or she will go through the process (formally or informally) of identifying a set ofrelevant attributes, weighing them and summing them.Although this particular decision is likely to be highly involving, it is still possible that his or herattitude will be formed by an overall affective response (a process known as affect-referral).The extended Fishbein modelThe original Fishbein model, which focused on measuring a consumer’s attitude towards a product,has been extended in a number of ways to improve its predictive ability.The revised version is called the theory of reasoned action. The model is still not perfect, but itsability to predict relevant behavior has been improved. Some of the modifications to this model areconsidered here.Intentions vs. behaviorMany factors might interfere with actual behavior, even if the consumer’s intentions are sincere.He or she might save up with the intention of buying a stereo system. In the interim, though, anynumber of things – being made redundant or finding that the desired model is out of stock – couldhappen. It is not surprising, then, that in some instances past purchase behavior has been found tobe a better predictor of future behavior than is a consumer’s behavioral intention.49 The theory ofreasoned action aims to measure behavioral intentions, recognizing that certain uncontrollablefactors inhibit prediction of actual behavior.Social pressureThe theory acknowledges the power of other people in influencing behavior. Many of ourbehaviors are not determined in isolation. Much as we may hate to admit it, what we think otherswould like us to do may be more relevant than our own individual preferences. (ibid) 16
  17. 17. 2.3 Review of previous researches Behavior is determined by intentions, which are in turn determined by attitudes and subjective norms (Ajzen and Fishbein et. al, 1980 cited in Huang, Lee and Ho: 2003). Most behavioral models trace causal links from attitude, through intentions, to actual behavior, implying that behavioral intentions must be understood to predict behavior from attitudes. (Kim and Hunter,, 1993 cited in Huang, Lee and Ho, 2003). And according to Fishbein model, an attitude is a function of strength of belief that an object has an attribute, evaluation of the product on the attribute, and the number of attributes valued by the consumer. (Keith Walley et. al: 2009) Implicit in most attitudinal research in both social psychology and consumer behavior is the notion that individual attitudes are significant determinants of both behavioral intentions and specific behaviors (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1973; Norman, 1975). Overall affect toward a multi-attribute object as a measure of attitude is posited to reflect the individuals belief structure as to the degree to which individual brands possess certain attributes weighted by the evaluation of each attribute (Wilkie and Pessemier, 1973). (Cited in Woodside and Bearden: 1977) A research developed by Karjaluoto, Mattila and Pento (2002) attempted to explore the factors that influence consumer attitude formation and affect towards online banking. The authors gave major emphasis for three factors that affect attitude: consumer demographics and personality treat, prior experience and reference group influence. The study hypothesized that consumer attitude explains consumer behavior. The more favorable attitude a person has towards a product/ service, the more likely that person is to buy that product/service. The overall attitude towards an object is expected to be related to behaviors towards an object. The researchers developed questionnaire that was mailed to 2000 - 3000 individual bank customers in Finland. The demographic characteristics of the respondent were analyzed separately to see their relationship with attitude and behavior. Correlation and factor analysis is used to explain the relationship between reference group and experience. Result from the study showed that prior experience of a product influences both attitude towards a product and actual behavior. Demographic factors, specifically house hold income and occupation were significant variable that affect behavior towards online banking. Another longitudinal research conducted by Woodside and Bearden (1977), investigated the attitude, behavioral intention, and reported behavior of brand choice among 105 beer consumers. In the study consumer beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and reported behavior for four brands of beer were collected from male household heads of a regional consumer panel in the southeastern United States in February 1975. A second mailing to the 172 respondents answering all questions for each 17
