university ranking criteria

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university ranking criteria

  1. 1. ACADEMIC RANKING OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><ul><li>The “university ranking” is an American invention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The West ranks hospitals, schools and universities. Hotels are ranked and classified according to stars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking is normally conducted through survey processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The university ranking is part of human nature to set hierarchies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also the nature of contemporary world functions due to the globalization impact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher education is complex, costly and important, and it always attracts many attentions of politicians, employers, potential students as well as their families. They need quantified evidences about “quality and performance”. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. CURRENT ACADEMIC RANKING OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES
  4. 4. THINGS TO REMEMBER ABOUT UNIVERSITY RANKING <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking can give advantages to universities for the following reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universities have Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to measure their performances. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking will become self-improvement tools for universities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking can foster healthy competition among higher education institutions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas the disadvantages of university ranking are as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement is not based on category or university’s objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of ranking can give impacts to staff’s and students’ motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Dilemma of Ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the ranking exercises, the following matters should be taken into consideration: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking must be based on the same categories “homogeneous”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Universities need to fulfill national agenda which is not taken into account in the ranking exercise. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most ranking systems are driven by the commercial need to sell more publications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rankings are something of a self-fulfilling prophecy: reputation is considered a significant factor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is always data manipulation to place well on rankings.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many data collecting exercises are driven by the information that is available rather than the information that is necessary to accurately gauge the level to which an institution meets particular quality criteria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking should not count factors that are proxy for quality. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking must not ignore universities’ missions and goals which are different between one university to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking cannot assume “one size fits all” which norms of research universities are the gold standard. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Frequent Asked Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure that the data provided conforms to the questionnaire for best advantage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to develop your university’s strategy to maintain or improve your ranking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does World Ranking increase student numbers and revenue? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How ranked universities can attract the most talented student and faculty? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to globalize your institution? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF RANKING PROVIDERS <ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Professional Bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accrediting Bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual/Group Initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Themselves </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. WHY THE NEED FOR RANKINGS? <ul><ul><li>Higher Education is becoming more global. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is the key driver of international competitiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking will raise awareness of institutions / universities being ranked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Study Trends show that world wide demand for education is on the rise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public funding is being slashed, so one source of funding is from international students. In some countries international students’ contribution to the economy is higher than the other sectors. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CRITERIA OF UNIVERSITY RANKING
  10. 10. CRITERIA OF TOP UNIVERSITIES <ul><ul><li>No. of academic staff with PhD or equivalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of results from “Peer Review” </li></ul></ul>Human Resource <ul><ul><li>% of equipment fully operational and calibrated or physical facilities that meet safety and quality standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of book titles in the Library </li></ul></ul>Infrastrucure <ul><ul><li>Ratio of academic staff to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of programmes accredited by professional bodies </li></ul></ul>Teaching <ul><ul><li>Amount of research grants received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of research products / recognitions conferred by national and international bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of papers refereed and cited in refereed journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of articles, books and publications per staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of patents attained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of products commercialized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of postdoctoral </li></ul></ul>Research STANDARD INDICATORS BEING USED CRITERIA
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Income generated from consultancy activities </li></ul></ul>Consultancy <ul><ul><li>CGPA of students admitted into the University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of graduates employed after graduation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of results from Employer Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of University Alumni awarded “Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of PhD students </li></ul></ul>Students <ul><ul><li>No. of international academic staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of international students </li></ul></ul>Internationalization <ul><ul><li>Compliance to International Quality Standard i.e. ISO9000 QMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of Customer Satisfaction Index </li></ul></ul>Service Delivery STANDARD INDICATORS BEING USED CRITERIA
  12. 12. CRITERIA OF WORLD UNIVERSITIES 40% Peer Review : Composite score drawn from peer review (which is divided into 5 subject areas) 5% International Faculty : Score based on international faculty International Outlook 5% International Students : Score based on proportion of international students 10% Recruiter Review : Score based on responses to recruiter survey Graduate Employability Teaching Quality Research Quality Criteria Student Faculty : Score based on student/faculty ratio Citations per Faculty : Score based on research performance factored against the size of the research body Indicator Times Higher Education Survey Ranking Bodies Weight 20% 20% Criteria
  13. 13. 20% Articles published in Nature and Science Research Output 20% Articles in Science Citation Index-expanded, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index 20% Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals Quality of Faculty Size of Institution Quality of Education Criteria Academic performance with respect to the size of an institution Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals Indicator Shanghai Jiao Tong World University Ranking Ranking Bodies Weight 20% 10% 10% Criteria
