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- 1. Running Head: THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 0 2018 Author(s): Group “A” Program: Bachelors of Business Administration Academic Year: 2015-18 Institute: JG Institute of Business Administration (Affiliated to Gujarat University) Under the Supervision of: Asst. Prof. Hitesh Harwani The Department of Business Administration GUJARAT UNIVERSITY THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS ON AFGHAN SCHOLARS IN GUJARAT
- 2. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT e would like to express our sincere gratitude towards all those people who have contributed their best in our research study, their sustenance is really appreciated. Thanking our parents and friends for their unconditional love, support and motivation. Initially, we would like to thank Asst. Prof. Hitesh Harwani of JGIBA for providing us with guidance and fruitful thoughts and opinions during entire research work. We would like to thank our I/c Director Dr. Sagar Dave for creating substantial opportunities to carry out our research work and Dr. Manroop Dhingra; Asst. Prof. Pratik Darji for their support. A special thanks to Dr. Mukund Patel, Chief Officer, Japan Information and Study Center, AMA (Ahmedabad Management Association), for providing us his venerable views and suggestions, perhaps, without his support and assistance, it would have been a laborious task for us to keep on the right track. We are also indebted to Prof. Ketan Vira from University of Mumbai, GNVS Institute of Management; Mr. Rakesh Prajapati, Civil Engineer and Independent Financial Planning Expert. W
- 3. iii CERTIFICATE
- 4. iv DECLARATION We, third year BBA students of JGIBA, Group “A”, do hereby, declare that the research paper titled “THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS ON AFGHAN SCHOLARS IN GUJARAT”, submitted to Gujarat University is based on genuine and original work being carried out by us, for the award of the degree of Bachelors in Business Administration. This research report authored by us is a genuine research work. It does not infringe on the right of others and does not contain any libelous or unlawful statements. The findings and suggestions are intended not to hurt the sentiments of any scholar and/or blame the system, but rather, for the betterment of the academic life and career of the students. Nevertheless, the report has not been submitted earlier to this university or any other university or institution for the purpose of publication. Group “A” S. No Name Roll No. Seat No. 1. Ahmad Shah Saadat 702 2. Dost Mohammad Rokhan 723 3. Fariha Sultanzada 724 4. Kalimullah Sayedi 746 5. Khalil Ahmad Sahil 748 6. Saadkhan Pathan 792 7. Qudratullah Sherani 796 8. Rafiullah Sahak 797 9. Razia Majidi 806 10. Samiullah Irfan 809 11. Sheikh Muna Akkiswala 821 12. Tahsinullah 834
- 5. v DEDICATION To our parents and country for letting us be. Thank you both, for the unwavering perpetual backing and support in every step of our life; you are the ultimate reason behind our incessant success.
- 6. vi ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate the impact of Indian scholarships on Afghan scholars specifically in Gujarat; intended to explore and assess scholars’ overall academic performance with cause-effect and to evaluate the reasons behind why scholars fail. The study is administered on 150 scholars pursuing bachelors from five major cities in Gujarat, using a judgmental sampling from three foremost streams. Analysis were carried out using both descriptive i.e., bivariate analysis and inferential statistics applying non-parametric tests using α=0.05 with 95% confidence level. The results revealed that the allocation of time for study, level of English and interest in current field were the main determinants affecting the overall academic performance of scholars. Nevertheless, satisfaction have had dramatic impact on their academic abilities, too. Results further disclosed that the correlation coefficient among the independent variables varied between rs=0.276 being the lowest positive correlation to 0.658 and a negative correlation of rs=-0.633 to rs=-0.686 with the significance value of ρ<0.05 ranging from 0.0005 to 0.004. Prior to the findings we hypothesized that scholars are not given to the stream they selected in their scholarship form, but the actual scenario was different. Key Words: Afghanistan, India, Scholars, Scholarship, Interest in Study, Level of English, Academic Achievements, ATKTs (backlogs), Satisfaction, Time Allocation for Study.
- 7. a TABLE OF CONTENTS: Acknowledgement.............................................................................................................ii Certificate ........................................................................................................................ iii Declaration .......................................................................................................................iv Dedication .........................................................................................................................v Abstract ............................................................................................................................vi List of Tables:...................................................................................................................vi List of Figures: .............................................................................................................. viii Chapter One: Introduction.....................................................................................................1 1.2 Rationale of the Study:...........................................................................................3 1.3 Research Objectives: ..............................................................................................3 1.4 Research Context:...................................................................................................3 1.5 Scholarship Granting Policy of Afghanistan:.........................................................4 1.5.1 A Brief Introduction to Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR):.............6 1.5.2 Student and Scholarships of ICCR: ....................................................................6 1.5.3 Policy Guidelines on Scholarship Administered by ICCR:................................7 Chapter Two: Literature Review.........................................................................................16 Chapter Three: Research Methodology ..............................................................................18 3.1 Research Approach: .............................................................................................18 3.2 Research Instruments: ..........................................................................................18 3.3 Study Design: .......................................................................................................18 3.4 Data Collection Techniques: ................................................................................19 3.5 Sampling Design: .................................................................................................19 3.5.1 Sampling Unit:..................................................................................................19 3.5.2 Sampling Frame:...............................................................................................19 3.5.3 Sampling Size:..................................................................................................20 3.5.4 Sampling Area: .................................................................................................20 3.5.5 Sampling Technique/Procedure:.......................................................................20 3.6 Data Analysis Technique: (Descriptive & Inferential):........................................20 3.7 Measurements Used: ............................................................................................21 3.7.1 Scaling: .............................................................................................................21 3.7.2 Rating Scale:.....................................................................................................21
- 8. b 3.8 Operationalization of Research Concepts: ...........................................................22 3.9 Descriptive Analysis: ...........................................................................................23 3.9.1 Chi Square Assumption:...................................................................................24 3.9.2 Spearman’s Correlation Assumptions: .............................................................25 Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis ...................................................................26 4.1 Descriptive Statistics and Frequency Tables with Bar Charts: ............................26 4.1.1 Descriptive Statistics: .......................................................................................26 4.1.2 Frequncy Tables and Bar Charts:......................................................................27 4.2 Testing Hypothesis:..............................................................................................35 4.2.1 Hypothesis 1: ....................................................................................................35 Cronbach’s Alpha:...........................................................................................................36 Result and Discussion: ....................................................................................................39 4.2.2 Hypothesis 2: ....................................................................................................40 Bonferroni Correction: ....................................................................................................42 Result and Discussion: ....................................................................................................43 4.2.3 Hypothesis 3: ....................................................................................................45 Bonferroni Correction: ....................................................................................................47 Result and Discussion: ....................................................................................................48 4.2.4 Hypothesis 4: ....................................................................................................50 Result and Discussion: ....................................................................................................52 4.2.5 Hypothesis 5: ....................................................................................................54 Result and Discussion: ....................................................................................................56 4.2.6 Hypothesis 6: ....................................................................................................58 4.3 Cross Tabulation and Correlation: .......................................................................60 4.4 Bivariate Analysis: ...............................................................................................63 Chapter Five: Findings and Conclusion..............................................................................66 5.1 Findings and Conclusion:.....................................................................................66 5.1.1 Time Factor:......................................................................................................66 5.1.2 English Proficiency Factor (a major threat):.....................................................66 5.1.3 Interest in Current Field of Study: ....................................................................67 5.2 Scholars’ Major Problems Being Observed during Survey: ................................69 5.2.1 Accommodation Facilities:...............................................................................69 5.2.2 No Reciprocal Relation; No Appreciation........................................................69
- 9. c 5.2.3 No proper Guidance:.........................................................................................70 5.2.4 Low financial Support with too much Delays from ICCR:..............................70 5.2.5 Difficulties in Languages:.................................................................................70 5.2.6 Exam Structure of Indian Educational System:................................................71 5.3 Suggestions and Recommendations:....................................................................71 5.3.1 English Proficiency Test:..................................................................................71 5.3.2 Saying No to Recommendation:.......................................................................71 5.3.3 Training Scholars Regarding the Selection of Streams:...................................71 5.3.4 Pre-Guidance to Scholars on Indian Education System: ..................................72 5.3.5 Reciprocal Relations with Scholars from both the Governments:....................72 5.3.6 Pre-Assessment of Scholars’ Interest: ..............................................................73 5.4 Conclusion:...........................................................................................................73 5.5 Implication of the Study:......................................................................................74 5.6 Scope for Future Study:........................................................................................74 5.7 Recommendation for future study:.......................................................................75 BIBLIOGRAPHY:..............................................................................................................76 Glossary: .............................................................................................................................79 Appendix:............................................................................................................................80 Appendix A 1: Adjusted z, Chi square and P values for Hypothesis 2...............................80 Appendix A 2: Adjusted z, Chi square and P values for Hypothesis 2...............................80 Appendix A 3: Cross Tabulation of Scholars’ Interest in Major subjects and their Current Field of Study......................................................................................................................81 Appendix A 4: Plan for Future * Current Field of Studying Cross tabulation ...................83 Appendix A 5: Cross tabulation of Backlogs and Scholars’ Plan for Future......................84 Appendix A 6: Cross Tabulation for Scholars’ Previous Stream of study with current field of study and their interested stream ....................................................................................85 Appendix A 7: Sources of granting scholarships and scholars’ number of backlogs, crosstabulation.....................................................................................................................86 Appendix B 1: Top Five Bright Afghan Scholars in Gujarat (AY 2015-19):.....................87 Appendix B 2: Questionnaire:.............................................................................................93
