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Nursing Research

Data Collection
DATA COLLECTION

Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information o...
Nursing Research

Data Collection
SELF REPORTS

It is most widely used data collection method. In this method data can be ...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

Interviews can be
1. Unstructured
1. Can be referred to as 'depth' or 'in depth' interv...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

4. Focus group interview
The use of focus groups is sometimes used when it is better to...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

Advantages of interview
1. Large quantity of information can be collected in greater de...
Nursing Research

Data Collection
QUESTIONNAIRE
Questionnaire is a written list of questions; the answers to the questions...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

Open ended questions
Open-ended questions allow respondents to respond in their own wor...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

Rank-order questions
These questions ask respondents to rank target concepts along a co...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

Checklists
These encompass several questions that have the same response format. A chec...
Nursing Research

Data Collection
OTHER METHODS

Life Histories
Life histories are narrative self-disclosures about indivi...
Nursing Research

Data Collection

Diaries and Journals
Personal diaries have long been used as a source of data in histor...
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Nursing Research- Data collection -part 1

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Methods of data collection

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Nursing Research- Data collection -part 1

  1. 1. Nursing Research Data Collection DATA COLLECTION Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. Primary and Secondary Sources Researchers need to consider the sources on which to base and confirm their research and findings. They have a choice between primary data and secondary sources and the use of both, which is termed triangulation, or dual methodology. Primary data is the data collected by the researcher themselves, i.e. 1. Interview 5. Life histories 2. Observation 6. Questionnaires 3. Action research 7. Ethnographic research 4. Case studies 8. Longitudinal studies Secondary sources are data that already exists 1. Previous research 5. Letters 2. Official statistics 6. Government reports 3. Mass media products 7. Web information 4. Diaries 8. Historical data and information Methods of data collection 1. Self reports 2. Observations 3. Bio-physiological methods Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 1
  2. 2. Nursing Research Data Collection SELF REPORTS It is most widely used data collection method. In this method data can be gathered by interview or in writing in a written questionnaire. Different methods in self reports a. Interviews b. Questionnaires c. Others Interview method It is a data collection technique that involves two way conversation between investigator (researcher) and informant (sample) with definite purpose. Interviews can be conducted a. Face -to -face interviews have a distinct advantage of enabling the researcher to establish rapport with potential participants and therefore gain their co-operation. These interviews yield highest response rates in survey research. They also allow the researcher to clarify ambiguous answers and when appropriate, seek follow-up information. Disadvantages include impractical when large samples are involved time consuming and expensive. b. Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher has ready access to anyone on the planet who has a telephone. Disadvantages are that the response rate is not as high as the face-to- face interview as but considerably higher than the mailed questionnaire. The sample may be biased to the extent that people without phones are part of the population about whom the researcher wants to draw inferences. c. Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI): is a form of personal interviewing, but instead of completing a questionnaire, the interviewer brings along a laptop or hand-held computer to enter the information directly into the database. This method saves time involved in processing the data, as well as saving the interviewer from carrying around hundreds of questionnaires. However, this type of data collection method can be expensive to set up and requires that interviewers have computer and typing skills. Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 2
  3. 3. Nursing Research Data Collection Interviews can be 1. Unstructured 1. Can be referred to as 'depth' or 'in depth' interviews 2. They have very little structure at all 3. The interviewer may just go with the aim of discussing a limited number of topics, sometimes as few as just one or two 4. The interviewer may frame the interview questions based on the interviewee and his/her previous response 5. This allows the discussion to cover areas in great detail 6. They involve the researcher wanting to know or find out more about a specific topic without there being a structure or a preconceived plan or expectation as to how they will deal with the topic 2. Semi structured 1. Semi structured interviews are sometimes also called focused interviews 2. A series of open ended questions based on the topic areas the researcher wants to cover 3. A series of broad questions to ask and may have some prompts to help the interviewee 4. 'The open ended nature of the question defines the topic under investigation but provides opportunities for both interviewer and interviewee to discuss some topics in more detail' 5. Semi structured interviews allow the researcher to promt or encourage the interviewee if they are looking for more information or find what they are saying interesting 6. This method gives the researcher the freedom to probe the interviewee to elaborate or to follow a new line of inquiry introduced by what the interviewee is saying 7. Work best when the interviewed has a number of areas he/she wants to be sure to be addressing 3. Structured 1. The interviewer asks the respondent the same questions in the same way 2. A tightly structured schedule is used 3. The questions may be phrased in order that a limited range of responses may be given - i.e. 'Do you rate our services as very good, good or poor' 4. A researcher needs to consider whether a questionnaire or structured interview is more appropriate 5. 'If the interview schedule is too tightly structured this may not enable the phenomena under investigation to be explored in terms of either breadth or depth.' Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 3