  18. 18. brand was made in February 1976. The results of the study were based on the response of the 105consumers of beer answering all questions in both mailings. Panel members were selected on aquota basis and were representative of the population characteristics of the regional area.Budweiser, Pabst, Old Milwaukee, and Schlitz were the beer brands examined in this survey. Thecombined sales volume of these brands accounted for over 60% of all beer sold in the consumerpanel area during the periods of the study.Product attributes were selected on the basis of previous in depth interviews and taste studies ofinformal consumer groups conducted by an independent marketing research firm. Beliefs andevaluations were obtained for 11 product attributes. The summated belief score was based on 7 ofthese attributes selected on the basis of factor analysis.The results of the longitudinal survey showed that previous attitudes, previous behaviors andcurrent attitudes influence the behaviors and beer brand choices of the consumers of the fourbrands under study.It also indicated the relationship between the level of involvement of consumers with the productsand brands; when individuals are highly involved with a particular choice object, attitude changemay precede behavior change. However, when low involvement is characteristic of the purchasesituation; behavior change may precede attitude change. This may be particularly relevant when alow-priced convenience brand is purchased on the basis of limited information search, e.g., such asa purchase on the advice of a friend or an individual impulse purchase.Situational factors may also intervene between attitudes and behavior in an unexpected sense.These may include factors such as temporary economic conditions, organizational changes, andchanges in the market place (e.g., promotional efforts, new product introductions, and pricechanges) may also intervene and affect industrial and durable good buying processes.The research underscored the ability of previous behavior to predict both subsequent individualaffective tendencies and behavioral intentions. Post-choice attitude change may be attributed toeither additional information or cognitive dissonance. However, for low-priced convenienceproducts, modifications in existing attitudinal structure are likely to occur in the form of eitherchanges in existing attitudes or further refinement of less developed currently held beliefs on thebasis of additional information acquired from trial usage.Previous brand choice behavior is directly influencing the formation of intentions and ensuingbrand choice decisions. The purchase of many convenience items may not involve decisionprocesses which are based upon well-founded belief systems and attitudes of high centrality. The 18
  19. 19. perspective of "low-commitment" consumer behavior suggests that consumers for many productsmay not be particularly committed in their brand selection processes.When commitment is low and beliefs are not strongly held, brand purchase may reflect only theconvenience inherent in repeat purchases rather than commitment to the brand purchased based ona well-developed attitudinal structure (Robertson, 1976 Cited in Woodside and Bearden: 1977).When individuals engage in purchase situations characterized by low-involvement (e.g. thepurchase of many low-priced convenience goods), behavior may take precedence over attitudinalinfluences. Consequently, the initial behavioral measure is depicted as influencing currentintentions and subsequent attitudes and brand selections.A study by Nattakarn Ramasut and Suteera Saranpattranon (2009), tried to identify the differentdemographic features which affect consumer’s attitudes towards beer products. Since attitudes areopinions or feeling and evaluation of knowledge towards the products; demographic features playan important role in understanding the consumers’ need and influences to the consumers’ thinking.The result of this research should that marketers need to adapt their strategy to responseconsumers’ need in different target group suitably.The study was conducted on attitudes of different consumer groups towards beer products taking395 sample size in Bangkok. And using different statistical methods the researchers come up witha conclusion that the diversifications of gender and income levels have different attitudes towardsbeer product. But at different age, occupation, and education have no different attitudes towardsbeer product. Manufacturers should focus on female as new target group and also adapt the productto the right requirement of consumer to persuade people to consume the product.Similarly, this paper undertakes a cross sectional survey on the consumers perception and attitudetowards St. George Beer by taking 80 beer consumers from Addis Ababa. The study investigatesthe current consumers’ attitudes towards the brand and factors that contribute to the formation ofthese attitudes. 19