- 10. vi LIST OF TABLES: Table 1. 1: Living Allowance (Stipend) per month. ...........................................................14 Table 1. 2: House Rent Allowance .....................................................................................14 Table 1. 3: Contingent Grant (Per Annum).........................................................................14 Table 1. 4: Courses Offered to Scholars .............................................................................14 Table 3. 1: Operationalization of Research Concepts:........................................................22 Table 3. 2: Academic respective abilities of BA, BBA, BCA and BE ...............................23 Table 4. 1: Descriptive Statistics for the Variables.............................................................26 Table 4. 2: Descriptive Statistics for the Variables.............................................................27 Table 4. 3: Scholars’ Age Frequency..................................................................................27 Table 4. 4: Scholars’ Gender Frequency.............................................................................28 Table 4. 5: Scholars’ Current Field of Study ......................................................................28 Table 4. 6: Receipt of Scholarship Frequency ....................................................................28 Table 4. 7: Scholars’ Level of English Frequency.............................................................29 Table 4. 8: Reasons of Leaving Afghanistan ......................................................................29 Table 4. 9: Scholars’ Previous Stream of Study .................................................................30 Table 4. 10: Frequency of Scholars’ Plans .........................................................................30 Table 4. 11: Frequency Scholars’ Plan for Future ..............................................................30 Table 4. 12: Frequency of Scholars’ ...................................................................................31 Table 4. 13: Statistics for Academic Achievements ...........................................................31 Table 4. 14: Frequency of academic achievements ............................................................31 Table 4. 15: Statistics for Scholars’ Abilities of four fields................................................32 Table 4. 16: Frequency representing BBA’ Abilities..........................................................32 Table 4. 17: Frequency representing BA’ Abilities ............................................................33 Table 4. 18: Frequency representing BCA’ Abilities..........................................................33 Table 4. 19: Frequency representing BCA’ Abilities..........................................................33 Table 4. 20: Frequency representing All Scholars’.............................................................34 Table 4. 21 Scholars’ exam result frequency......................................................................35 Table 4. 22: Frequency of time allocation for study...........................................................35 Table 4. 23: Reliability Statistics; Table 4. 24: Item Statistics...........................................36 Table 4. 25: Normality Test ................................................................................................37 Table 4. 26: Spearman’s rho Correlations ..........................................................................38 Table 4. 27: Exam result and time allocation crosstab........................................................38 Table 4. 28: Tests of Normality ..........................................................................................40 Table 4. 29: Cross tabulation for interest in current field and exam result.........................41 Table 4. 30: Chi-Square Tests.............................................................................................43 Table 4. 31: Symmetric Measures.......................................................................................43 Table 4. 32: Crosstabulation of current field of study and filed of interest ........................46
- 11. vii Table 4. 33: Chi-Square Tests.............................................................................................47 Table 4. 34: Symmetric Measures.......................................................................................47 Table 4. 35: Case Processing Summary..............................................................................50 Table 4. 36: Tests of Normalityb .........................................................................................51 Table 4. 37: Spearman’s rho Correlations ..........................................................................52 Table 4. 38: Tests of Normalityb .........................................................................................54 Table 4. 39: Spearman’s rho Correlations ..........................................................................56 Table 4. 40: Cross tabulation ..............................................................................................57 Table 4. 41: Tests of Normality ..........................................................................................58 Table 4. 42: Ranks...............................................................................................................59 Table 4. 43: Test Statisticsa .................................................................................................59 Table 4. 44: Interested subjects:..........................................................................................60 Table 4. 45: Cross tabulation of current field of study and previous stream of study ........61 Table 4. 46: Spearman’s rho Correlations ..........................................................................62 Table 4. 47: Correlations.....................................................................................................63
- 12. viii LIST OF FIGURES: Figure 4. 1: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Age .............................................................................27 Figure 4. 2: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Gender ........................................................................28 Figure 4. 3: Scholars’ Current Field of Study…….............................................................28 Figure 4. 4: Bar Chart for Receipt Scholarship……….......................................................28 Figure 4. 5: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Level of English…. .......................………………….29 Figure 4. 6: Bar Chart for Reasons of Leaving Afghanistan...............................................29 Figure 4. 7: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Previous Stream of Study...........................................30 Figure 4. 8: Bar Chart for Scholars’ Plans for Staying in India..........................................30 Figure 4. 9: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Plan for Future…........................................................30 Figure 4. 10: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Field of Interest.........................................................31 Figure 4. 11: Bar chart of academic achievements of scholars ..........................................31 Figure 4. 12: Bar Chart representing BBA’ Abilities……. ................................................32 Figure 4. 13: Bar Chart representing BA’ Abilities ……...................................................33 Figure 4. 14: Bar Chart representing BCA’ Abilities ……. ...............................................33 Figure 4. 15: Bar Chart representing BCA’ Abilities…… .................................................33 Figure 4. 16: Bar Chart representing All Scholars’ Abilities..............................................34 Figure 4. 17: Kolmogorov Smirnov Normality test summary............................................37 Figure 4. 18: Bar Chart of exam result and time allocation for study.................................39 Figure 4. 19: Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test.............................................................41 Figure 4. 20: Bar Chart for interest in current field and exam result..................................44 Figure 4. 21: Bar chart for current field of study and interest in fields...............................48 Figure 4. 22: Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test.............................................................51 Figure 4. 23: Bar chart for academic abilities and level of English....................................53 Figure 4. 24: Histogram chart for normality test.................................................................54 Figure 4. 25: Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test.............................................................55 Figure 4. 26: Bar chart of exam results and level of English..............................................57 Figure 4. 27: Current field of study and interest .................................................................61 Figure 4. 28: Bar chart for Scholars’ previous and current field of study ..........................63
- 13. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 1 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION his chapter will shed a light on the main purpose and aim of conducting the study and the rationale behind it. Furthermore, the current education scenario with respect to scholarship granting policies will be explained in detail. Over three decades of conflict have had a detrimental effect on Afghanistan’s educational system (Douches, 2014). At present, getting a higher education is a dream for both men and women in Afghanistan; a dream which seems to be a hard nut to crack, considering enormous challenges and negative factors. Continuous war in some places has had a massive impact on the education level of Afghanistan. The HDI 1 of Afghanistan is still 0.479 which comes under the low human development category in Asia. Looking to the current education system and political instability of Afghanistan, students find it difficult to acquire better higher education and come up short chasing their dreams. One of the major purposes and aims of all the students is, to pursue higher education in a country, where they can fulfill their dreams. However, the mentioned category of students does not get the chance to acquire it, despite having the appropriate abilities and required skills. The observed current sprawled corruption and the unhealthy discrimination among different cities and cultures have had a negative impact on students’ future and career. Political and economic instability in Afghanistan has pushed back so many Afghans from pursuing education. According to UNICEF, 40 percent of Afghanistan’s 1 Human Development Index T
- 14. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 2 children are not in school. Globally, of the estimated 109.2 million children (between 6 and 15 years old) living in conflict areas nearly 24 million are out of school (Putz, 2016). Including other developed and developing countries, India has become the number one destination for Afghan scholars, granting 1,000 scholarships each year in various fields. However, low cost of living, scholarship opportunities, familiarity with the country's culture and language, good relations between the governments and people, ease of obtaining visa and alike factors seem to attract more Afghan scholars to pursue their education in India. Education, a word we hear and wish the most but have never took it seriously; some of Afghan scholars who are studying outside Afghanistan, have achieved honoree awards and become pride of and proud for Afghanistan; on the contrary, many of Afghan scholars are ruining their career by indulging themselves in many anti-social, unreligious and unethical issues abroad, especially, in India; as we have experienced and observed the case. No study has yet been conducted in a view to assess such impact-oriented problem being sprawled, specifically in Gujarat. The study is aimed to assess the overall academic respective abilities their level of satisfaction from the scholarship, scholars’ exam results, their number of backlogs, level of English etc. which ultimately shows how the Indian scholarship has impacted the overall performance of the Scholars, in a view to bring fruitful insights on the correlation of aforementioned variables and to probe result-oriented suggestions for implementation.
- 15. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 3 1.2 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY: The rationale behind this study is contributed to the fact that no study has been done to explain the reasons of scholars’ failure in examination in Gujarat. This study is the first qualitative and quantitative analysis attempt to identify the impact of Indian scholarship on Afghan scholars’ academics as well as career. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: ➢ Main Objective(s): It aims to analyze the factors affecting the scholars’ overall academic performances, achievements, satisfaction and interest from their current field of study. Nevertheless, the purpose of this study is to identify the reasons of why scholars feel reluctant to return back to Afghanistan. ➢ Sub-Objectives: • To identify the intention of Afghan scholars leaving for India for higher studies. • To find out which specific abilities do scholars pose in their respective field in addition, how good are they in those abilities. • To find out the relationship between scholars’ interest and their current field of study. • To identify and analyze the reason(s) and factor(s) behind students’ failure in examination. 1.4 RESEARCH CONTEXT: India is one of the leading countries providing hundreds of scholarships each year to Afghanistan government, however, in this context many has achieved excellence in their fields and became a pride for the country. In contrast, students who have been granted scholarships not on merit base but based on either endorsement from
- 16. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 4 parliament members or sprawled corruption; actually, haven’t been able to pass even their examination and are frequently failing their tests. Nevertheless, students who don’t have proper understanding of English neither Hindi language are given scholarship which has led to massive impact as we are studying now. Prior to the selection of stream, most of the scholars are confused which stream to study abroad and subsequently, they change their minds and change their interest after getting into their granted fields. The reason is obvious; but, yet, needs more clarification and proof with statistical analysis and a perfect study, to identify what has happened to the scholars from the scholarship. 1.5 SCHOLARSHIP GRANTING POLICY OF AFGHANISTAN: Every year many scholarships are been given to Afghanistan from most of the developing and advanced countries including India, Turkey, China, Malaysia, Japan, Russia, USA and European countries in various fields. Indian government announced 1,000 scholarships for Afghan students each year until the end of 2020.2 ICCR annually offers about 3,365 scholarships under 24 scholarship schemes to students from different parts of the world, especially from developing countries in Asia, Africa, South and Central America. However, of these scholarships, 1000 are exclusively for students from Afghanistan. The ICCR scholarship scheme for Afghanistan was launched in 2005 during the government of Hamid Karzai, following PM’s visit to Afghanistan in August 2005, 500 scholarships have been awarded under SSSAN.3 Scholarships granted for afghan students are in the following categories: 2 Source: http://eoi.gov.in/kabul/?0359?000 3 Source: http://eoi.gov.in/kabul/?0359?000
- 17. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 5 i. Scholarship for the students of universities with high marks. ii. Scholarships for NGOs and government corporations’ employees. iii. Scholarship which are granted by the embassy or councils by way of taking exam from students. In this category scholarships are distributed amongst members of parliament and thereafter, the parliament members grant scholarships either to their relatives or someone they know mostly form insecure areas with the intention to pursue their higher study abroad. iv. Scholarship for those students who have scored highest marks in Kankor4 . From the above categories students are examined and selected for scholarships. Nevertheless, students getting highest percentage at university and students who are passing Kankor examination with highest marks are given first priority for scholarships. 4 Kankor; an entrance examination, where students who graduate from high school have to appear this examination; those who pass and score well can get into government universities and those who fail can either join private universities or attempt the same next year.
