Industrial robotics


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Industrial robotics

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Industrial robots are general purpose, programmable machine possessing certain human like features. When doing a job, robots can do many things faster than humans. Robots do not need to be paid, eat, drink, or go to the bathroom like
  2. 2. Definition of an Industrial Robot A robot is a re-programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
  3. 3. History and evolution of industrial Robotics The word "Robot" comes from the Czech word "robota", meaning "forced labor." The word "robotics" also comes from science fiction - "Runaround" (1942) by Isaac Asimov.
  4. 4. The first modern industrial robots were probably the “Unimates”, created by George Devol and Joe Engleberger in the 1950's and 60's. Engleberger started the first robotics company, called "Unimation", and has been called the "father of robotics."
  5. 5. The General Electric Walking Truck the first legged vehicle with a computer-brain, by Ralph Moser at General Electric Corp. in the 1960s. early robots (1940's - 50's) Grey Walter's "Elsie the tortoise" "Shakey" Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s.
  6. 6. Evolution of industrial Robotics Machines, like the puppets in this theater, were designed to imitate human actions over 3,000 years ago. First generation robots were designed to perform factory work. Such robots performed simple tasks that were dangerous or unpleasant for people. Robots were used to weld, spray paint, move heavy objects, handle hot materials, etc.
  7. 7. Types of Robotics according to JIRA : (Japanese Industrial Robot Association)  Class1: Manual Handling Device  Class2: Fixed-Sequence Robot  Class3: Variable Sequence Robot  Class4: Playback Robot  Class5: Numerical Control Robot  Class6: Intelligent Robot
  8. 8. According to AFR : The Association Francaise de Robotique  Type A: Handling Devices with manual control  Type B: Automatic Handling Devices with predetermined cycles  Type C: Programmable, servo controlled robots  Type D: Type C with interactive with the environment
  9. 9. Working of robots Robot is constructed with a series of joints and links. 1. Joints and links Joint provides relative motion between two parts of body. Each joint provides the robot with a degree of freedom (D.O.F) of motion. Robots are often classified according to the total number of degrees of freedom (Most robots possess five or six degrees-of-freedom). Two links are connected to each joint (input link and output link).
  10. 10. 2. Common Robot Configurations Robot manipulator consists of two sections; 1) Body-and-arm: for positioning of objects in the robot's work volume • Polar configuration • Cylindrical configuration. • Cartesian coordinate robot. • Jointed arm robot. • SCARA 2) Wrist assembly: for orientation of objects. Roll Pitch Yaw
  11. 11. 3. Joint Drive systems • Electrical (servomotors or stepping motors) • Hydraulic (greater speed and strength, but relatively low accuracy) • Pneumatic (limited to smaller robots). The drive system, position sensors (and the speed sensors if used), and feedback control system determined the dynamic response characteristics of the manipulator.
  12. 12. ROBOT CONTROL SYSTEMS Each joint has its own feedback control system, and a supervisory controlled coordinates the combined actuation of the joint according to the sequence of the robot program. Robot controllers can be classified into; 1. Limited sequence control, used only for simple motion cycles such as pick and place operations 2. Playback with point to point control 3. Playback with continuous path control, it capable to one or both; 1. Greater storage capacity. 2. Interpolation calculations
  13. 13. 4. Intelligent control : 1. Interact with the environment. 2. Make a decision when things go wrong during the work cycle. 3. Communicate with humans. 4. Make computations during the motion cycle. 5. Respond to advantage sensor inputs such as machine vision.
  14. 14. 5. SENSORS Internal used to control position and velocity of the various joints. Potentiometers and optical encoder. External to coordinate the operation of the robot with other equipment in the cell. 1. Limit switch. 2. Tactile sensors, to determine whether contact is made • Touch sensors • Force sensors. 3. Proximity sensors (range sensors). 4. Optical sensors. 5. Machine vision
  15. 15. Industrial Applications : Situations that tend to promote of robot for human labor are : 1. Hazardous work environment for human. 2. Repetitive work cycle. 3. Difficult handling for human. 4. Multi-shift operations. 5. Infrequent changeovers. 6. Part position and orientation.
  16. 16. Applications : 1. Material handling. 2. Processing operations. 3. Assembly and inspection.
  17. 17. Advantages • Robotics and automation can, in many situation, increase productivity, safety, efficiency, qua lity, and consistency of products • Robots can work in hazardous environments • Robots need no environmental comfort • Robots work continuously without any humanity needs and illnesses
  18. 18. • Robots can be much more accurate than humans, they may have mili or micro inch accuracy. • Robots and their sensors can have capabilities beyond that of humans • Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously, humans can only one. • Robots replace human workers who can create economic problems
  19. 19. THANK YOU