  20. 20. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY / RESEARCH DESIGN3.1. Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to describe the methodology used to achieve the research objectives of this study. This includes the type of the research, target population, the sampling techniques, the data collection and data analysis procedures.3.2 Type of Research In order to identify the consumer perception and attitude towards St. George beer, the researchers used descriptive study through cross sectional survey method of data collection.3.3 Population of the Study The targeted population for the purpose of this study comprised of Bars and Restaurants which are mainly St. George Beer dealers. And individual consumers of St. George beer were randomly taken from the sampled bars and restaurants. Considering the time and resources available, the targeted population was only limited to Mexico and Stadium areas in Addis Ababa.3.4 Sampling Designs and Sampling Procedures The researchers used both probability and non-probability sampling techniques. From the non- probability sampling technique, convenience sampling is used to select the locations for the study, which are Mexico and Stadium due to their accessibility to the researchers. And a simple random method is used from the probability sampling technique to select the bars and restaurants from these areas and also to pick the individual beer consumers from each sampled bars and restaurants.3.5 Sources of Data Information is gathered from both primary and secondary data sources. From the primary data sources survey questionnaires; and from the secondary sources books, journals, and research papers are used.3.6 Data Collection Method Self administered questionnaires are distributed to 80 final beer consumers in order to find out the beer consumers’ perception and attitude towards St. George Beer and the factors that positively contributed for the formation, change and maintenance of these attitudes. 20
  21. 21. 3.7 Data Analysis and Interpretation Plan After collecting and sorting the questionnaires, data are coded, computed, and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Appropriate statistical analyses such as frequencies, descriptive, correlation analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are used according to respective objectives and descriptors. The analyzed data is presented using tables, graphs and pie-charts. 21
  22. 22. CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS4.1 Introduction This chapter is divided into three major sections. The first section provides the demographic characteristics and of the respondents. The second section presents results on the respondents’ perception, attitude and preference of the different Ethiopian beer brands. Finally, the last section addresses the results of correlation analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the factors contributing for choosing St. George Beer.4.2 Respondents Out of the 80 questionnaires distributed 65 of them were filled out and returned of which all were usable. Therefore, the data from 65 respondents were analyzed in this study. As stated in Chapter Three, the respondents were beer consumers selected from the bars and restaurants in the area around Stadium up to Mexico square in Addis Ababa. 4.2.1. Demographic characteristics of the respondents The demographic characteristics of the respondents are shown in Table 1. The gender distribution of the respondents was not proportional, with 12.3% female respondents and 87.7% male respondents. With regard to martial status, 58.5% were single, 38.5% married and 3.1% divorced. The dominant age group of the respondents was 25-30 years (41.5%), followed by 31-36 years (27.7%), 36 and older years (20%), and 18-24 years (10.8%) made up the smallest group of the respondents. In terms of level of education, 38.5% of the respondents had a Bachelor Degree; 27.7% of the respondents had a secondary school education, and 26.2% of the respondents had a College Diploma.4.6% of the respondents were above Bachelor Degree and 3.1% were primary school complete. The result shows the relatively high educational attainment of the respondents. With regard to respondents monthly income, the largest group included those with an annual household income of ETB 3551 and above (41.5%), followed by ETB 2351-3550 (21.5%), ETB 1401-2350 (20%), and ETB 651-1400 (12.3%). Only 4.6% of the respondents had a monthly income of ETB 150-650 (See Table 1). 22