- 18. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 6 1.5.1 A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN COUNCIL FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS (ICCR): Founded by: Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) Founded in: 1950 • The Objects of the Council The Objects of the Council as defined in the Memorandum of Association are: To participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programs relating to India's external cultural relations; To foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries; To promote cultural exchange with other countries and peoples; To establish and develop relations with national and inter-national Organization in the field of culture; To take such measures as may be required to further these objectives 1.5.2 STUDENT AND SCHOLARSHIPS OF ICCR: 1.5.2.a GENERAL SCHOLARSHIPS SCHEME—GSS: The General Scholarship Scheme (GSS) is one of the most important and popular schemes of the ICCR for foreign students. Scholarships are awarded under this scheme annually to international students belonging to certain Asian, African and Latin American countries for the undergraduate, postgraduate degrees and for pursuing research at Indian universities. However, scholarships for medical studies for MBBS, BDS or for medical research leading to a Ph.D degree are not offered under the GSS scheme.5 5 Source: http://www.iccr.gov.in/content/general-scholarships-scheme-gss
- 19. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 7 The General Scholarship Scheme (GSS) is one of the most important popular schemes of the ICCR for foreign students. 499 scholarships are offered annually to nationals of developing and non-developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Scholarships for medical studies such as MBBS, BDS or for medical research leading to Ph.D. degrees are not offered under GSS. (Please note: This scheme was earlier known as General Cultural Scholarship Scheme GCSS). Under this scheme we are offering UG, PG, B.Tech. M.Phil., Ph.D. & Post-Doctoral Courses. 1.5.3 POLICY GUIDELINES ON SCHOLARSHIP ADMINISTERED BY ICCR: (Guidelines for Missions6 ) 1.5.3.a COLLECTION AND FILLING OF APPLICATIONS: Mission should either invite nominations directly through advertisement or through notices put up in its diplomatic premises. ICCR will not entertain applications sent to it directly by the candidates or by local Embassies/ High Commission in New Delhi. In case of nominations by the local government/ dignitary, such cases may be duly examined by the Education officer and forwarded with Ambassador’s approval. Applications should be complete in every detail, and Mission should carefully scrutinize applications prior to forwarding them. Applications which are incomplete in any way will not be considered. Certified copies of translations of documents which are not in English should be attached with the original documents. 6 Source: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:pD- 8NyLH5x8J:iccr.gov.in/sites/default/files/GuidelinesScholarship.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk &gl=in
- 20. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 8 The syllabus for the qualifying examination should be enclosed with the application. Students applying for doctoral/post-doctoral courses or Architecture should include a synopsis of the proposed area of research. Students wishing to study performing arts should enclose Video/Audio cassettes of their recorded performances wherever possible. 1.5.3.b COUNSELLING CANDIDATES ON SELECTION OF SUBJECTS, COURSES AND UNIVERSITIES: Candidates may clearly mention the course and university to which he/she is seeking admission while mentioning choices. Priority may be given to candidates applying for higher studies (Post Graduate, M.Phil and PhD courses) and those who have never studied in India before. Applications for Casual Research will not be entertained. ICCR is not responsible for admissions to MBBS/BDS courses, therefore no candidate applying for ICCR scholarship may be recommended for MBBS/BDS and courses. Please note for science courses the expenditure on laboratory chemicals and other related incidental charges will have to be borne by the students themselves. 1.5.3.d CONFIRMATION OF ADMISSION: Candidates should be well apprised of the fact that, forwarding applications from Mission to ICCR Head Quarters in Delhi and from ICCR Head Quarters to the Universities (through its regional offices) does not ensure admission. Indian Universities/ Educational institutions are autonomous and independent bodies and have their own eligibility criteria on the basis of which they confirm admissions. Mission or ICCR has no role in ascertaining eligibility of the applicant.
- 21. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 9 ICCR forwards each application received from the Missions to all the three universities as indicated by the applicant so that admission is ensured at least in one of them. Confirmation of admission received from the first responding University is conveyed to the Mission. There are times when none of the three Universities opted by the candidate find the candidate suitable for the course. OR there are times when the subjects studied in school and courses opted by the candidate do not match. In both such cases the Universities do not confirm the eligibility of the candidate. Due to the growing demand/ requests from local Missions/candidate’s desire/ Mission’s expectations, in such cases ICCR forwards applications to other Universities which do not figure in candidate’s choice but offer same courses, only to ensure admissions for as many applicants as possible. Admission awarded by University in respect of a particular student is not transferable. 1.5.3.e ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY: Since medium of course is English language in all the Universities in India, nominated candidates should have good knowledge of English to the extent that they are able to fluently speak in English and comprehend lessons in English without any difficulty. 1.5.3.f CHANGE OF SUBJECT, COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY: ICCR, as a policy does not permit mid-term changes of Courses, College or University (with the exceptions such as medical emergency and the like). Reasons for such a policy are multifold, most important being (i) difficulty in transferring of credits, (ii) unwillingness of Universities and Colleges to accept students in the
- 22. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 10 same year, resulting into loss of year, (iii) difficulty for foreign students to adjust from one set of culture (of city / State) to another (iv) repatriation of students if they fail to adjust, (v) all the above leading to additional financial implication on ICCR. Education officers of Missions are requested to adequately brief the candidates on ICCR’s policy on mid-term changes of Subjects, Colleges or Universities in advance and therefore to select the subjects, courses and opt for University carefully at the time of filing applications. Candidates may be briefed that each mid-term change would be followed by financial implication, which the candidates would have to bear themselves. Candidates are required to give an undertaking for this in the prescribed format. 1.5.3.g MEDICAL FITNESS: Mission must ensure medical fitness of applicant. Applicant should produce Medical fitness certificate from the recognized hospital. Care should be taken to ensure that student is not suffering from T.B., Cancer, AIDS, and ailments affecting vital organs or is in a family way. ICCR bears cost for medical treatment for minor ailments and as per CGHS norms and in CGHS empaneled hospitals. If a student is hospitalized in India for a period of one month or longer, the student’s living allowance will be reduced by 50%. If any of the ailments mentioned in point f (i) calling for long duration-treatment and long absence from college, is discovered after seeking admission, student would be repatriated for his/her treatment back home, as long absence from college results into losses to both the student and the institute.
- 23. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 11 1.5.3.h ACCOMMODATION IN INDIA: Students admitted in various Colleges in India are mandatorily required to stay in hostel throughout the duration of their course. Candidates are required to give an undertaking to this effect. In case of hostel accommodation, ICCR will only pay hostel fees and not mess charges or security deposits/ caution money. Private accommodation may be allowed only when hostel facility is not available with a college recommended by the University but has good educational facilities. OR In case of private accommodation, HRA would be released to the students only on production of genuine residential address and rent agreement. Unilateral decision taken by a student to move out of hostel accommodation, without seeking prior permission would result into ICCR not paying for accommodation. In such a situation, the student would bear expenses for his/her stay and accommodation. 1.5.3.i ISSUING OF VISAS AND TICKETS: Mission should issue appropriate visa only when the Council communicates confirmation of admission. Students for structured under-graduate and postgraduate courses should be issued Student Visas. As per rules of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, all students seeking admission to M.Phil. And higher degree courses should be issued Research Visas and not Student Visas. Please note, as per Ministry of Home Affairs/Government of India guidelines stipulates that if a student arrives without a proper visa, even if his/her admission
- 24. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 12 has been confirmed, he/she will be deported to his/her country for the required change in visas. One-way tickets should be purchased only for those students who have been accepted under schemes which provide airfares. Missions may inform Scholarship section at ICCR HQ and concerned Regional Office about the travel schedule of students well in advance so that ICCR can make necessary arrangements for receiving the students. 1.5.3.j BRIEFING BEFORE SENDING THE SELECTED STUDENTS: Students may be adequately briefed by Mission on living conditions and culture and social set-up in India. Students should be advised to carry at least Rs. 50,000/- with them to meet incidental expenditure on arrival. 1.5.4 SCHOLARSHIPS ADMINISTERED BY ICCR: 1.5.4.a INSTRUCTIONS TO APPLICANTS: Applicants must go through these guidelines / instructions carefully and fill the applications accordingly. ICCR accepts applications only through Indian Missions overseas. Candidates are advised to apply through the Indian missions in their respective countries. No application may be sent directly to ICCR or through their country’s Embassies/High Commissions in New Delhi. Applicants are required to give three choices for the Universities they wish to have admissions in. However, in case the candidates are not accepted by any of the three Universities of their choices, they may clearly mention whether OR not would they wish to be considered for admission in the Universities/Institutions apart from the
- 25. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 13 three choices. ICCR would forward applications of only such candidates to other Universities offering similar courses as desired by the candidate, who express willingness in the application to be considered for admissions in other Universities, in other cities of India. Applications of candidates NOT wanting to be considered in other Universities than their three options would be returned. ICCR is not responsible for admissions in Medicine, Dentist or Nursing courses. No application may be therefore sent for MBBS/MD, Dentistry or Nursing courses The students who are awarded scholarships should bring with them all original documents relating to their qualification in original for verification by the respective college/university at the time of admission. For driving in India, students must have a valid International Driving License to drive in India. In case of accident, if student is driving a vehicle without International Driving License his/her medical claim will not be entertained. Scholarship will be cancelled if the student fails repeatedly or is involved in exam malpractices / anti-social / criminal activities or is found violating the terms and conditions of ICCR scholarships. Upon arrival in India all students should register themselves with local FRRO within 7 /14 days or within the stipulated time as directed by the Indian High Commission/Embassy concerned while issuing visa. After registration, students are required to obtain Resident Permit within 90 days.