  4. 4. Nursing Research Data Collection 4. Focus group interview The use of focus groups is sometimes used when it is better to obtain information from a group rather than individuals. In this 4-5 or more members are assembled for a discussion. Group interviews can be used when: 1. Limited resources (time, manpower, finances) 2. The phenomena being researched requires a collective discussion in order to understand the circumstances, behavior or opinions 3. Greater insights may be developed of the group dynamic - or cause and consequence Characteristics of a focus group: 1. Recommended size of the sample group is 6 - 10 people as smaller groups may limit the potential on the amount of information collected, and more may make it difficult for all participants to participate and interact and for the interviewer to be able to make sense of the information given 2. Several focus groups should be used in order to get a more objective and macro view of the investigation. i.e. focusing on one group may give you idiosyncratic results. The use of several groups will add to the breadth and depth of information. A minimum of three focus groups is recommended for best practice approaches 3. Members of the focus group should have something in common which is important to the investigation 4. Groups can either be put together or existing groups - it is always useful to be mindful of the group dynamics of both situations 5. Joint interviews These types of interviews are conducted to know about phenomena that involve relationship between two or more people. In this type usually people know each other or related to each other. Eg: to know emotional problems experienced by losing a child in a family, the interview will be conducted for father, mother and other family members. Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 4
  5. 5. Nursing Research Data Collection Advantages of interview 1. Large quantity of information can be collected in greater detail and depth 2. More appropriate for complex situation 3. Clarification and supplementation of information can be had 4. Information is reliable 5. It is flexible and adaptable to individual situation 6. It has wider application 7. Along with verbal information facial expressions, emotions and body languages can be assessed Disadvantages 1. Time consuming 2. Costly 3. Needs highly skilled interviewer 4. Quality of data depends on quality of interaction 5. Interview may be biased Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 5
  6. 6. Nursing Research Data Collection QUESTIONNAIRE Questionnaire is a written list of questions; the answers to the questions are given by respondents. The instrument is an interview schedule when the questions are asked orally in either face-to-face or telephone interviews. It is called a questionnaire or an SAQ (self administered questionnaire) when respondents complete the instrument themselves, usually in a paper-and-pencil format but occasionally directly onto a computer. Structured instruments consist of a set of questions (also known as items) in which the wording of both the questions and, in most cases, response alternatives is predetermined. When structured interviews or questionnaires are used, subjects are asked to respond to the same questions, in the same order, and with the same set of response options. In developing structured instruments, much effort is usually devoted to the content, form, and wording of questions. Advantages of Questionnaires Self-administered questionnaires, which can be distributed in person, by mail, or over the Internet, offer some advantages. The strengths of questionnaires include the following: Cost Questionnaires, relative to interviews, are in general much less costly and require less time and energy to administer. Anonymity Unlike interviews, questionnaires offer the possibility of complete anonymity. A guarantee of anonymity can be crucial in obtaining candid responses, particularly if the questions are personal or sensitive. Interviewer bias The absence of an interviewer ensures that there will be no interviewer bias. Types of questions 1. Open ended questions 2. Closed ended questions Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 6
  7. 7. Nursing Research Data Collection Open ended questions Open-ended questions allow respondents to respond in their own words, in narrative fashion. Eg: “What was the biggest problem you faced after your surgery?” Closed ended questions Closed-ended (or fixed-alternative) questions offer respondents alternative replies, from which subjects must choose the one that most closely matches the appropriate answer. Specific Types of Closed-Ended Questions Dichotomous questions This type of questions will have two alternatives to choose. This require respondents to make a choice between two response alternatives, questions are considered most appropriate for gathering factual information. Eg: Do you own a car? 1. Yes 2. No Multiple-choice questions This type of questions will have more than two response alternatives. Dichotomous items often are considered too restrictive by respondents, who may resent being forced to see an issue as either “yes” or “no.” Multiple-choice questions most commonly offer three to seven alternatives. Eg: Which one of the following possible complications is usually not associated with diabetes? a) Changes in vision b) Changes in the kidney c) Changes in the lung* d) Change ion fetal weight Cafeteria questions These are a special type of multiple choice questions that asks respondents to select a response that most closely corresponds to their view. The response options are usually full expressions of a position on the topic. Eg: People have different opinions about Mr. Narendr Modi of becoming Prime Minister of India. Which of the following statements best represents your opinion? 1. Mr. Modi is a most suitable candidate to become PM of India 2. It is disaster to see Mr. Modi as a PM of India. 3. Mr. Modi is one of the eligible person to become PM of India Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 7