  23. 23. Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the respondents Frequency Percent Gender Male 57 87.7 Female 8 12.3 Martial Status Single 38 58.5 Married 25 38.5 Divorced 2 3.1 Age 18-24 7 10.8 25-30 27 41.5 31-36 18 27.7 >36 13 20.0 Occupation Government employee 19 29.2 Private employee 40 61.5 Business person 5 7.7 Other 1 1.5 Educational Background Primary school complete 2 3.1 Secondary school complete 18 27.7 College Diploma 17 26.2 Bachelor Degree 25 38.5 Above Bachelor Degree 3 4.6 Monthly income (in Ethiopian Birr) 150-650 3 4.6 651-1400 8 12.3 1401-2350 13 20.0 2351-3550 14 21.5 >3551 27 Consuming habits of respondents Beer consuming characteristics of respondents includes the brand choice and the frequency of drinking which is summarized in Table 2 below. Table 2. Beer consuming characteristics of respondents Frequency Percent Frequency of drinking beer Daily 16 24.6 Weekly 18 27.7 Monthly 2 3.1 Sometimes 24 36.9 Occasionally 5 7.7 Beer brand Choice Bedle 6 9.2 Dashen 9 13.8 Harar 3 4.6 St. George 45 69.2 Meta 2 3.1 23
  24. 24. In the frequency of drinking category, 36.9% of the respondents drink Sometimes, 27.7% Weekly, 24.6% drink Daily, 7.7% Occasionally and the rest 3.1% Monthly. With regard to the beer brand choice 69.2% of the respondents prefer to drink St. George beer, followed by Dashen beer of which 13.8% of the respondents selected it as their number one choice. Where as, 9.2% prefer to drink Bedle beer, 4.6% choose Harar and only 3.1% of the respondents prefer Meta. It can be concluded that St. George beer has dominated the majority of the respondents’ heart and mind constituting around 70%.4.3 Attitudes of respondents towards St. George Beer The respondents attitude towards St. George beer is evaluated using the three attitude components; cognitive, affective and conation. With regard to the cognitive part respondents were asked about the specific product attributes of St. George Beer so they rated the product attributes using a semantic differential scale ranging from 5 on the positive side to 1 on the negative side. Accordingly, it can be summarized that 42 of the respondents believe that St. George has a Very Good Taste (Mean = 4.11) and 5 respondents rated the taste of St. George Beer as Very Bad (1.20). The same goes to color, aroma and foam product attributes. In the case of hangover, 25 respondents rate St. George Beer as a Very low hangover beer (Positive beer attribute) with (Mean=4.24) and 17 rate it as low hangover beer. Whereas, 5 of the respondents believe that St. George Beer has a higher hangover (Mean=3.20). In Alcoholic percentage, St. George is rated as an average alcoholic beverage by 27 of the respondents (Mean=4.11) and 16 respondents believe that it has a higher alcoholic content. In the contrary 8 respondents believe that St. George‘s alcoholic content is lower (Mean =3.88) and 9 respondents rated it with a Very low alcoholic (2.89). With respect to thirst quenching attribute, St. George is rated as Very high thirst quenching beer by 37 respondents (4.65) and 13 respondents said High thirst quenching beer with 4.46 mean. (See Table 3) From this analysis it can be concluded that, the respondents believe that St. George beer is has premium or good qualities in attributes taste, color, aroma, foam, and thirst quenching. But there is a lesser grading with regard to the attributes hangover and alcoholic content which needs a due attention since these types of signals are helpful to identify the potentials for improvement. 24
  25. 25. Table 3. Relationship of attitude and product attributes Attitude towards St. George Beer * St. George Beer: TasteSt. George Beer: Taste Mean N Std. DeviationVery bad 1.20 5 .447Bad 2.00 4 1.414Fair 2.80 5 .447Good 4.00 9 .866Very Good 4.83 42 .437Total 4.11 65 1.324 Attitude towards St. George Beer * St. George Beer: ColorSt. George Beer: Color Mean N Std. DeviationVery bad 1.20 5 .447Bad 2.50 2 2.121Fair 2.33 6 .816Good 4.10 10 .876Very Good 4.79 42 .520Total 4.11 65 1.324 Attitude towards St. George Beer * St George Beer: AromaSt George Beer: Aroma Mean N Std. DeviationVery bad 1.20 5 .447Bad 2.50 2 2.121Fair 2.78 9 1.093Good 4.22 9 .833Very Good 4.83 40 .446Total 4.11 65 1.324 Attitude towards St. George Beer * St. George Beer: FoamSt. George Beer: Foam Mean N Std. DeviationVery Low 1.20 5 .447Low 2.00 3 1.732Fair 3.00 8 .926High 4.09 11 .831Very High 4.89 38 .311Total 4.11 65 1.324 Attitude towards St. George Beer * St. George Beer: HangoverSt. George Beer: Hangover Mean N Std. DeviationVery High 3.20 5 1.483High 4.75 4 .500Fair 3.50 14 1.401Low 4.53 17 1.068Very Low 4.24 25 1.363Total 4.11 65 1.324 Attitude towards St. George Beer * St. George Beer: Alcoholic percentageSt. George Beer: Alcoholic percentage Mean N Std. DeviationVery Low 2.89 9 1.764Low 3.88 8 1.553Fair 4.11 27 1.121High 4.63 16 1.025Very High 5.00 5 .000Total 4.11 65 1.324 Attitude towards St. George Beer * St. George Beer: Thirst quenchingSt. George Beer: Thirst quenching Mean N Std. DeviationVery Low 2.00 9 1.500Low 3.67 3 1.155Fair 2.67 3 .577High 4.46 13 .660Very High 4.65 37 .857Total 4.11 65 1.324 25