- 26. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 14 1.5.4.b FINANCIAL TERMS & CONDITIONS AND OTHER NORMS: Amount of payments made under scholarships are given below: Table 1. 1: Living Allowance (Stipend) per month. 1. Undergraduate 5,500 2. Postgraduate 6,000 3. M.Phil. / Ph.D. 7,000 4. Post-doctoral Fellow 7,500 Table 1. 2: House Rent Allowance In Grade 1 cities 5,000 In other cities 4,500 Table 1. 3: Contingent Grant (Per Annum) 1. Undergraduate 5,000 2. Postgraduate 7,000 3. M.Phil., Ph.D. & M.Tech./ ME 12,500 4. Post – Doctoral Studies 15,500 5. Thesis and Dissertation Expenses (Once in Entire Duration of Course) Ph.D. Scholar 10,000 6. For Bachelor courses required submission of Project should be duly certified by Head of Department. 7,000 Table 1. 4: Courses Offered to Scholars Under Graduate Post Graduate Bachelor of Arts Master of Arts Bachelor of Science Master of Science Bachelor of Commerce Master of Commerce
- 27. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 15 Ph.D. in non-controversial subjects such as Finance, Economics, Education, Agriculture, Pol. Sc. etc. The above information has been gathered from various official and unofficial sites for the purpose to shed a light on the various aspects of the scholarship and make the readers familiar with the actual scheme and procedures as we will have to then comment on each of their proceedings being mentioned earlier in this section. Kindly, refer to the bibliography section of this paper to get more details of the scholarship scheme as for your convenience, we have cited all the data sources.
- 28. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 16 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW revious chapter of introduction has elaborated the research context and stated the objectives of the study. Nevertheless, it described the authentic scheme of ICCR scholarship. This chapter will shed a light on the theoretical background, literature and previous studies being conducted on the Year Title Author(s), Editor(s) Objective(s) of the Study Variables of the Study Findings of the Study 2012 International Students’ Adjustment Problems and Behaviors Jerry G. Gebhardd, EdD Intended to study the adjustment problems that international students have while they study in university in the United States, as well as the adjustment behavior they use while faced with these problems. Academic Problems The findings probed that the main determinant problems that international students faced were difficulties in (1) academics including academic reading as a major one, academic language problems, (2) Difficulties in social interaction and (3) Difficulties in handling emotions. 2018 Exploring the relationship among international students’ English self- efficacy, using English to learn self- efficacy, and academic self-efficacy Chih- hsuan Wang, Jamie Harrison, Victoria Cardullo, & Xi Lin To examine the relationships among three aspects of self- efficacy: English self-efficacy, self- efficacy in using English to learn and academic self- efficacy for non- English native speaking international students. English Self- Efficacy for Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing, English Self- Efficacy, using English to Learn Self- Efficacy and Academic The study probed that non-native English speaking international students’ use of English to learn self-efficacy acts as a mediator between a students’ English self-efficacy and his or her academic self- efficacy. Non- native English language speaking international students’ English P
- 29. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 17 Self- Efficacy. self-efficacy predicts their self-efficacy in using English language to learn, and then predicts their academics their academic self-efficacy.
- 30. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 18 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY revious chapter of introduction has elaborated the research context and stated the aims and objectives of the study. Nevertheless, it described the authentic scheme of ICCR scholarship This chapter will shed a light on the methods, approaches and systematic steps taken to conduct this study and to explain the statistical approaches for testing the research hypothesis. 3.1 RESEARCH APPROACH: The research study is based on mixed methods. As John has stated that “mixed methods research is an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms (Creswell, 2011). The qualitative research has been used as to build a deep in-depth knowledge of the research problems, whereas quantitative approach has been used in order to conduct the empirical study based on the findings of qualitative research. Various factors have been identified and proved or disproved with statistical analysis. 3.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS: We preferred to use collective questionnaire method, where, we have physically approached to all the respondents, whom we considered them as best respondents for our study. 3.3 STUDY DESIGN: The study is an explanatory research, where, it describes an attempt to connect different ideas and to understand the different reasons, causes and their effects.7 7 Source: http://www.t4tutorials.com (What Is Explanatory Research? Research Methodology) P
- 31. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 19 We have attempted to describe the phenomena and cause effect of the same; and eventually, came with fruitful relevant conclusions and suggestions based on our findings. 3.4 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES: The research study is based on collection of both primary as stated by Sarangi “primary data are collected for the first time and are generally accepted as original data” (Sarangi, 2010) and secondary data also known as published data. The secondary data has been gathered from various official government web pages and many online articles. Whilst, primary data for testing the hypotheses and analysis has been gathered through distributing of questionnaire (collective). Nonetheless, the group has sought opinions from each of the members to decide who should participate in light of inclusion criteria. The potential respondents have been individually contacted. Nevertheless, we have focused more on primary data as for improved analysis. Background, open-ended, multiple choice and dichotomous types of questions were framed in the questionnaire. 3.5 SAMPLING DESIGN: Sarangi stated that, “a sampling design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population” (Sarangi, 2010, p. 75). It includes the techniques, procedure, sampling unit and sample size of a study. 3.5.1 SAMPLING UNIT: The study has been carried out on Afghan scholars studying in Gujarat’s Universities. 3.5.2 SAMPLING FRAME: We have attempted to include only bachelors’ degree pursuers, predominantly, from three foremost streams viz., arts, science and commerce as a sampling frame also
- 32. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 20 called “source list” (Sarangi, 2010, p. 75), including scholars from Bachelors in Business Administration (B.B.A), Bachelors in Arts (B.A), Bachelors in Engineering (B.E) and Bachelors in Computer Application (B.C.A). 3.5.3 SAMPLING SIZE: A sample size of 150 Scholars, 136 males (M=1) and 14 females (M=2) have been kept under study from a population of around 530 Afghani scholars in Gujarat. 3.5.4 SAMPLING AREA: Few major cities of Gujarat state have been taken into survey, where we observed students galore, viz. Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surat, Anand, Vasad, Vadodara, Rajkot. 3.5.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE/PROCEDURE: The selection of respondents was a tough break though, it has been done through judgmental sampling as for the constraints of time and resources. We have approached to only those scholars, which were appropriate for the study. 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE: (DESCRIPTIVE & INFERENTIAL): To analyze the collected data, we have approached using SPSS8 for both inferential statistics viz., testing hypothesis and coding the questionnaire numbers into data sheets. The questionnaire has been coded into the data sheets by assigning each answer a numeric value. 8 Statistical Package for Social Science
- 33. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 21 3.7 MEASUREMENTS USED: 3.7.1 SCALING: As Kothari has stated that “Scaling describes the procedures of assigning numbers to various degree of opinion, attitude and other concepts” (2004, p. 76). This can be done in two ways: 1. Making a judgment about some characteristics of an individual and then placing him directly on a scale that has been defined in terms of that characteristic and 2. Constructing questionnaire in such a way that the score of the individual’s responses assigns him a place on scale. (Kothari, 2004). 3.7.2 RATING SCALE: Singh has defined rating scale in his book “Fundamental of Research Methodology and Statistics” as “rating is the item applied to the expression of opinion or judgment regarding some situations, object, persons etc. (Singh, 2006, p. 202). These opinions are usually expressed on a scale or by categories of values, either quantitatively or qualitatively. We have assessed scholars’ abilities in their respective fields using a rating scale of 5 points, 5 being the highest positive. A Likert scale of 5 has been used, where 1 is used as the lowest value and is assigned to the lowest or worst option, whereas 5 is the highest value being assigned to the highest or best option e.g. Strongly Satisfied = 5, Somewhat satisfied = 4, Neutral = 3, Somewhat Dissatisfied =2 and Strongly Dissatisfied= 1. After defining the variables and options the responses have been entered into the data sheet of SPSS in order to test hypothesis and to find out the correlation among variables.
