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  1. 2. GROUP MEMBERS <ul><li>KALEEM ULLAH 08-CIVIL-17 </li></ul><ul><li>SHAKEEL AHMAD 08-CIVIL-32 </li></ul><ul><li>IRFAN HASSAN 08-CIVIL-33 </li></ul>
  2. 3. MORTARS
  3. 4. <ul><li>GENERAL INTRODUCTION : </li></ul><ul><li>When a binding material, a fine aggregate and water are mixed together in suitable proportions , they form an easily workable paste which is termed as Mortar . </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly we use cement or lime as binding material and sand or surkhi as fine aggregates. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>MORTAR </li></ul><ul><li>Mortars are usually named according to the binding material used in their preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>They are essentially required for masonry work, plastering and pointing etc. </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS OF MORTAR: </li></ul><ul><li>To bind together the bricks or stones properly so as to provide strength to the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>To form a homogenous mass of the structure so as to resist all the loads coming over it without disintegration. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><ul><li>To provide a weather resisting i.e., a durable layer between the different courses of masonry in the structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To hold coarse aggregate together in any concrete so as to form a solid mass. The mortar used in a concrete is termed as matrix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To do pointing and plastering to the structure. The mortar used for plastering is known as plaster. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To fill up empty joints in brick and stone masonry. The mortar used for such purposes is a thin liquid mortar which is termed as grout and the process is known as grouting. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>MIXING MORTAR: </li></ul><ul><li>The sands and the cement have to be thoroughly mixed by hand or in a mechanical mixer before adding any water - do not use dirty water, or water from puddles or ponds, as this could impair the final strength of the mortar. </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, keep any sugar-containing liquids, such as soft drinks, well away from the mix - sugar, even in small amounts, seriously impairs the setting ability of the cement. </li></ul>PREPERATION OF MORTARS :
  7. 8. <ul><li>When mixing by hand, the sands and cement are heaped up on a mixing board or in a wheelbarrow and repeatedly turned over and over until thoroughly mixed. </li></ul><ul><li>The color of the dry mix will change as the cement is distributed throughout - there should be no 'streaking' of cement, and no clumps of pure sand or pure cement. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the dry ingredients are mixed, the water can be added. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>If any additives are being used, such as a plasticizer or a frost-proofer, they are normally added to the water, and then mixed in, rather than being directly added to the dry ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;well&quot; is formed in the centre of the mixed heap, water added to it and then folded in. </li></ul><ul><li>More water is added a bit at a time and folded in until the required consistency is attained. </li></ul><ul><li>This should be when the mortar is thoroughly mixed but is able to stand in peaks, like whipped cream; too wet and it just makes a mess, too dry and it's almost impossible to work. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Dry sand and cement in wheelbarrow Begin to mix sand and cement Mix to evenly distribute cement The dry mix should be all one colour Add water and plasticiser Mix to required consistency
  10. 11. <ul><li>TYPES OF MORTAR AND ITS USES: </li></ul><ul><li>Cement mortar: </li></ul><ul><li>The paste is prepared by mixing cement and sand in suitable proportions in addition to water. </li></ul><ul><li>The general proportion is 1 part of cement to 2-8 parts clean sand. </li></ul><ul><li>These mortars must be use within half an hour, i.e.; before initial setting time of the cement. </li></ul><ul><li>This type is used for all engineering works where high strength is desired such as load bearing walls, deep foundations, flooring etc. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Lime mortar : </li></ul><ul><li>The paste is prepared by mixing lime and sand or surkhi in suitable proportions in addition to water. </li></ul><ul><li>If surkhi is to be added in lime mortar the equal proportions of sand and surkhi should be mixed with lime. </li></ul><ul><li>These mortars are inferior to cement mortars in strength as well as water tightness. </li></ul><ul><li>These mortars should not be used for underground works as they set in the presence of carbon dioxide and break up in damp conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>This type is used for construction work above ground level i.e. exposed positions. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Light weight mortar : </li></ul><ul><li>The paste is prepared by mixing wood powder, wood sawing or saw dust with cement or lime mortar. </li></ul><ul><li>In such mortars fibers of jute coir or asbestos fibers can also be used. </li></ul><ul><li>These are generally used as fiber plasters in sound and heat proof construction. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Fire resistant mortar : </li></ul><ul><li>The paste is prepared by mixing aluminous cement and finely crushed fire bricks in suitable proportions in addition to water. </li></ul><ul><li>The usual proportion are 1 part aluminous cement to 2 parts of finely crushed fire bricks. </li></ul><ul><li>These are generally used for lining furnaces, ovens and fire places with fire bricks. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Mud mortar : </li></ul><ul><li>The paste is prepared by mixing suitable clayey soil with water. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil which is used for preparing mud mortar should be free from grass, pebbles etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the cheapest mortars but weakest in strength. </li></ul><ul><li>These mortars are used for brickwork of ordinary buildings and for plastering walls in rural areas. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>FUNCTION OF SAND AND SURKHI IN MORTARS: </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of sand: </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces shrinkage of the building material. </li></ul><ul><li>It prevents development of cracks in the mortar on drying. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in making mortars and concretes of desired strength by varying its proportions with the binding material. </li></ul><ul><li>A well graded sand adds to the density of mortars and concretes. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of surkhi : </li></ul><ul><li>It provides brick color and make the mortar economical </li></ul>