  26. 26. While reviewing other marketing stimulus that trigger consumers to choose St. George Beeramong others, it is found that out of the 61 respondents who drink St. George 43 of them (66.2%)choose taste as a major marketing stimulus for choosing St. George Beer. 7 of the respondents(11.5%) said promotion and another 7 respondents (11.5%) said availability and 4 of therespondents choose St. George because of the influence of other such as friends and families. Outof the total 65 respondents 4 of them (6.2%) don’t want to drink St. George Beer unless and otherwise there is no other option or beer brand alternative. They believe that St. George Beer has lessalcoholic content, sour taste, watery, lesser quality in general. Table 4. Marketing stimuli for choosing St. George Beer Frequency Percent Valid Percent Taste 43 66.2 70.5 Promotion 7 10.8 11.5 Influence of others 4 6.2 6.6 Availability 7 10.8 11.5 Total 61 93.8 100.0 Missing No Response 4 6.2 Total 65 100.0In order to identify the other components of attitude which is affective; respondents were askedto evaluate St. George Beer in general by rating their liking and attitude towards St. George Beerusing a semantic differential scale. As per the result of this analysis output, 60% of therespondents have Very good attitude towards St. George Beer, 13.8% have Good and 12.3%have and average attitude towards this beer brand. 6 respondents have Very bad and 3respondents have Bad attitude towards St. George Beer which requires further study by takinglarger and more representative sample. Bar Chart 1 Attitude towards St. George Beer 40 Number of respondents 30 20 10 0 Very bad Bad Fair Good Very Good Attitude towards St. George Beer 26
  27. 27. On the same token, the likeability of the respondents was measured which resulted in 47.7% ofrespondents Very good, 24.6% Good, 15.4% Fair, 3.1% Bad and 9.2% Very bad. Bar Chart 2 Likeability of St. George Beer Number of respondents 30 20 10 0 Very bad Bad Fair Good Very Good Likeability of St. George BeerThe percentage of both attitude and likeability is higher on the positive side, even though thereare extreme negatives which needs a special attention to find out their reasons for their dislike orunfavorable attitude towards St. George Beer.In the case of the third attitude component which is conation, respondents were asked about theirintention to buy or choose St. George Beer, by which 50.8% of respondents answered definitelywill buy, 24.6% probably will buy, and 10.8% said might buy. Whereas 9 respondents said willnot buy of which 6 of them (9.2%) said definitely will not buy and the rest 4.6% said probablywill not buy. Bar Chart 3 Intention to buy St. George Beer 40 Number of respondents 30 20 10 0 Definitley will Probablly will Might buy Probably will Definitely will not buy not buy buy buy Intention to buy St. George Beer 27
  28. 28. In order to determine the function of attitude the respondents towards St. George beer, theywere also asked about their feeling when they drink St. George beer. Out of the 65 respondents13 of them either could not explain their feeling or don not drink St. George beer at all.Considering the rest 52 respondents, 24 of them feel satisfied, 25 respondents said relaxation, 2respondents said acceptance from others and 1 respondent said confidence. From this it can beconcluded that St. George consumers drink the Beer for utilitarian function by they try to achievethe desired benefits of relaxation and satisfaction from the beer. Table 5. Feeling when drinking St. George beer Frequency Percent Valid Percent Valid Satisfaction 24 36.9 46.2 Relaxation 25 38.5 48.1 Acceptance from others 2 3.1 3.8 Confidence 1 1.5 1.9 Total 52 80.0 100.0 Missing No response 13 20.0 Total 65 100.0In connection to the probability of switching to another brand, respondents were asked if theywant switch from St. George to another and if so the reason behind their intention for switching.Surprisingly, 50% of the respondents want to switch to another brand, this is what makes itdifficult to understand the consumer black box and their reason behind every action they made.Even though, most of the respondents expressed their attitudes and consuming habits in favor ofSt. George in the first few questions, they still want something better.Out of the 65 respondents 32 wants to switch and the rest 32 are loyal consumers of the brandand 1 respondent said that he has recently switched to another due to decline of the St. GeorgeBeer quality. This is one major red light for St. George Beer in the future. The major reasons forswitching stated by the respondents are recently declining quality with regard to taste, loweralcoholic content of the beer and if a new better beer brand is introduced to the marketrespondents are very willing to switch. 28