- 34. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 22 3.8 OPERATIONALIZATION OF RESEARCH CONCEPTS: Table 3. 1: Operationalization of Research Concepts: No. Concepts Indicators Variables Decision Level 1. Academic Achievements Academic Performance Certificates Ranks Awards Field Respective Within top 50 Academic 2. Average Exam Result Classes Average Exam Result Pass (regardless of ATKTs) Second Class First Class Distinction 3. Interest in Subjects Academic Subjects - Thirteen major Subjects Academic Respective Abilities: Scholars from each field pose certain and unique epidemic skills, which would be a laborious task for one to come up with a judgmental analysis on choosing common skills for all the three streams. Hence, prior to the selection of academic respective abilities/skills which a scholar poses in each field of study viz. BBA, BCA, BA and B.E; we preferred seeking opinions from both experts; who had experience in aforementioned fields and those who were toppers and high achievers. In a nut shell, engineers, professors, business owners and highly qualified students from above-mentioned fields were contacted to contribute their part in the light of inclusion of certain skills in our research study, eventually, we ended up selecting eleven epidemic skills for each field to judge scholars.
- 35. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 23 Table 3. 2: Academic respective abilities of BA, BBA, BCA and BE 3.9 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS: Dr. Chawla and Dr. Neena defines descriptive analysis as “descriptive analysis refers to transformation of raw data into a form that will facilitate easy understanding and interpretation (Chawla & Sondhi, 2011, p. 272). We have approached using bivariate analysis, which examines the relationship between two variables. There are three types of measures used for carrying out bivariate analysis, these are: a) Cross tabulation b) Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient c) Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient BBA BA BCA BE Skills Accounts Interpersonal and Soft Skills Fundamentals of Computer Physics Interpersonal and Soft Skills Reading and Writing Skills Internet and HTML Mathematics & Calculus Business Plan Analytical Skills C Programing Languages Field Respective Knowledge Financial Aptitude Research Skills Object Oriented Programming using C++ Operation Research & Optimization Techniques Financial Planning Data Analysis Skills Java ERP Awareness about the Global Economy Presentation Skills Analysis and Designing Communication Skills Number Aptitude Cultural and Civic Skills Visual Basic Aptitude Skills Business Statistics Critical Thinking DBMS. Advance Technical `Problem- Solving Skills Overall Management Awareness about Political issues Data Communication and Networking Creativity Business Mathematics Awareness about Global Economy PHP Ability to Memorize Leadership Qualities Economics Mobile Apps Development Ability to Ask Whys
- 36. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 24 However, for testing our hypothesis we have used, Chi Square & Cross Tabulation, Spearman’s (rho) correlation Coefficient and Mann-Whitney U test. 3.9.1 CHI SQUARE ASSUMPTION: Chi square is used for finding significant relations. (Gupta & Gupta, SPSS 17.0 for Researchers, 2011) It is used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. This test can also be used to make comparisons between theoretical populations and actual data when categories are used. There are two popular types of Chi square tests. ➢ Chi square test for goodness of fit – analysis of single categorical variable. The Chi square is used to find the bias of respondents regarding various related factors. ➢ Chi square test for independent or relatedness – analysis of relationship between two categorical variables. Note: We can also test homogeneity or the significance of population variance through Chi square test. The Chi square test in non-parametric test which assumes that the data analyzed: 1 Consist of nominal or ordinal category variables (i.e. each case can only be in one category or another). 2 Consist of entire populations or be randomly sampled from the population. 3 No data point should be zero. 4 80% of the expected frequencies should be 5 or more. However, the observed frequencies can be any value, including zero Chi square result analysis: If significance value is less than 0.05, reject null hypothesis at 95% level of significance.
- 37. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 25 Note: In case, you want to test for 99% level of confidence, as in most cases of medicine or emergency or sensitive product, if significance value is less than 0.01, reject null hypothesis. 3.9.2 SPEARMAN’S CORRELATION ASSUMPTIONS9 : When you choose to analyze your data using Spearman’s correlation, part of the process involves checking to make sure that the data you want to analyze can actually be analyzed using a Spearman’s correlation. You need to do this because it is only appropriate to use a Spearman’s correlation if your data "passes" two assumptions that are required for Spearman’s correlation to give you a valid result. In practice, checking for these two assumptions just adds a little bit more time to your analysis, requiring you to click of few more buttons in SPSS Statistics when performing your analysis, as well as think a little bit more about your data, but it is not a difficult task. These two assumptions are: Assumption 1: Your two variables should be measured on an ordinal, interval or ratio scale. Assumption 2: There is a monotonic relationship between the two variables. A monotonic relationship exists when either the variables increase in value together, or as one variable value increases, the other variable value decreases. Furthermore, Cronbach’s alpha reliability analysis test has been applied to check whether the scale used is reliable or not. A normality test of Kolmogorov Smirnov has been applied for testing whether the sample is normally distributed or does it violate the assumption of normality. 9 https://www.statistics.laerd.com/
- 38. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 26 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS revious chapter provided sufficient information regarding the basic tools to be used in a research study. This chapter will cover the overview to the theoretical aspects of framed hypothesis, presenting of data in the form of tables and charts describing the frequencies, correlations, test of normality, test of reliability and the framed hypothesis has been tested followed by decisions. 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND FREQUENCY TABLES WITH BAR CHARTS: 4.1.1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS: Table 4. 1: Descriptive Statistics for the Variables Statistics Gender Age Current Field of Studying How Did You Receive Scholarship? In Which Field Are You Interested In? N Valid 150 150 150 150 150 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 1.09 1.76 1.93 2.86 2.37 Std. Error of Mean .024 .039 .088 .096 .051 Median 1.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 2.00 Std. Deviation .292 .473 1.072 1.182 .619 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 Source: SPSS Descriptive Statistics for the Variables P
- 39. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 27 Table 4. 2: Descriptive Statistics for the Variables Overall, How Good Are You in English? Major Reason for Leaving Afghanistan Plan for Future Whether You Were Previously Studying in University in Afghanistan? Will You Stay Here in India, After your Graduation? N Valid 150 150 150 150 150 Missing 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 2.43 1.84 3.34 3.01 1.98 Std. Error of Mean .085 .117 .151 .090 .127 Median 2.00 1.00 4.00 3.00 1.00 Std. Deviation 1.045 1.433 1.849 1.099 1.556 Minimum 1 1 1 1 1 Maximum 6 7 6 4 7 4.1.2 FREQUNCY TABLES AND BAR CHARTS: 1. Age: Frequency Percent Valid 16-20 39 26.0 21-25 108 72.0 26-30 3 2.0 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 3: Scholars’ Age Frequency Figure 4. 1: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Age
- 40. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 28 2. Gender Table 4. 4: Scholars’ Gender Frequency Figure 4. 2: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Gender 3. Scholars’ Current Field of Study Frequency Percent Valid BE 79 52.7 BCA 14 9.3 BBA 45 30.0 BA 12 8.0 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 5: Scholars’ Current Field of Study Figure 4. 3: Scholars’ Current Field of Study 4. Sources from which Scholars were sent: Frequen cy Percen t Valid University 37 24.7 NGO/ Any Government Corporation 5 3.3 Based on Kankor 50 33.3 Directly Exam Taken by Embassy/Counsel 58 38.7 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 6: Receipt of Scholarship Frequency Figure 4. 4: Bar Chart for Receipt Scholarship Frequency Percent Valid Male 136 90.7 Female 14 9.3 Total 150 100.0
- 41. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 29 5. Scholars’ Overall, Knowledge of English: Frequency Percent ValidBeginner 30 20.0 Elementary 54 36.0 Pre-Intermediate 42 28.0 Intermediate 21 14.0 Upper-Intermediate 2 1.3 Advance 1 .7 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 7: Scholars’ Level of English Frequency Figure 4. 5: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Level of English 6. Major Reasons for which Scholars left Afghanistan: Frequency Percent Valid Better Education 100 66.7 Political Instability 11 7.3 Family Pressure 19 12.7 Pressure from University 12 8.0 Job Opportunity 3 2.0 Enjoyment 1 .7 Not Certain 4 2.7 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 8: Reasons of Leaving Afghanistan Figure 4. 6: Bar Chart for Reasons of Leaving Afghanistan
- 42. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 30 7. Scholars’ Previous Stream of Study Frequency Percent ValidNo 26 17.3 Art 11 7.3 Commerce 48 32.0 Science 65 43.3 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 9: Scholars’ Previous Stream of Study Figure 4. 7: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Previous Stream of Study 8. Scholars’ Plans for Staying in India Frequency Percent ValidNo 86 57.3 Political Instability 30 20.0 Not Certain 15 10.0 Better Quality of Life 3 2.0 Job Opportunity 5 3.3 Self-Development 8 5.3 Better Education 3 2.0 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 10: Frequency of Scholars’ Plans Figure 4. 8: Bar Chart for Scholars’ Plans for Staying in India 9. Scholars' Plan for their Future: Frequency Percent ValidWhite Collar Job 39 26.0 Start My Own Business 27 18.0 Software Developer 8 5.3 Academician 10 6.7 Not Certain 52 34.7 Further Studies 14 9.3 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 11: Frequency Scholars’ Plan for Future Figure 4. 9: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Plan for Future
- 43. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 31 10. In Which Field Are You Interested In: Frequency Percent Valid Arts 11 7.3 Commerce 72 48.0 Science 67 44.7 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 12: Frequency of Scholars’ Field of Interest Figure 4. 10: Bar Chart of Scholars’ Field of Interest 11. Academic Achievements: Scholars from four fields viz., BBA, BA, BCA and BE were asked to state their academic respective achievements, including certificates, ranks (in top 50s) and awards. We came across scholars who had multiple achievements viz., ranks, awards and certificates; awards and ranks; awards and certificates, hence we termed them as “Extraordinary Achievements”. Table 4. 13: Statistics for Academic Achievements of Scholars N Valid 150 Missing 0 Mean 1.35 Median 1.00 Std. Deviation .883 Figure 4. 11: Bar chart of academic achievements of scholars Table 4. 14: Frequency of academic achievements of scholars Attributes FrequencyPercent Valid None 120 80.0 Only Certificate(s) 20 13.3 Only Rank(s) 2 1.3 Rank(s) and Certificate(s) 3 2.0 Extraordinary Achievements 5 3.3 Total 150 100.0
