Kk day 2 pm stream 1 1st speaker peter cruz ipdm 2

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Kk day 2 pm stream 1 1st speaker peter cruz ipdm 2

  1. 1. INTEGRATED PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE COCOA PRODUCTION
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONCocoa is affected by range of pests and diseases withestimates putting losses as high as 30% - 40% of globalproduction.In 2000, the cocoa pod borer in Indonesia had infested60,000 hectares inflicting losses of US $40 million peryear.Pod rot or black pod (P.palmivora) causes global yieldloss of 20% - 30% and tree deaths of 10% annually.Therefore, an Integrated Pest and Disease Managementapproach is a must to combat these factors that limits cocoaproduction.
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES OF IPM1. Grow a healthy crop2. Conserve the natural enemies3. Regular monitoring4. Farmers as experts/managers (decision making)
  4. 4. What do farmers want and need?People remember : 20% of what they HEAR 40% of what they SEE 80% of what they DISCOVER FOR THEMSELVES
  5. 5. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE QUALITYOF COCOA BEAN ON FARMERS’ LEVEL 1- Genetics 2- Environment 3- Farm Management 4- Pests and Diseases 5- Post Harvest Processing
  6. 6. Cocoa Pod Borer EGG 3-7 DAYS LARVE 14-18 DAYSMOTH 3-7 DAYS PUPA 5-7 DAYS
  7. 7. A B C D
  8. 8. COCOA POD BORER EVALUATION CY 2008-09 PERCENT PODS A & B CATEGORYMONTH TREATMENTS GAP 10 SPRAYS 4 SP 6 SL 10 SLEEVES CONTROL 22 SPRAYS Jan 32.38 64.56 91.11 84.11 7.69 19.92 Feb 22.16 18.43 27.65 55.06 3.84 5.59 Mar 34.38 29.36 18.70 21.26 5.90 42.14 Apr 34.59 32.74 40.25 35.40 8.26 19.88 May 22.25 37.03 81.72 88.95 13.27 17.20 Jun 13.71 18.95 84.95 86.44 12.64 28.56 Jul 14.95 16.35 96.34 78.60 8.00 13.80 Aug 14.80 29.58 68.22 65.90 3.20 24.00 Sep 19.90 32.40 83.70 90.40 18.18 24.17 Oct 19.96 33.69 90.05 90.96 15.77 19.78 Nov 20.94 26.23 90.60 96.00 17.35 30.30 Dec 27.09 26.41 79.07 82.44 12.07 13.37Total 277.11 365.73 852.36 875.52 126.17 258.70Mean 23.09 30.48 71.03 72.96 10.51 21.56
  9. 9. Pruning“I am the true vine, and myFather is the gardener. He cutsoff every branch in me that bearsno fruit, while every branch thatdoes bear fruit he prunes so thatit will be even more fruitful.” John 15:1-2 (NIV)
  10. 10. CPB EVALUATION AT THE COCOA GERMPLASMDate Evaluated P/D Category/Degree of Damage Percentage (%) A+B A B C D03.10.2012 CPB 110 7 2 1 97.5 PPR 0 0 3 1 96.7Cocoa Bean Recovery: 94.2 19.10.2012 CPB 130 11 5 4 94.0 PPR 146 2 2 0 98.7Cocoa Bean Recovery: 92.731.10.2012 CPB 405 53 16 3 96.13 PPR 477 5 5 4 98.17Cocoa Bean Recovery: 94.3 CPB EVALUATION AT THE CLONAL REHABILITATIONDate Evaluated P/D Category/Degree of Damage Percentage (%) A+B A B C D 19.10.2012 CPB 81 12 4 3 93.0 PPR 91 2 0 7 93.0Cocoa Bean Recovery: 86.0
  11. 11. TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE OF BLACK PODS ASSIGNED TO SOURCE CATEGORIES IN MAPPING SITE OBSERVATIONS ON AMELONADO COCOA AT GAMBARI, 1974 - 75 SOURCE CATEGORIES % ASSIGNEDCONTACT WITH OR SPLASH FROM INFECTED POD 77.8FROM SOIL OR LITTER BY SPLASH OR CONTACT 5.0SPORULATING CANKERS OR INFECTED FLOWER CUSHIONS 1.6ANT TENTS 5.8INSECT OR RODENT DAMAGE 4.9NO OBVIOUS SOURCE 10.9 (SOURCE: MADDISON, 1981a)
  12. 12. POLLINATOR - POPULATION BEFORE AND AFTER INSECTICIDE + FOLIAR SPRAYING USING A MOTORIZED SPRAYER Date of Collection Pollinator - PopulationAugust 29, 1989 220Day of Spraying -August 31 0September 1 6September 2 13Sunday -September 4 43September 5 247
  13. 13. Integrated Pest and Disease Management“Many times I struck your gardensand vineyards, I struck them withblight and mildew. Locusts devouredyour fig and olive trees, yet you havenot returned to me, declares theLORD.” Amos 4:9 (NLT)
  14. 14. Integrated Pest and Disease Management‘’Bring all the tithes into the storehouse so therewill be enough food in my Temple. If you do, saysthe Lord of Heaven’s Armies, ‘’I will open thewindows of heaven for you. I will pour out ablessing so great you won’t have enough room totake it in! Try it! Put me to the test! Your cropswill be abundant, for I will guard them frominsects and disease. Your grapes will not fall fromthe vine before they are ripe, says the Lord ofHeaven’s Armies.” Malachi 3:10 – 11 (NLT)
  15. 15. Tithing“A tithe of everything from the land,whether grain from the soil or fruitfrom the trees, belongs t the Lord; itis holy to the LORD.” Leviticus 27:30 (NIV)
  16. 16. 1981-84 MEAN % INFESTATION OF POD BORER 1981-84 MEAN RAINFALL (mm) 1981-84 MEAN DRY YIELD PER HA. (kg) 215.26 177.87 161.38 143.14 137.81 123.0193.12 96.95 89.35 81.3475.74 74.67 63.66 68.97 36.38 41.25 42.99 48.89 41.36 35.3 36.26 36.04 34.4 35.82 9.02 12.2 11.08 10.78 6.47 6.29 8.73 9.01 6.86 5.45 2.61 2.76Access Pruning Low Peak Harvest Access Pruning Sleeving /Spraying Access Pruning and Fertilization Sleeving/Spraying Fertilization High Peak Harvesting
  17. 17. A COCOA GROWER WHO DOES NOTLOOK AFTER HIS FARM PROPERLYCANNOT HARVEST PLENTY OF BIG,CLEAN PODS AND WILL NOT EARNMUCH MONEY.
  18. 18. PEOPLE, IT HAS BEEN SAID, CAN BE PLACEDIN THREE CLASSES: THE FEW WHO MAKETHINGS HAPPEN, THE MANY WHO WATCHTHINGS HAPPEN, AND THE OVERWHELMINGMAJORITY WHO HAVE NO IDEA WHAT HASHAPPENED. -NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER

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