DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED COCOACLONES FOR FARMERS: THE CASE OF PHILIPPINE CLONES/HYBRIDS ROMULO L. CENA, Ph.D. University of Southern Mindanao Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines Landline: +63642482426 Mobile #639207338887 email@example.com
FACTS AND FINDINGS Around 10,000 to 15,000 cacao farmers nationwide. Annual consumption in beans equivalent is about 25,000 MT Average cacao beans production: 6-7 T MT Current average yield per tree is 1.30 kg dried beans. Average value of imports: USD 42M, chocolate products and consumable not included
Average value of exports: USD 3.5 million Major growing regions are : Davao Region, Northern Mindanao, CARAGA, Western Mindanao, and Eastern Visayas. Davao Region produced 77% of cacao beans supply in the last 5 years (2006-2011).
A. Germplasm Collection1. Eighty-eight (88) accessions collected all over the country.2. Twenty-five (25) collected from abroad.3. Twelve (17) new hybrids introduced into the country through the INGENIC Asia- Pacific Program for Cocoa.4. Coordinated and financed by MARS Inc., and World Cocoa Foundation (WCF)
Germplasm collection• 125 total accessions maintained – Forastero – Trinitario – Criollo – Theobroma bicolor – 100 clones to be requested by the University of Reading
D. Conduct Genetic Diversity Analysis as basis for Hybrid Breeding1. Morphological analysis2. Isozyme analysis3. Molecular marker analysis
A. Breeding of Desirable Cacao Germplasm a. Selection of parents b. Emasculation/hybridi zation c. Evaluation of hybrids d. Selection of desirable hybrid plant e. Clonal evaluation
Crosses Made: 1. BR 25 x K2 8. P 1 x P8 2. BR 25 x K1 9. UF 18 x BR 25 3. BR 25 x S5 10. UF x K1 4. K2 x K1 11. UF x K2 5. K1 x K2 12. UF x S5 6. BR 25 x P1 13. UF x PBC 123 7. BR 25 x P8 14. S5x K2
PNG Cacao Hybrid Trees KEE 42 X K 82KEE 42 X K72-124 KEE 42 X K 82 KEE 42 X K 82
MALAYSIAN HYBRIDS PBC 123 x LAFI 7 PBC 123 x LAFI 7QH22 x NA 33
Table 2. Number of plants, no. of plants with fruits, stem girth and jorquette height of two hybrids from PNG and one hybrid from Malaysia planted in 2009 at USM, Kabacan, Cotabato. No. of No. of plants Stem Girth Jorquette Crosses plants with (cm) Height (cm) fruits Female Male 1. KEE 42 K72-124 30 5 14.2 114.9 2. KEE 42 K82 34 4 16.0 119.0 3. MCBC 3 KKM 22 1 1 19.4 137.0KEE 42 X K72- 124 KEE 42 X K72- 124 KEE 42 X K72- 124
Table 3. Dry bean data of cacao crosses coming from Malaysia and PNG. Crosses Length of Width of Thickness Weight of bean bean (cm) 100 dry Malaysia (cm) (cm) beans (g) QH 22 X NA 33 24.6 1.3 0.8 105.9 PBC 123 X QH 22 25.0 1.3 1.0 127.2 PBC 123 X LAFI 7 24.6 1.3 1.0 130.6 CCI, Papua New Guinea KEE 42 x K72-124 26.6 14.0 1.0 127.1 KEE 42 x K 82 24.0 13.4 0.8 120.4 Control BR 25 23.0 1.3 0 .9 106.3 UF-18 26.0 1.4 0. 9 141.3
Three cacao crosses from Malaysia QH 22 X NA 33 PBC 123 X QH22
3. Research at the nursery level• Effect of different size of polybag on the growth of UF18 cacao seedling• Effect of different media combination on the growth of UF18 cacao seedling• Study on different propagation methods
4. Intercropping Cacao under 20-year old rubber plantation.
5. Determination ofTheobromine Content,Butterfat content, etc.
Sample of cacao pods of NSIC approvedvarieties S5 K2 K1
1. Establishment of Budwood Garden in Strategic Location in the Philippines• USM, Kabacan, Cotabato • Naga City• Sta. Maria, Davao del Sur • Lambunao, Iloilo City• San Isidro, Davao del Norte • Coner, Apayao• Mati, Davao Oriental • Sorsogon• Ninoy Aquino, Sultan Kudarat• Zamboanga City• Zamboanga Sibugay• Dipolog, Zamboanga del Norte• Brookes Point, Palawan• Puerto Princesa, Palawan
2. Survey, Identification and Tagging of Existing Budwood Garden
Summary• 125 accessions maintained in our genebank• Breeding of cacao and others studies in going-on.• Exchange of hybrids with 5 other countries Malaysia, Indonesia, PNG, Vietnam,India. 10 NSIC approved varieties of cacao in the Philippines.
SUMMARY• 3 more new varieties indorse by the NSIC secretariate yesterday to the seed council. PBC 123, USM CH 01, USM CH 02. . Seedling Available for Sale in Cacao Nurseries all over Mindanao are mostly UF 18, BR 25, K2, K9 ande K1.
Pure Tablea. Chokolate deUniversidad. PICRI, USM,