Industrial robots are
certain human like
When doing a job, robots
can do many things
humans. Robots do
not need to be
paid, eat, drink, or go
to the bathroom like
Definition of an Industrial
A robot is a re-programmable
designed to move
material, parts, tools, or
specialized devices through
variable programmed motions
for the performance of a variety
History and evolution of
The word "Robot" comes from the
Czech word "robota", meaning
The word "robotics" also comes
from science fiction - "Runaround"
(1942) by Isaac Asimov.
The first modern industrial robots
were probably the “Unimates”,
created by George Devol and Joe
Engleberger in the 1950's and
60's. Engleberger started the first
robotics company, called
"Unimation", and has been called
the "father of robotics."
The General Electric Walking
Truck the first legged vehicle
with a computer-brain, by Ralph
Moser at General Electric Corp.
in the 1960s.
early robots (1940's -
50's) Grey Walter's
"Elsie the tortoise"
Research Institute in
Machines, like the puppets in this
theater, were designed to imitate human
actions over 3,000 years ago.
First generation robots were designed to
perform factory work.
Such robots performed simple tasks that
were dangerous or unpleasant for
Robots were used to weld, spray
paint, move heavy objects, handle hot
Types of Robotics according to
(Japanese Industrial Robot Association)
Class1: Manual Handling Device
Class2: Fixed-Sequence Robot
Class3: Variable Sequence Robot
Class4: Playback Robot
Class5: Numerical Control Robot
Class6: Intelligent Robot
According to AFR :
The Association Francaise de Robotique
Type A: Handling Devices with manual
Type B: Automatic Handling Devices
with predetermined cycles
Type C: Programmable, servo
Type D: Type C with interactive with
Working of robots
Robot is constructed with a series of
joints and links.
1. Joints and links
Joint provides relative motion between
two parts of body.
Each joint provides the robot with a
degree of freedom (D.O.F) of motion.
Robots are often classified according to
the total number of degrees of freedom
(Most robots possess five or six
Two links are connected to each joint
(input link and output link).
2. Common Robot Configurations
Robot manipulator consists of two sections;
1) Body-and-arm: for positioning of objects in
the robot's work volume
• Polar configuration
• Cylindrical configuration.
• Cartesian coordinate robot.
• Jointed arm robot.
2) Wrist assembly: for orientation of objects.
3. Joint Drive systems
• Electrical (servomotors or stepping
• Hydraulic (greater speed and strength,
but relatively low accuracy)
• Pneumatic (limited to smaller robots).
The drive system, position sensors (and the
speed sensors if used), and feedback
control system determined the dynamic
response characteristics of the
ROBOT CONTROL SYSTEMS
Each joint has its own feedback control
system, and a supervisory controlled
coordinates the combined actuation of
the joint according to the sequence of
the robot program.
Robot controllers can be classified into;
1. Limited sequence control, used only for
simple motion cycles such as pick and place
2. Playback with point to point control
3. Playback with continuous path control, it
capable to one or both;
1. Greater storage capacity.
2. Interpolation calculations
4. Intelligent control :
1. Interact with the
2. Make a decision when things
go wrong during the work
3. Communicate with humans.
4. Make computations during the
5. Respond to advantage sensor
inputs such as machine vision.
Internal used to control position and
velocity of the various joints.
Potentiometers and optical encoder.
External to coordinate the operation
of the robot with other equipment in
1. Limit switch.
2. Tactile sensors, to determine
whether contact is made
• Touch sensors
• Force sensors.
3. Proximity sensors (range sensors).
4. Optical sensors.
5. Machine vision
Industrial Applications :
Situations that tend to promote of robot
for human labor are :
1. Hazardous work environment for
2. Repetitive work cycle.
3. Difficult handling for human.
4. Multi-shift operations.
5. Infrequent changeovers.
6. Part position and orientation.
1. Material handling.
2. Processing operations.
3. Assembly and inspection.
• Robotics and automation can, in
many situation, increase
productivity, safety, efficiency, qua
lity, and consistency of products
• Robots can work in hazardous
• Robots need no environmental
• Robots work continuously without
any humanity needs and illnesses
• Robots can be much more accurate
than humans, they may have mili or
micro inch accuracy.
• Robots and their sensors can have
capabilities beyond that of humans
• Robots can process multiple stimuli
or tasks simultaneously, humans can
• Robots replace human workers who
can create economic problems