  14. 14. Quantity and Quality of Research Quantity and Quality of Researchers Criteria 100 Number of recognitions/awards/ stewardsip conferred by national and international learned and professional bodies With balanced distribution of staff with >20 yrs experience, 10-20 yrs and <10 yrs experience Research Experience At RM50,000/staff/yr of which at least 20% is from international sources and 20% from private sector <ul><li>Research grants for S&T academic staff: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private (including contract research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International </li></ul></ul>2 papers in national/international refereed and cited journals per staff/yr or cumulative impact factor for the institution of not less than 5000 Publications 10/yr Post-docs appointed Should not be less than 60% of grants attained/yr Research Expenditure 60% of academic staff involved as Principal Investigator Critical Mass Research University 60% Percentage of Academic Staff with PhD or Equivalent Ranking Bodies Weight Indicator
  15. 15. 30% Inter-institution (international) participation 10% % of International Postgraduate Students 1 PG : 4 UG Ratio of PG to UG Not less than 10% % of PG fellowships/grants from prestigious bodies awarded to PG via research mode 50% of PG Intake with CGPA > 3.00 % of PG Intake Quality of Postgraduate Students Not less than RM20 million/yr Income generated from training courses/services/consultancy/PG students fees/endowment/gifts Professional Services and Gifts 30/yr Number of patents attained/number of products commercialized/number of technology know-how licensing/number of IPR/copyrights Innovation 3 PG : 1 staff Ratio of PG to academic staff 70% Inter-institution (national) participation Networking and Linkages Support Facilities Quantity of Postgraduate Criteria 1:18 academic staff of which 60% will be from S&T Ratio of PhDs graduated to academic staff Ranking Bodies 75% compliance attained Equipment fully operational and calibrated or physical facilities met safety & quality standards, supporting facilities Weight Indicator
  16. 16. Quantity and Quality of Research Quantity and Quality of Researchers Criteria 500 Number of recognitions/awards/ stewardsip conferred by national and international learned and professional bodies With 60% distribution of staff with >20 yrs experience, 20% with 10-20 yrs and 20% with <10 yrs experience Research Experience At RM1,000,000/staff/yr of which at least 40% is from international sources and 40% from private sector <ul><li>Research grants for S&T academic staff: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private (including contract research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International </li></ul></ul>5 papers in national/international refereed and cited journals per staff/yr or cumulative impact factor for the institution of not less than 5000 Publications 1 post-doc per academic staff Post-docs appointed Should not be less than 70% of grants attained/yr Research Expenditure 85% of academic staff involved as Principal Investigator Critical Mass World Class Research University 95% Percentage of Academic Staff with PhD or Equivalent Ranking Bodies Weight Indicator
  17. 17. 50% Inter-institution (international) participation 15% % of International Postgraduate Students 4 PG : 6 UG Ratio of PG to UG Not less than 20% % of PG fellowships/grants from prestigious bodies awarded to PG via research mode 50% of PG Intake with CGPA > 3.25 % of PG Intake Quality of Postgraduate Students Not less than RM600 million/yr Income generated from training courses/services/consultancy/PG students fees/endowment/gifts Professional Services and Gifts 100/yr Number of patents attained/number of products commercialized/number of technology know-how licensing/number of IPR/copyrights Innovation 5 PG : 1 staff Ratio of PG to academic staff 50% Inter-institution (national) participation Networking and Linkages Support Facilities Quantity of Postgraduate Criteria 1:3 academic staff of which 80% will be from S&T Ratio of PhDs graduated to academic staff Ranking Bodies 95% compliance attained Equipment fully operational and calibrated or physical facilities met safety & quality standards, supporting facilities Weight Indicator
  18. 18. <ul><li>Criteria from Shanghai Jiao Tong : 50% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles published in Nature and Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles in Science Citation Index-expanded, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria from Times Higher World University Ranking : 40% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>% of international academic staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% of international students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of academic staff to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Score based on research performance factored against the size of the research body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria of Library : 10% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No. of volumes in the university library </li></ul></ul>Newsweek International <ul><ul><li>Teaching Quality Rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entry Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students per member of academic staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library/Computing Spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Facilities Spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree Classifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate Destinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion Rate </li></ul></ul>Australian University Ranking Criteria Ranking Bodies
  19. 19. 15 Research Quality 15 Research Performance 2 Patents 5 Rate of growth for research quality Research (50) Criteria Rate of growth for research performance Research Volume Indicator OIC Ranking Ranking Bodies Weight 5 8 Criteria
  20. 20. 3 Ratio faculty to students 3 Alumni that become highly cited researchers 3 Alumni that did win awards 4 Ratio of faculty members with PhD to total number of faculty 8 Faculty highly cited researchers 6 Faculty members with awards 2 Ratio of postgraduate students to total number of students 3 Rate of growth of postgraduate students Education (35) Criteria Students winning international Olympiads Indicator Ranking Bodies Weight 3 Criteria
  21. 21. 1 International Exchange Programmes 1 ½ International Conferences 1 ½ Ratio of faculty members with foreign PhD degrees to total number of faculty members with PhD degrees 1 Ratio of international students to total students 2 Ratio of international faculty to total faculty International Outlook (7) Criteria Indicator Ranking Bodies Weight Criteria
  22. 22. 1 Life learning courses 2 ½ Contracts and consultancies incomes 1 Entrepreneurship programmes and industrial linkages Facilities (3) 1/2 Number of incubated projects and spin-off companies 1 Number of university’s research Institutes/Centres 1 Number of journals/periodicals accessible (hard or soft copies) 1 Number of book titles per student Socio-Economic Impact (5) Criteria Indicator Ranking Bodies Weight Criteria
  23. 23. IMPROVEMENTS TO CURRENT CRITERIA <ul><ul><li>Purposes and goals of the rankings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should recognize the diversity of institutions and take into account their different missions and goals (ranking tends to ignore these issues). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and weighting of indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be transparent regarding the methodology used for creating the rankings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate ways of measuring outcomes, such as retention and graduation rates, scores on examinations, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection and processing of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use audited and verifiable data whenever possible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of ranking results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide consumers with clear understanding of all factors used to develop ranking, and offer them a choice in how rankings are displayed such as by allowing them to determine how factors are weighed on interactive web sites. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources “Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions” - </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. PROCEDURES AND MECHANISMS FOR UNIVERSITY SELECTION <ul><ul><li>Assign universities with the same groups of their peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic reputation & research outputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty and student diversity and background. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webpage becomes impact factor, i.e. volumes of published materials on the web. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. “ If we don’t produce our own ranking, don’t be surprised that others are going to do it for us”

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