  8. 8. Nursing Research Data Collection Rank-order questions These questions ask respondents to rank target concepts along a continuum, such as most to least important. Respondents are asked to assign a 1 to the concept that is most important, 2 to the concept that is second in importance, and so on. Rank-order questions can be useful but need to be handled carefully because respondents sometimes misunderstand them. Rank-order questions should involve 10 or fewer rankings. Eg: People give importance to different persons in their lives. Below is a list of persons that many people value. Please indicate their order of importance to you by placing a “1” beside the most important, “2” beside the second-most important, and so on. - Friends - Parents - Girlfriends/ boyfriend - Siblings - Teachers - Grandparents Forced-choice questions Here the respondent requires choosing between two statements that represent polar positions or characteristics. Eg: Which statement most closely represents your point of view? 1. What happens to me is my own doing. 2. Sometimes I feel I don’t have enough control over my life. Rating questions These questions ask respondents to evaluate something along an ordered dimension. Rating questions are typically bipolar, with the end points specifying opposite extremes on a continuum. The number of gradations or points along the scale can vary but should always be an odd number, such as 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11, to allow for a neutral midpoint. Eg: On a scale from 0 to 6, where 0 means “extremely dissatisfied” and 6 means “extremely satisfied.” Read the following statements and give your opinion along the scale. Questions 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 How satisfied were you with the nursing care you received during your hospitalization? How satisfied were you with the cleanliness of surrounding in the hospital? Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 8
  9. 9. Nursing Research Data Collection Checklists These encompass several questions that have the same response format. A checklist is a two dimensional arrangement in which a series of questions is listed along one dimension (usually vertically) and response alternatives are listed along the other. Eg: Statement / item Never Some times Always Do you feel that things are going according to your way? Are you able to manage farm as well as house and family? Do you remain calm and controlled in difficult situations? Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 9
  10. 10. Nursing Research Data Collection OTHER METHODS Life Histories Life histories are narrative self-disclosures about individual life experiences. Ethnographers frequently use individual life histories to learn about cultural patterns. With a life history approach, researchers ask respondents to provide, often in chronologic sequence, a narration of their ideas and experiences, either orally or in writing. Life histories may take months, or even years, to record, with researchers providing only gentle guidance in the telling of the story. Oral Histories Researchers use the technique known as oral history to gather personal recollections of events and their perceived causes and consequences. Oral histories, unlike life histories, typically focus on describing important themes rather than individuals. Oral histories are a method for connecting individual experiences with broader social and cultural contexts. Oral histories are an important method for historical researchers when the topic under study is the not-too-distant past, and people who experienced the event can still be asked about those experiences. Critical Incidents The critical incidents technique is a method of gathering information about people’s behaviors by examining specific incidents relating to the behavior under investigation. The technique, as the name suggests, focuses on a factual incident, which may be defined as an observable and integral episode of human behavior. The technique differs from other self-report approaches in that it focuses on something specific about which respondents can be expected to testify as expert witnesses. For example If we were interested in understanding the use of humor in clinical practice, we might ask a sample of nurses the following questions: “Think of the last time you used humor in your interactions with a hospital patient. What led up to the situation? Exactly what did you do? How did the patient react? Why did you feel it would be all right to use a humorous approach? What happened next?” Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 10
  11. 11. Nursing Research Data Collection Diaries and Journals Personal diaries have long been used as a source of data in historical research. It is also possible to generate new data for a non historical study by asking study participants to maintain a diary or journal over a specified period. Diaries can be useful in providing an intimate description of a person’s everyday life. Although diaries are very useful means of learning about ongoing experiences, one limitation is that they can be used only by people with adequate literacy skills, although there are examples of studies in which diary entries were audio taped rather than written out. Diaries also depend on a high level of participant cooperation. Mr. Kallappa M Sollapure Lecturer Page 11

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