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Job characteristics model

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Job Characteristics Model

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Job & Work 2
Job Compared To Work (Six Patterns of Work)
Job Characteristics Model
• a set of specified work and
task acti...

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Job Design 3
Traditional Approaches To Job Design
Job Characteristics Model
Traditional
Approaches to
Job Design
Scientifi...

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Job characteristics model

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Definition of Job & work, Job design, Job Characteristics Model, Job design approaches, Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches

Definition of Job & work, Job design, Job Characteristics Model, Job design approaches, Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches

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Job characteristics model

  1. 1. Job Characteristics Model
  2. 2. Job & Work 2 Job Compared To Work (Six Patterns of Work) Job Characteristics Model • a set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization Job • mental or physical activity that has productive results Work • the way a person interprets and understands the value of work as part of life Meaning of Work Six Patterns of Work B – provides personal affect and identity D – physical activity directed by others and performed in a workplace E – generally unpleasant physically and mentally strenuous activity F – activity constrained to specific time periods; no positive affect through its performance A – value comes from performance; accountability is important C – profit accrues to others by work performance
  3. 3. Job Design 3 Traditional Approaches To Job Design Job Characteristics Model Traditional Approaches to Job Design Scientific Management Job Characteristics Theory Job Enlargement/ Job Rotation Job Enrichment
  4. 4. Job Design 4 Traditional Approaches To Job Design Job Characteristics Model ScientificManagement Emphasizes work simplification (standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers) Allows diverse groups to work together Leads to production efficiency and higher profits Undervalues the human capacity for thought and ingenuity JobEnlargement/JobRotation Job Enlargement - a method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work Job Rotation - a variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over time Cross-Training - a variation of job enlargement in which workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities JobEnrichment Job Enrichment - designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them Emphasis is on recognition, responsibility, and advancement opportunity JobCharacteristicsTheory Job Characteristics Model - a framework for understanding person–job fit through the interaction of core job dimensions with critical psychological states within a person Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) - the survey instrument designed to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model
  5. 5. Job Characteristics Model 5 Job Characteristics Model Job Characteristics Model • Job Characteristics Model – Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees: • Knowledge of results • Meaningfulness of work • Personal feelings of responsibility for results – Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. • Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?) • Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end) • Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people
  6. 6. Job Characteristics Model 6 Job Characteristics Model Job Characteristics Model • Job Characteristics Model – Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees: • Knowledge of results • Meaningfulness of work • Personal feelings of responsibility for results – Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. • Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out • Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance • MPS Motivating Potential Score
  7. 7. Job Characteristics Model 7 Job Characteristics Model Job Characteristics Model • J.R. Hackman and G.R. Oldham, “The Relationship Among Core Job Dimensions, the Critical Psychological States, and On-the-Job Outcomes,”The Job Diagnostic Survey: An Instrument for the Diagnosis of Jobs and the Evaluation of Job Redesign Projects, 1974. • Reprinted by permission of Greg R. Oldham.
  8. 8. Job Characteristics Model 8 Examples of High and Low Job Characteristics Job Characteristics Model MPS = Skill variety Task identity Task significance x [Autonomy] x [Feedback] 3 + + Motivating Potential Score
  9. 9. Job Characteristics Model 9 Examples of High and Low Job Characteristics Job Characteristics Model Skill Variety • High variety The owner-operator of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers • Low variety A bodyshop worker who sprays paint eight hours a day Task Identity • High identity A cabinetmaker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection • Low identity A worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe to make table legs Task Significance • High significance Nursing the sick in a hospital intensive care unit • Low significance Sweeping hospital floors Autonomy • High autonomy A telephone installer who schedules his or her own work for the day, and decides on the best techniques for a particular installation • Low autonomy A telephone operator who must handle calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure Feedback • High feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly • Low feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests and adjusts it
  10. 10. Alternative Approaches To Job Design 10 Social Information Processing (SIP) Model / Interdisciplinary Approach-Kyle M Job Characteristics Model • SIP Model A model that suggests that the important job factors depend in part on what others tell a person about the job • 4 Premises • People provide cues to understanding the work environment • People help us judge our jobs • People tell us how they see our jobs • People’s positive & negative feedback help us understand our feelings about our jobs
  11. 11. Alternative Approaches To Job Design 11 Social Information Processing (SIP) Model / Interdisciplinary Approach-Kyle M Job Characteristics Model • Interdisciplinary Approach-Kyle M • Ergonomics – The science of adapting work and working conditions to the employee or worker Motivational Mechanistic Biological Perceptual/ motor
  12. 12. Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches 12 Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches Job Characteristics Model Mechanistic Approach + Decreased training time Higher utilization levels Lower error likelihood Less mental overload Lower stress levels Lower job satisfaction Lower motivation Higher absenteeism - Motivational Approach + Higher job satisfaction Higher motivation Greater job involvement Higher job performance Lower absenteeism Increased training time Lower personnel utilization Greater chance of errors Greater chance of mental overload and stress -
  13. 13. Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches 13 Outcomes of Various Job Design Approaches Job Characteristics Model Lower error likelihood Lower accident likelihood Less mental stress Decreased training time Higher utilization levels Lower job satisfaction Lower motivation Perceptual Motor Approach + - Less physical effort Less physical fatigue Fewer health complaints Fewer medical incidents Lower absenteeism Higher job satisfaction Higher financial costs because of changes in equipment or job environment Biological Approach + -

Editor's Notes

  • The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete jobs.
  • The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete jobs.

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