  29. 29. 4.4 Influence of advertisement towards attitude formation using Pearson correlation A correlation coefficient measured the strength of a linear between two variables. In the study, a correlation coefficient measured the strength of a linear between five advertisement attributes (Seasonal, Entertaining, Influential, Repetitive, and Attractive) and attitude towards St. George Beer. The correlation between attitude towards St. George Beer and Seasonal advertisement is positive and is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The correlation is 0.371 (p=0.02). Entertaining advertisement is also positively correlated and is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). The correlation is 0.307 (p=0.13). Creativity of the ad is also positively related- Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) with 0.257 (p=0.039). Attractiveness of the ad has a week positive correlation with attitude towards St. George Beer, whereas repetitive and influential advertisements have a weak negative correlation with attitude towards St. George Beer. Table 6 Pearson correlation of advertisement attributes and attitude Advertisement attributes Seasonal Entertaining Creative Attractive Repetitive Influential Pearson Attitude Correlation .371(**) .307(*) .257(*) .188 -.050 -.098 towards St. Sig (2-tailed) .002 .013 .039 .135 .691 .435 George Beer N 65 65 65 65 65 65 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). In addition, respondents have indicated that ST. George Beer advertisements have a unique or differentiated characteristics from the other competitor beer brands in a way that;  The advertisements of St. George are entertaining  Seasonal ads in relation to Ethiopian cultural and religious festivals  Creativity  Ethiopian – the creative is done based on the real Ethiopian culture in return makes the audience feel closer and attracted to message  Simple and to the point advertisement message.  Sponsoring sports and participating and supporting other special programs and festivals 29
  30. 30. With regard to the regard to the repetition of advertisement 53.8% of the respondents believe that St. George’s advertisements are repetitive and the rest 46.2% do not agree with. Table 7 St. George beer advertisement repetition Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Yes 35 53.8 53.8 53.8 No 30 46.2 46.2 100.0 Total 65 100.0 100.0 The repetition of the ads of St. George Beer resulted in sensory adaptation which is clearly presented by the person correlation result presented below in Table 9, by which the correlation of advertisement repetition of St. George beer is positively correlated and is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The correlation is 0.418 (p=0.007). This requires the company to review the number and frequency of advertisement repetition so that it can transmit its message with limited number in an efficient and effective timing. Table 8 Advertisement repetition and sensory adaptation St. George beer St. George beer advertisement advertisement repetition sensory adaptationSt. George beer advertisement Pearson Correlation 1 .418(**)repetition Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 65 40St. George beer advertisement Pearson Correlation .418(**) 1sensory adaptation Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 40 40 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).4.5 Demographic factors and consumer attitude towards St. George The difference among various demographic groups with regard to their attitudes towards St. George beer is analyzed using cross tabulation and ANOVA statistical methods. Table 9 presents the cross tabulation of demographic factors and attitude towards St. George beer. And Table 10 presents the ANOVA analysis of demographic factors and attitude towards St. George beer. 30