- 44. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 32 12. Scholars’ Academic Respective Abilities: Table 4. 15: Statistics for Scholars’ Abilities of four fields BBA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities BCA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities BA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities BE Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities N Valid 45 14 12 79 Missing 105 136 138 71 Mean 2.11 2.14 2.33 2.025 Median 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.000 Std. Deviation .859 .770 .778 .7157 Range 3 3 3 4.0 Source: SPSS output Frequency 12.1 BBA (Bachelors of Business Administration): Table 4. 16: Frequency representing BBA’ Abilities Figure 4. 12: Bar Chart representing BBA’ Abilities Frequency Percent Valid Very Poor 9 6.0 Poor 27 18.0 Average 4 2.7 Good 5 3.3 Excellent 0 0 Total 45 30.0 Missing System 105 70.0 Total 150 100.0 9 27 4 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Frequency Scholars' Ability Rating BBA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities Bar Chart
- 45. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 33 12.2 BA (Bachelors of Arts): Table 4. 17: Frequency representing BA’ Abilities Figure 4. 13: Bar Chart representing BA’ Abilities s 12.3: BCA (Bachelors of Computer Application): Frequency Percent Valid Very Poor 2 1.3 Poor 9 6.0 Average 2 1.3 Good 1 .7 Excellent 0 0 Total 14 9.3 Missing System 136 90.7 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 18: Frequency representing BCA’ Abilities Figure 4. 14: Bar Chart representing BCA’ Abilities 12.4: B.E (Engineering Fields: Table 4. 19: Frequency representing BCA’ Abilities Figure 4. 15: Bar Chart representing BCA’ Abilities Frequency Percent Valid Very Poor 1 .7 Poor 7 4.7 Average 3 2.0 Good 1 .7 Excellent 0 0 Total 12 8.0 Missing System 138 92.0 Total 150 100.0 Frequency Percent Valid Very Poor 11 7.3 Poor 62 41.3 Average 0 0 Good 5 3.3 Excellent 1 .7 Total 79 52.7 Missing System 71 47.3 Total 150 100.0 1 7 3 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency Scholars' Ability Rating BA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities Bar Chart 2 9 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Very Poor Poor Average Good Excellent Frequency Scholars' Ability Rating BCA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities Bar Chart 11 62 0 5 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Very Poor Poor Average Good Excellent Frequency Scholars' Ability Rating BA Scholars' Academic Respective Abilities Bar Chart
- 46. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 34 13. Average Scholars’ Academic Abilities: We have assessed scholars’ academic abilities based on eleven specific skills given in Table 2.2. by using Likert Scale and approached finding the median of all four fields’ responds. Frequency Percent Valid Very Poor 23 15.3 Poor 105 70.0 Average 9 6.0 Good 12 8.0 Excellent 1 .7 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 20: Frequency representing All Scholars’ Abilities Figure 4. 16: Bar Chart representing All Scholars’ Abilities 23 105 9 12 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency Scholars' Ability Rating Average Academic Respective Abilities of Scholars Bar Chart
- 47. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 35 4.2 TESTING HYPOTHESIS: 4.2.1 HYPOTHESIS 1: “Scholars’ time allocation for their studies influence their examination results”. Table 4. 21 Scholars’ exam result frequency Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Pass 77 51.3 51.3 Second Class 50 33.3 84.7 First Class 16 10.7 95.3 Distinction 7 4.7 100.0 Total 150 100.0 Table 4. 22: Frequency of time allocation for study Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Valid None 16 10.7 10.7 One Hour 82 54.7 65.3 Two Hours 21 14.0 79.3 Three Hours 24 16.0 95.3 More than Three Hours 7 4.7 100.0 Total 150 100.0 The above two tables indicate the class based average exam results of scholars and the per day time allocation of hours for study. H1= Scholars’ time allocation for their study influences their examination results. Let µ be the relationship between scholars’ time allocation for studying/reading and examination result. Null hypothesis: Scholars’ time allocation for studying/reading has no influence on their examination results, i.e.
- 48. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 36 H0: µ = 0 Alternative hypothesis: Scholars’ time allocation for studying/reading has influence on their examination results, i.e. H1: µ ≠ 0 The alternative hypothesis is in the form of inequality; therefore, a two-tailed test has to be applied. Level of significance ɑ = 0.01, which is ɑ/2 = 0.005 for two-tailed test. Before going for any statistical analysis on any variable, initially, a researcher has to check whether the measurement scales, which have been used to indicate the research variables are reliable or not, hence, we have used Cronbach’s Alpha reliability analysis. CRONBACH’S ALPHA: Table 4. 23: Reliability Statistics Table 4. 24: Item Statistics Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items .840 .850 2 Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group, the above two tables show the reliability analysis for our two research variables viz. level of English and exam results. The test shows a very good result of 0.850 which is more than the average of 0.7 suggesting that the measures used for the variables are reliable. The differences between the Scholars’ time allocation for studying/reading and examination results are not normally distributed and a relationship has to be found. Mean Std. Deviation N Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters 1.69 .845 150 How much time have you allotted for study? 2.49 1.035 150
- 49. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 37 Table 4. 25: Normality Test How much time have you allotted for study? Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig. Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters None . 16 . . 16 . One Hour .404 82 .000 .643 82 .000 Two Hours .241 21 .003 .803 21 .001 Three Hours .299 24 .000 .812 24 .000 More than Three Hours .504 7 .000 .453 7 .000 a. Lilliefors Significance Correction As from the above histogram and table representing the significance level of all the variables being below 0.05 which is 0.000 (0.0005) suggesting the violation of assumption of normality, means that the distribution is non-normal. However, it further points out to use non-parametric tests for the analysis. However, there seems a variation from other significance values in case of one variable (Two Hours) 0.003 which is yet again below 0.005. Figure 4. 17: Kolmogorov Smirnov Normality test summary
- 50. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 38 A Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rho) test has been used to find out the relationship and correlation coefficient amongst hypothesized variables, as both the variables were ordinal. The values of each of the variables are assigned ranks from smallest to largest. Table 4. 26: Spearman’s rho Correlations Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters How much time have you allotted for study? Spearman's rho Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .658** Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 N 150 150 How much time have you allotted for study? Correlation Coefficient .658** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . N 150 150 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters * How much time have you allotted for study? Cross tabulation % within Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters How much time have you allotted for study? TotalNone One Hour Two Hours Three Hours More than Three Hours Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters Pass 20.8% 67.5% 10.4% 1.3% 100.0% Second Class 58.0% 18.0% 24.0% 100.0% First Class 6.3% 25.0% 62.5% 6.3% 100.0% Distinction 14.3% 85.7% 100.0% Total 10.7% 54.7% 14.0% 16.0% 4.7% 100.0% Table 4. 27: Exam result and time allocation crosstab From the above statistics, charts and tables, we can state that, scholars who have contributed most of their time to study were more likely to get first class and distinction, in contrast those who haven’t allotted any time either, were more likely to drug into the
- 51. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 39 mud of failure. 20.80% of those who had not contributed their time for study were having only pass results followed by 1 to more than 15 backlogs. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: The relationship between the time allotted for study and exam results was investigated using the Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient (ρ). The ρ value in the table is ρ=0.000 (which is 0.0005) is quite less than the level of significance i.e. α=0.05 on each side of the distribution. As such there is statistically significance that exists between the variables. Moreover, there exist a strong positive relationship i.e. rs=0.658 between the time allocation and exam results as shown in the above table. However, there seems to be more strong correlation in Pearson’s R ρ=0.739 but we are not taking into consideration that value. Therefore, it leads us to conclude that above statistics provide sufficient evidence to support the relationship between the exam results and time allocation for study. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and we are able to accept the alternative hypothesis, that there is influence of time allocation for studying/reading on students’ exam results. Figure 4. 18: Bar Chart of exam result and time allocation for study
- 52. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 40 4.2.2 HYPOTHESIS 2: There is significant difference between scholars’ exam result and the interest in their current field of study. Let µ be the relationship between scholars’ interest and examination result. Null hypothesis: Exam result is independent of interest in current field (exam result and interest are not related), i.e. H0: µ = 0 Alternative hypothesis: Examination result is not independent of interest in current field (exam result and interest are related), i.e. H1: µ ≠ 0 The alternative hypothesis is in the form of inequality; therefore, a two-tailed test has to be applied. Level of significance ɑ = 0.01, which is ɑ/2 = 0.005 for two-tailed test. Table 4. 28: Tests of Normality Whether you are interested in your current field of study? Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic Df Sig. Statistic df Sig. Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters No .388 67 .000 .655 67 .000 Yes .243 83 .000 .818 83 .000 a. Lilliefors Significance Correction As the significance level of all the variables is below 0.05 which is 0.000 but more than 0 suggesting the violation of assumption of normality, means that the distribution is non- normal. However, it further points out to use non-parametric tests for the analysis. The difference between the interest and examination results are not normally distributed and a relationship has to be found.
