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water pollution and its treatment


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water pollution and its treatment

  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE: <ul><li>INTRODUCTION. </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS. </li></ul><ul><li>WASTE WATER TREATMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>LEGISLATION. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION. </li></ul><ul><li>REFERENCES. </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: <ul><li>Water may be referred to as ‘ the elixir of life ’ -This term is most apt to the pharmaceutical industry for which the quality of water is critical and a high priority. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION BY PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES: These are the industrial wastes sources Industrial Uses Sanitation Use Manufacturing & processing use Cooling use
  5. 5. NONPOINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES
  6. 6. Water Pollution: <ul><li>Major point sources are industries, power plants, underground coal mines, offshore oil wells etc. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to </li></ul><ul><li>- Ground Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>- Surface Water Pollution. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of Water Pollution: <ul><li>-Lower DO may be harmful to animals. </li></ul><ul><li>-Oxygen depletion helps in release of phosphates from bottom of sediments and causes Eutrophication . </li></ul><ul><li>-Some of the toxic substances tend to accumulate in the organism’s body, known as Bioaccumulation . The concentration of these toxic substances build up successive levels of food chain, known as Biomagnification . </li></ul><ul><li>-Minimata disease, Blue Baby Syndrome or Methaemoglobinemia, Fluorosis are some of the diseases caused due to water pollution. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Waste Water Treatment: <ul><li>The waste water from a pharmaceutical industry can be subjected to the following methods for purification, </li></ul><ul><li>-Sewage water treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Primary treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced sewage treatment </li></ul><ul><li>-Activated sludge process </li></ul><ul><li>-Reverse Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>-Nanofiltration </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sewage Water Treatment:
  10. 10. Reverse Osmosis Process: <ul><li>It is mainly used for the </li></ul><ul><li>treatment of Sea water </li></ul><ul><li>2-17bars pressure for fresh </li></ul><ul><li>& brackish water. </li></ul><ul><li>40-82bars for sea water. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nanofiltration: <ul><li>It is relatively recent membrane </li></ul><ul><li>filtration process used . </li></ul><ul><li>The principle involved is </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse osmosis, but the </li></ul><ul><li>Transmembrane pressure is </li></ul><ul><li>Lower (up to 3Mpa). </li></ul>
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  14. 14. Ultrafiltration: <ul><li>It is mainly used for the </li></ul><ul><li>retention of suspended </li></ul><ul><li>solids and solutes of high </li></ul><ul><li>molecular weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil/water separator. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Solutions for water pollution: <ul><li>The harm is to be noticed at the point of source itself, not at after contamination has occurred in the water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice for 4 R ’ s of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse). </li></ul><ul><li>The toxic levels of pharmaceuticals are recognized and treated before dumping. </li></ul>
  16. 16. WATER LEGISLATION: <ul><li>Water Quality Act of 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Water Act 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Water Industry Act 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, FDA raised the level of a chemical for which the pharmaceutical industry would have to investigate environmental impacts from parts per trillion to parts per billion. </li></ul>
  17. 17. What risk does chronic exposure to trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals pose to humans or wildlife? <ul><li>-Pharmaceuticals do not pose problems to humans since they occur at low concentrations in water. </li></ul><ul><li>-The release of antibiotics into waterways result in disease-causing bacteria to become immune to treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>-The anti-depressants have been blamed for altering sperm levels and spawning patterns in marine life. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Distribution of substantiated pollution incidents by source and type
  19. 19. CONCLUSION: <ul><li>You have learned the bad health effects on humans and animals because of the pollution. Hopefully now you can take this lesson and teach to your friends and family  about the harmful effects of water pollution. </li></ul>
  20. 20. REFERENCES:
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  22. 22. <ul><li>QUERIES </li></ul>