  31. 31. Table 9 Demographic factors and attitude towards St. George Beer -Cross tabulation Gender * Attitude towards St. George Beer Cross tabulation Attitude towards St. George Beer Total Very bad Bad Fair Good Very GoodGender male 6 3 8 8 32 57 female 0 0 0 1 7 8Total 6 3 8 9 39 65 Age * Attitude towards St. George Beer Cross tabulation Attitude towards St. George Beer Total Very bad Bad Fair Good Very GoodAge 18-24 0 0 0 2 5 7 25-30 0 0 3 5 19 27 31-36 2 0 3 2 11 18 >36 4 3 2 0 4 13Total 6 3 8 9 39 65 Marital Status * Attitude towards St. George Beer Cross tabulation Attitude towards St. George Beer Total Very bad Bad Fair Good Very GoodMarital Status Single 1 0 3 6 28 38 Married 5 3 4 2 11 25 Divorced 0 0 1 1 0 2Total 6 3 8 9 39 65 Monthly Income * Attitude towards St. George Beer Cross tabulation Attitude towards St. George Beer Total Very bad Bad Fair Good Very GoodMonthly Income 150-650 0 0 0 1 2 3 651-1400 0 0 0 1 7 8 1401-2350 1 0 1 2 9 13 2351-3550 2 1 1 3 7 14 >3551 3 2 6 2 14 27Total 6 3 8 9 39 65 Educational Background * Attitude towards St. George Beer Cross tabulation Attitude towards St. George Beer Total Very bad Bad Fair Good Very GoodEducational Primary school complete 0 0 0 0 2 2Background Secondary school complete 3 0 3 1 11 18 College Diploma 2 0 1 5 9 17 Bachelor Degree 0 3 4 3 15 25 Above Bachelor Degree 1 0 0 0 2 3Total 6 3 8 9 39 65 Occupation * Attitude towards St. George Beer Cross tabulation Attitude towards St. George Beer Total Very bad Bad Fair Good Very GoodOccupation Government employee 1 0 2 1 15 19 Private employee 5 3 3 7 22 40 Business person 0 0 3 1 1 5 Other 0 0 0 0 1 1Total 6 3 8 9 39 65 31
  32. 32. From Table 9, it can be concluded that in the gender category even if the female respondents are fewcompared to that of males all of them have a positive attitude towards St. George beer. In the agecategory age group 25-30 have good and very good attitude towards St. George beer. With respect tomartial status, the single respondents have better attitude towards St. George beer. In the case ofmonthly income level group most of the respondents with income level 651-1400 and 150-650 havepositive attitude towards St. George beer. In the educational background, respondents with bachelordegree have good and very good attitudes, the same goes to private employees in the occupationdemographic group.In order to explain the difference among and between groups, ANOVA analysis is done which ispresented below In Table 10 below. Table 10 Demography and attitude towards St. George Beer - ANOVA Attitude towards St. George Beer Gender Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 5.371 1 5.371 3.166 .080 Within Groups 106.875 63 1.696 Total 112.246 64 Attitude towards St. George Beer Age Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 32.214 3 10.738 8.184 .000 Within Groups 80.033 61 1.312 Total 112.246 64 Attitude towards St. George Beer Martial status Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 20.637 2 10.318 6.983 .002 Within Groups 91.609 62 1.478 Total 112.246 64 Attitude towards St. George Beer Income Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 9.839 4 2.460 1.441 .232 Within Groups 102.407 60 1.707 Total 112.246 64 Attitude towards St. George Beer Educational background Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 2.870 4 .718 .394 .812 Within Groups 109.376 60 1.823 Total 112.246 64 Attitude towards St. George Beer -Occupation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 6.409 3 2.136 1.231 .306 Within Groups 105.837 61 1.735 Total 112.246 64 32
  33. 33. According to the one-way ANOVA results of the mean difference of attitude towards St. GeorgeBeer by the demographic characteristics, no significant difference in the attitude towards St.George Beer of the respondents was found by gender, educational background, monthly incomeand occupation. Significant difference in the overall satisfaction of the respondents was found onlyby age (F=8.184 and p=.000) and martial status (F=6.983 and p=.002). Since the F ratio value ofage and martial status is significant, there is a difference between groups on age and martial statusdemographic variables.After determining the existence of the mean difference the Post Hoc Tests was done in order todetermine which means differ for the age and martial status demographic characteristics. Table 11 Post Hoc Tests for Age Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Attitude towards St. George Beer LSD Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval (I) Age (J) Age (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound 18-24 25-30 .122 .486 .803 -.85 1.09 31-36 .603 .510 .242 -.42 1.62 >36 1.945* .537 .001 .87 3.02 25-30 18-24 -.122 .486 .803 -1.09 .85 31-36 .481 .349 .172 -.22 1.18 >36 1.823* .387 .000 1.05 2.60 31-36 18-24 -.603 .510 .242 -1.62 .42 25-30 -.481 .349 .172 -1.18 .22 >36 1.342* .417 .002 .51 2.18 >36 18-24 -1.945* .537 .001 -3.02 -.87 25-30 -1.823* .387 .000 -2.60 -1.05 31-36 -1.342* .417 .002 -2.18 -.51 *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.From the multi comparison of mean differences of the attitude towards St. George Beer by agerespondents, the age group 36 and above has difference with all the rest of the age groups in theattitude towards St. George Beer which indicates that this age group of respondents has a lesserattitude towards this Brand. 33