- 53. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 41 Figure 4. 19: Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test As the data set of variables kept under study were both ordinal and nominal, hence, we preferred using cross tab Chi square test with post hoc analysis. Cross tabulation, Chi square with Post Hoc Test: Table 4. 29: Cross tabulation for interest in current field and exam result Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters TotalPass Second Class First Class Distinction Whether you are interested in your current field of study? No Count 43.00 21.00 2.00 1.00 67.00 Expected Count 34.39 22.33 7.15 3.13 67.00 % within Whether you are interested in your current field of study? 64.18 31.34 2.99 1.49 100.00 Adjusted Residual 2.8281 -.4645 -2.7383 -1.6559 Yes Count 34.00 29.00 14.00 6.00 83.00 Expected Count 42.61 27.67 8.85 3.87 83.00 % within Whether you are interested in your current field of study? 40.96 34.94 16.87 7.23 100.00 Adjusted Residual -2.8281 .4645 2.7383 1.6559 Total Count 77 50 16 7 150 Expected Count 77.0 50.0 16.0 7.0 150.0 % within Whether you are interested in your current field of study? 51.3% 33.3% 10.7% 4.7% 100.0% Source: SPSS output cross tab analysis
- 54. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 42 The above table shows the row percentage and the adjusted residual values between each variable. Under the null hypothesis that the 2 variables are independent, the adjusted residuals will have a standard normal distribution, i.e. have a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1. So, an adjusted residual that is more than 1.96 (2.0 is used by convention) indicates that the number of cases in that cell is significantly larger than would be expected if the null hypothesis were true, with a significance level of 0.05. An adjusted residual that is less than -2.0 indicates that the number of cases in that cell is significantly smaller than would be expected if the null hypothesis were true. Agresti has noted that as the degrees of freedom for the chi-square increases (with increasing numbers of rows and/or columns in the cross-tabulation), it will be increasingly likely that at least one of the cells will have a large adjusted standardized residual by chance alone (Agresti, 2002). Refraining from interpreting these residuals when the chi-square test of independence is not significant would be one way of controlling overall Type I error in interpreting the residuals, although Agresti seems to advocate not being overly restricted by the chi-square result in examining the table. The reader is directed to Agresti for a consideration of the issues involved in such interpretations. (To see the adjusted Z values, chi square values and ρ values for each categorical variable, refer to Appendix A 1) BONFERRONI CORRECTION:10 The Bonferroni corrected value for the above statistics is 0.00625 from which we have to compare this value against each cell’s ρ value as given in the above table. 10 The Bonferroni correction is an adjustment made to P values when several dependent or independent statistical tests are being performed simultaneously on a single data set.
- 55. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 43 Table 4. 30: Chi-Square Tests Value Df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 13.349a 3 .004 Likelihood Ratio 14.716 3 .002 Linear-by-Linear Association 12.262 1 .000 N of Valid Cases 150 a. 2 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.13. The table above shows that Chi square value (when reading this table, we are interested in the results of the Pearson Chi-Square row) of 13.349 (df=311, N=150), ρ<0.05 which is 0.004 is significant at 3 degree of freedom, showing that there is significant difference in the observed and expected frequencies. (See Chapter two for chi square assumptions) Table 4. 31: Symmetric Measures Value Asymptotic Standard Errora Approximate Tb Approximate Significance Nominal by Nominal Phi .298 .004 Cramer's V .298 .004 Interval by Interval Pearson's R .287 .069 3.643 .000c Ordinal by Ordinal Spearman Correlation .276 .075 3.497 .001c N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation. The above table shows the Symmetric Measures for, nominal by nominal, ordinal by ordinal and Interval by Interval values. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: The relationship between the exam results and interest was investigated using chi square and cross tabulation analysis. Table 3.24 shows the chi square result at 0.05 11 df= (R-1)*(C-1) = (2-1)*(4-1) = 3
- 56. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 44 level of significant, α=0.004 suggesting that the test is significant and the variables are not independent. It may, however, be noted that there exists a positive correlation taking into consideration the ordinal by ordinal case, Spearman’s rho correlation value being rs =0.276 which shows a positive correlation amongst the variables with significant value ρ<0.05 which is quite good at 0.001. As such it provides sufficient evidence to support that the null hypothesis has to be rejected and accept the alternative hypothesis that exam results are dependent on interest in current field of study. The chi-square suggests that both interest and exam results are dependent and related. Figure 4. 20: Bar Chart for interest in current field and exam result
- 57. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 45 4.2.3 HYPOTHESIS 3: Scholars’ interest in streams and their current field of study are not independent (are related). Let µ be the relationship between scholars’ interested stream and scholars’ current field of study. Null hypothesis: Scholars’ interest in streams and their current field of study are independent (not related)., i.e. H0: µ = 0 Alternative hypothesis: Scholars’ interest in streams and their current field of study are not independent (are related)., i.e. H1: µ ≠ 0 The alternative hypothesis is in the form of inequality; therefore, a two-tailed test has to be applied. Level of significance ɑ = 0.01, which is ɑ/2 = 0.005 for two-tailed test. The differences between the Scholars’ interested stream and their current field of study are not normally distributed and a relationship has to be found.
- 58. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 46 Table 4. 32: Crosstabulation of current field of study and filed of interest In Which Field Are You Interested In? TotalArts Commerce Science Current Field of Study BE Count 1 35 43 79 Expected Count 5.8 37.9 35.3 79.0 % within Current Field of Studying 1.3% 44.3% 54.4% 100.0% Adjusted Residual -3.0 -1.0 2.5 BCA Count 0 6 8 14 Expected Count 1.0 6.7 6.3 14.0 % within Current Field of Studying 0.0% 42.9% 57.1% 100.0% Adjusted Residual -1.1 -.4 1.0 BBA Count 4 28 13 45 Expected Count 3.3 21.6 20.1 45.0 % within Current Field of Studying 8.9% 62.2% 28.9% 100.0% Adjusted Residual .5 2.3 -2.5 BA Count 6 3 3 12 Expected Count .9 5.8 5.4 12.0 % within Current Field of Studying 50.0% 25.0% 25.0% 100.0% Adjusted Residual 5.9 -1.7 -1.4 Total Count 11 72 67 150 Expected Count 11.0 72.0 67.0 150.0 % within Current Field of Studying 7.3% 48.0% 44.7% 100.0% The above table shows the row percentage the actual counts, the expected counts and the adjusted residual values between each variable. Under the null hypothesis that the 2 variables are independent, the adjusted residuals will have a standard normal distribution, i.e. have a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1. So, an adjusted residual that is more than 1.96 (2.0 is used by convention) indicates that the number of cases in that cell is significantly larger than would be expected if the null hypothesis were true,
- 59. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 47 with a significance level of .05. An adjusted residual that is less than -2.0 indicates that the number of cases in that cell is significantly smaller than would be expected if the null hypothesis were true. (To see the adjusted Z scores, chi squared values and ρ values for each categorical variable refer to Appendix A 2). BONFERRONI CORRECTION: The Bonferroni corrected value for the above statistics is 0.0042 from which we have to compare this value against each cell’s ρ value as given in the above table. Table 4. 33: Chi-Square Tests Value Df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 44.172a 6 .000 Likelihood Ratio 30.841 6 .000 Linear-by-Linear Association 18.945 1 .000 N of Valid Cases 150 a. 3 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .88. The table above shows that Chi square value of 44.172 (df=6, N=150), ρ<0.05 which is 0.0005 is significant at 6 degree of freedom, showing that there is significant difference in the observed and expected frequencies. Table 4. 34: Symmetric Measures Value Asymptotic Standard Errora Approximate Tb Approximate Significance Interval by Interval Pearson's R -.357 .080 -4.643 .000c Ordinal by Ordinal Spearman Correlation -.313 .080 -4.002 .000c N of Valid Cases 150 a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation. The above table shows the Symmetric Measures for, ordinal by ordinal and Interval by Interval values.
- 60. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 48 RESULT AND DISCUSSION: The relationship between the interested stream and current field of study was investigated using chi square and cross tabulation analysis. Table 3.27 presents the chi square value and the test results at 0.05 level of significance. The test probed at α=0.0005 suggesting that the test is significant. As such it provides sufficient evidence to support our alternative hypothesis that interest in current field of study and scholars’ current field of study are related, hence, we reject the null hypothesis. It may, however, be noted that there exists a negative correlation taking into consideration the ordinal by ordinal case, Spearman’s rho correlation value being rs =-0.313 which shows a negative correlation amongst the variables with significant value ρ<0.05 which is quite good at 0.0005. Suggesting the variables are not positively correlated, though, dependent. Figure 4. 21: Bar chart for current field of study and interest in fields As from the above crosstab table and bar chart it plainly clarifies that there is a negative correlation amongst the variables being studied, as (44.3%) of B.E students being from a science background shows interest in commerce, which is quite a large proportion of scholars. Nevertheless, in case of BCA (57.1%) showed interest in
- 61. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 49 science stream which is again more than half proportion. Whilst, (28.9%) of BBA scholars had interest in science stream and (25%) of BA scholars showed interest in science and (25%) in commerce.