  34. 34. Table 12 Post Hoc Tests for Martial status Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: Attitude towards St. George Beer LSD Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval (I) Marital Status (J) Marital Status (I-J) Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound Single Married 1.139* .314 .001 .51 1.77 Divorced 1.079 .883 .227 -.69 2.84 Married Single -1.139* .314 .001 -1.77 -.51 Divorced -.060 .895 .947 -1.85 1.73 Divorced Single -1.079 .883 .227 -2.84 .69 Married .060 .895 .947 -1.73 1.85 *. The mean difference is significant at the .05 level. From the multi comparison of means of marital status of respondents, the difference in the attitude towards St. George Beer lies in the married respondents which indicate that this group of respondents has a lesser attitude towards the Brand.4.6 Comparison of St George Vs Dashen and Meta The product attributes of major competitor beer brands of Ethiopia which are St. George, Dashen and Meta Abo are compared using mean and standard deviation. Accordingly, St. George Beer has above average means for taste, color, aroma, foam and thirst quenching attributes and average mean for hangover and alcoholic percentage. While Dashen scored average means for all the attributes by which it exceeds St. George in alcoholic content (Mean St. George=3.00 and Mean Dashen=3.44). Whereas, Meta Abo is below average for all the attributes except for thirst quenching and alcoholic percentage which have average means. This shows that the quality of St. George Beer’s attribute helped it to win the consumers mind and larger market share in the Ethiopian Beer industry. 34
  35. 35. Table 13 Product attributes comparison among various Ethiopian beer brands Product attributes’ means- Dashen Beer N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Dashen Beer: Taste 52 1 5 3.48 1.163 Dashen Beer: Color 52 1 5 3.44 1.018 Dashen Beer: Aroma 52 1 5 3.44 .978 Dashen Beer: Foam 52 1 5 3.44 .978 Dashen Beer: Alcohol percentage 52 1 5 3.44 1.018 Dashen Beer: Hangover 52 1 5 3.77 1.366 Dashen Beer: Thirst quenching 51 1 5 3.20 1.184 Valid N (listwise) 51 Product attributes’ means -Meta Abo Beer N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Meta Abo: Taste 51 1 5 2.92 1.163 Meta Abo: Color 51 1 5 2.88 .931 Meta Abo: Aroma 51 1 5 2.98 .860 Meta Abo: Foam 51 1 5 2.96 .871 Meta Abo: Alcohol percentage 51 1 5 3.10 1.153 Meta Abo: Hangover 51 1 5 2.92 1.369 Meta Abo: Thirst quenching 51 1 5 3.04 1.113 Valid N (listwise) 51 Product attributes’ means -St. George Beer N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation St. George Beer: Taste 65 1 5 4.22 1.281 St. George Beer: Color 65 1 5 4.26 1.228 St George Beer: Aroma 65 1 5 4.18 1.249 St. George Beer: Foam 65 1 5 4.14 1.261 St. George Beer: Alcoholic percentage 65 1 5 3.00 1.118 St. George Beer: Hangover 65 1 5 3.82 1.236 St. George Beer: Thirst quenching 65 1 5 4.02 1.441 Valid N (listwise) 654.7 Beer brand choice of respondents The respondents were asked to rank the five Ethiopian beer brands; Bedle, Dashen, Harar, Meta Abo and St. George, with respect to their preference. Accordingly, St. George is the leading brand in which 44 respondents choose it as their number one choice, followed by Dashen with 9 respondents, Bedele with 7 respondents, Meta Abo with 3 respondents and Harar 2 respondents choosing them as their first choice. Table 14 Bedele Beer rank 35
  36. 36. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Valid 1st choice 7 10.8 11.9 2nd choice 12 18.5 20.3 3rd choice 13 20.0 22.0 4th choice 17 26.2 28.8 5th choice 10 15.4 16.9 Total 59 90.8 100.0 Missing No response 6 9.2 Total 65 100.0 Bar Chart 4 Bedele Beer Rank 20 No. of Respondents 15 10 5 0 1st choice 2nd 3rd choice 4th choice 5th choice choice Bedele Beer Table 15 Dashen Beer rank Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent PercentValid 1st choice 9 13.8 14.5 14.5 2nd choice 17 26.2 27.4 41.9 3rd choice 12 18.5 19.4 61.3 4th choice 10 15.4 16.1 77.4 5th choice 14 21.5 22.6 100.0 Total 62 95.4 100.0Missing No response 3 4.6Total 65 100.0 Bar Chart 5 Dashen Beer Rank 20 No. of Respondents 15 10 5 0 1st choice 2nd choice 3rd choice 4th choice 5th choice Dashen Beer Table 16 Harar Beer 36