- 62. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 50 4.2.4 HYPOTHESIS 4: There is significant difference between scholars’ level of English and their academic respective abilities. Let µ be the relationship between scholars’ level of English and scholars’ ability. Null hypothesis: There is no significant difference between scholars’ level of English and their academic respective abilities, i.e. H0: µ = 0 Alternative hypothesis: There is significant difference between scholars’ level of English and their academic respective abilities, i.e. H1: µ ≠ 0 The alternative hypothesis is in the form of inequality; therefore, a two-tailed test has to be applied. Level of significance ɑ = 0.01, which is ɑ/2 = 0.005 for two tailed-test. The differences between the Scholars’ level of English and academic abilities are not normally distributed and a relationship has to be found. Table 4. 35: Case Processing Summary Overall, How Good Are You in English? Cases Valid Missing Total N Percent N Percent N Percent Average Scholars' Ability Beginner 30 100.0% 0 0.0% 30 100.0% Elementary 54 100.0% 0 0.0% 54 100.0% Pre-Intermediate 42 100.0% 0 0.0% 42 100.0% Intermediate 21 100.0% 0 0.0% 21 100.0% Upper-Intermediate 2 100.0% 0 0.0% 2 100.0% Advance 1 100.0% 0 0.0% 1 100.0%
- 63. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 51 Table 4. 36: Tests of Normalityb Overall, How Good Are You in English? Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig. Average Scholars' Ability Beginner .441 30 .000 .619 30 .000 Elementary .344 54 .000 .676 54 .000 Pre-Intermediate .474 42 .000 .530 42 .000 Intermediate .266 21 .000 .872 21 .010 Upper-Intermediate .260 2 . a. Lilliefors Significance Correction b. Average Scholars' Ability is constant when Overall, How Good Are You in English? = Advance. It has been omitted. The above two tables show the normality test of whether the data is normally distributed or not, hence, we have analyzed the data through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The test revealed significance level for the variables which is below 0.05 shows quite a good significant result, suggesting the violation of assumption of normality, means that the distribution is non-normal. Figure 4. 22: Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test In order to test our hypothesis, we have to use a non-parametric test; as both our variables are ordinal by ordinal, hence, we have used Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient test.
- 64. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 52 Table 4. 37: Spearman’s rho Correlations Average Scholars' Ability Overall, How Good Are You in English? Spearman's rho Average Scholars' Ability Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .398** Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 N 150 150 Overall, How Good Are You in English? Correlation Coefficient .398** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . N 150 150 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). RESULT AND DISCUSSION: The relationship between the level of English and scholars’ academic respective abilities was investigated using the Spearman (rho) correlation coefficient (ρ). The ρ value in the table is 0.0005 which is quite less than the level of significance i.e. α=0.05 on each side of the distribution. There is statistically significance that exists between the variables. Moreover, there exist a strong positive relationship i.e. ρ=0.398 between the level of English and scholars’ academic respective abilities as shown in the above table. Therefore, it leads us to conclude that above statistics provide sufficient evidence to support the relationship between the level of English and scholars’ academic respective abilities is significant and there exist a positive correlation coefficient. Hence, we can reject null hypothesis that scholars’ level of English has no influence on their academic abilities and accept the alternative hypothesis. According to our cross tabulate analyses we have found 20% scholars with Beginner level in English had Very Poor academic abilities. Astonishingly, 76.7% scholars who were Beginner level in English were Poor in their academic abilities. Nonetheless, 68.5% who were Poor in their abilities came from Elementary background in English.
- 65. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 53 Figure 4. 23: Bar chart for academic abilities and level of English
- 66. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 54 4.2.5 HYPOTHESIS 5: There is a positive correlation between scholars’ level of English and exam result. Table 4. 38: Tests of Normalityb Overall, How Good Are You in English? Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig. Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters Beginner .528 30 .000 .347 30 .000 Elementary .366 54 .000 .706 54 .000 Pre-Intermediate .234 42 .000 .821 42 .000 Intermediate .292 21 .000 .842 21 .003 Upper-Intermediate .260 2 . a. Lilliefors Significance Correction b. Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters is constant when Overall, How Good Are You in English? = Advance. It has been omitted. As the significance level of all other variables is below 0.05 which is 0.0005 shows quite a good significant result, suggesting the violation of assumption of normality, means that the distribution is non-normal. Figure 4. 24: Histogram chart for normality test
- 67. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 55 Figure 4. 25: Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test Let µ be the relationship between English level and exam results. Null hypothesis: there is no correlation between Scholars’ level of English and exam results, i.e. H0: µ = 0 Alternative hypothesis: there is a correlation between Scholars’ level of English and exam results, i.e. H1: µ ≠ 0 The alternative hypothesis is in the form of inequality; therefore, a two-tailed test has to be applied. Level of significance ɑ = 0.01, which is ɑ/2 = 0.005 for two-tailed test, therefore, a non-parametric correlation between two variables test Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rho) test has to be performed.
- 68. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 56 Table 4. 39: Spearman’s rho Correlations Overall, How Good Are You in English? Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters Spearman's rho Overall, How Good Are You in English? Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .536** Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 N 150 150 Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters Correlation Coefficient .536** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . N 150 150 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). RESULT AND DISCUSSION: The relationship between the English Level and exam results was investigated using the Spearman’s (rho) correlation coefficient (ρ). The ρ value in the table is 0.0005 which is quite less than the level of significance i.e. α=0.05 on each side of the distribution. However, if we look into the two stars right above the value of significance and its interpretation, the SPSS has taken the α=0.01. There is statistically significance that exists between the variables. Moreover, there exist a strong positive relationship i.e. rs=0.536 between the English level and exam results as shown in the above table. Therefore, it leads us to conclude that above statistics provide sufficient evidence to support the relationship between the English level and exam results. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and we are able to accept the alternative hypothesis, that scholars who had great knowledge in English were having more great results, on the contrary, those who had beginner level knowledge were having only passing marks, followed by one to fifteen backlogs.
- 69. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 57 Table 4. 40: Cross tabulation % within Average Exam Result in the Previous Semesters. Overall, How Good Are You in English? Total Beginne r Elementar y Pre- Intermediat e Intermediat e Upper- Intermediat e Advanc e Average Exam Result in the Previous Semester s Pass 35.1% 41.6% 20.8% 2.6% 100.0 % Second Class 6.0% 34.0% 36.0% 20.0% 2.0% 2.0% 100.0 % First Class 31.3% 43.8% 25.0% 100.0 % Distinctio n 14.3% 71.4% 14.3% 100.0 % Total 20.0% 36.0% 28.0% 14.0% 1.3% 0.7% 100.0 % Above statistics and chart clearly enunciates that, those scholars who had great knowledge of English were more likely to have high results than those of who had less knowledge in English. 35.1% and 41.6% having Beginner and Elementary level in English language respectively, acquired only passing marks followed by some backlogs. However, as the percentage of English level increases, there we can see upsurge in exam results too, as they have a positive correlation. Figure 4. 26: Bar chart of exam results and level of English
- 70. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 58 4.2.6 HYPOTHESIS 6: There is statistically significant difference between scholars’ backlogs (ATKTs) and the interest in their current field of study Null hypothesis: There is statistically significant difference between scholars’ backlogs (ATKTs) and the interest in their current field of study. Alternative Hypothesis: There is statistically significant difference between scholars’ backlogs (ATKTs) and the interest in their current field of study. Before going for the analysis, we have to check whether the data is normally distributed or not. Table 4. 41: Tests of Normality Whether you are interested in your current field of study? Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic Df Sig. Statistic df Sig. How many backlogs do you have in the previous semesters? No .419 67 .000 .674 67 .000 Yes .265 83 .000 .791 83 .000 a. Lilliefors Significance Correction The Kolmogorov Smirnov normality distribution suggests whether the data for testing is normally distributed or not, as looking to the above table’s statistics; the significance level of all the variables is below 0.05 which is 0.000 (but more than 0) suggesting the violation of assumption of normality, means that the distribution is non- normal. We have used Mann-Whitney U test as to find out the significant difference between the two groups.
- 71. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 59 Mann-Whitney Test Table 4. 42: Ranks Whether you are interested in your current field of study? N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks How many backlogs do you have in the previous semesters? No 67 86.19 5775.00 Yes 83 66.87 5550.00 Total 150 Table 4. 43: Test Statisticsa How many backlogs do you have in the previous semesters? Mann-Whitney U 2064.000 Wilcoxon W 5550.000 Z -2.974 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .003 a. Grouping Variable: Whether you are interested in your current field of study? An examination of the findings in Table 3.37 shows that the results of the Mann Whitney U test applied to the number of backlogs of the scholars in the interested and not interested groups revealed a statistically significant difference at the level of U=2064.00 ρ<.05 (Z=-2.974; p=0.003<.05). The rank average of the number of backlogs in interested group scholars was 66.87, while the students in the not interested group had backlogs rank average of 86.19. The analyses had shown significant difference between the rank averages of the interested group and not interested group’s number of backlogs; however, an examination of the rank averages of their not interested group had higher number of backlogs than those in the interested group as the result indicates that there exists significant difference between the number of backlogs of those who were interested in their current field of study and those who were not interested.
- 72. THE IMPACT OF INDIAN SCHOLARSHIPS 60 4.3 CROSS TABULATION AND CORRELATION: Table 4. 44: Interested subjects: Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Economics 29 19.3 19.3 Politics 7 4.7 24.0 Engineering 41 27.3 51.3 Computer Science 15 10.0 61.3 Information Technology 2 1.3 62.7 Pure Science (i.e. Physics, Calculus etc.) 8 5.3 68.0 Accountancy 9 6.0 74.0 Literature 2 1.3 75.3 Web Designing/ Developer 3 2.0 77.3 Management/ Administration Psychology Application Developer Language 34 0 0 0 22.7 0 0 0 100.0 Total 150 100.0 We have approached asking scholars to let us know about their interest in a specific subject, in a view to determine the frequency of interested subjects and to explore the relation among current field of study and their interested subjects/fields. Table 3.38 represents the frequency and percentages of scholars’ interested subjects, majority of the scholars described their interest in Engineering, Management/Administration and Economics consisting of 27.3%, 22.7% and 19.3% respectively.

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