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  2. 2. Presented By : Chirag Asodariya Roshni Bhalodiya Aditya Kapadia Mansi Galiyawala Bhumika kadhiwala Palak Italaiya Milan Bodar Parimal Davara Dhwani Patel Rinav Jivani 2
  3. 3. Index Slide no Topic 1-11 Introduction 12-14 Properties 14-25 Use as building material 25-53 Forms of aluminium 54-56 Difference from other materials 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Aluminium occurs in abundance on the surface of the earth. It is available in various forms such as oxides, sulphates, silicates, phosphates, etc. But is commercially produced mainly from Bauxite. • Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface 4
  5. 5. • Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates. 5
  6. 6.  In nature, aluminum is found only in chemical compounds with other elements such as sulphur, silicon, and oxygen.  Pure, metallic aluminum can be economically produced only from aluminum oxide ore.  Occurs in all types of clay 6
  7. 7. EXTRACTION OF ALUMINIUM  The production of 1Kg of aluminium requires around 2Kg of alumina.  The production of 2Kg of alumina requires about 4Kg of bauxite. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 1. CRUSH AND GRIND • The ore is then fed into large grinding mills and mixed with a caustic soda solution (sodium hydroxide) at high temperature and pressure. 9
  10. 10. 2.Calcination • Calcination is a heating process to remove the chemically combined water from the alumina hydrate. 10
  11. 11. Extraction of aluminum the hall heroult is the major industrial process for smelting of aluminum. It involves dissolving aluminum oxide(AL2O3) in molten cryolite (NA3ALF6) and electrolysing the molten salt bath, typically in a purpose built cell. A brief history of hall heroult process The hall heroult process was invented independently and simultaneously. In 1886 by the American chemist Charles martin hall and the Frenchman Paul heroult . 11
  12. 12. PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM 1. It is a very good conductor of heat and electricity. 2. It is a silvery white metal with a bluish tinge and it exhibits bright lusture on a freshly broken surface. 3. It is a non-magnetic substance. 4. It is highly resistant to corrosion. 12
  13. 13. 5. It is light in weight, malleable, and ductile. 6. It is very soft. 7. It possesses great toughness and tensile strength. 8. Readily dissolves in HCl 13
  14. 14. Characteristic of Aluminium • Aluminum can be recycled easily. • Almost all aluminum are used in construction. • High scrape value • Non corrosive and non toxic so used for both indoor and outdoor application • It resist corrosion by water, snow and moisture without any coating. • Light weight and high strength and flexible • It dose not strikes spark nor get brittle under extreme cold or heat. 14
  16. 16. AIR TIGHTNESS • A well designed aluminium door , window etc. is pertfectly air tight a nd sealed out for dust and rain water, when closed. • This is usefull in fully air conditioned buildings. 16
  17. 17. APPEARANCE • Aluminium can be anodized or painted in any colour, to any optical effect, number of surface touches, in order to meet a decorative needs. It serves to enhance the material’s durability and corrosion resistance, as well as providing an easy- to-clean surface. 17
  18. 18. CRYOGENICS • Where as steel becomes brittle at low temperatures, aluminium increases in tensile strength and retains excellent toughness. 18
  19. 19. EASE IN FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY • Aluminium can be easily fabricated into various forms such as foil, sheets, geometric shapes, rod, tube and wire. • Aluminium could be easily assembled using welding. 19
  20. 20. HANDLING AND TRANSPORTION • Require fewer joints, producing fast and economical installation. • Aluminium can be sawed, drilled, riveted, screwed, bent, welded and soldered in the workshop or on the building site. 20
  21. 21. HIGH CORROSION RESISTANCE • Aluminium building products are made from alloys, which are weather-proof, corrosion-resistant and immune to the harmful effects of UV rays, ensuring optimal performance over a very long serviceable lifetime. 21
  22. 22. HIGH REFLECTIVITY • This characteristic feature makes aluminium a very efficient material for light management. Aluminium solar collectors can be installed to lower energy consumption for artificial lighting and heating in winter, while aluminium shading devices can be used to reduce the need for air conditioning in summer. 22
  23. 23. HIGH SCRAP VALUE • To produce aluminum from recycled material, for example, requires only 5% of the energy required to produce aluminum from bauxite. In addition, every ton of recycled aluminum saves four tons of bauxite. 23
  24. 24. HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO • Aluminium sections are generally thinner and deeper than equivalent steel sections to achieve the required strength and rigidity of same level. 24
  25. 25. MAINTENANCE COST • While Aluminium has a natural, built-in durability (it forms a protective layer of oxide as soon as it is exposed to air), most Aluminium construction products are treated or coated. One way in which the oxidization process can be enhanced is anodization 25
  26. 26. Tools to cut aluminum 26
  27. 27. Advantages of aluminium • Slim profile • Durable • low maintenance • Anti corrosive • Light yet strong • Available in anodised and baked with finishing long lasting color • Water resistant • Salt and even air resistant 27
  28. 28. Anodising • Electrolytic process used to increase the thickness films on aluminium. • The anodic films are normally between 5 to25 microns thick depending on its use. • Anodic films can also be used as a base of dyes of any color basically golden,silver and black. 28
  29. 29. • Casting Based • Extrusion Based • Foil and Powdered Based • Sheet Based Forms of Aluminium 29
  30. 30. Casting Based • Baluster head • Hardware and fittings • Security and decorative grills 30
  31. 31. Sheet based • Cable trays • Flat type false ceiling • Prefabricated houses • Rain water • Ridging and angel of roof • Roofing and sliding 31
  32. 32. Types of sheet • Anodising sheets • Pre painted sheets • Reflector sheets • Lighting sheets • Trailer roofed sheets • Rural roogfing sheets • Decorative panel sheets • Patterned sheets • Vinyl coated sheets 32 Decorative Sheet
  33. 33. Sheet and plate • Aluminium plate : 6.35 mm (0.250inch) • Aluminium sheet :0.006 inch -0.250inch • Sheet is supplied either flat, rolled or in coils, also available in large sizes 33 Coils of Aluminium
  34. 34. Extrusion Based • Doors and Window frames • Panels and curtain walls • Geodesic domes • Green house and roof tops gardens • North light glazing frame • Space divider and partition 34
  35. 35. Foil and powder based • Decorative laminates • Insulative foils • Paints • Water proofing sheets 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. False Ceiling 1)FLAT FALSE CEILING: The use of such ceiling is done to enhance the look of the building. 37
  38. 38. Prefabaricated house • The use of prefabaricated house in cold and tropical climates.It can also prove to be an effective panelling material for caravan 38
  39. 39. Rain water articles • The non corrosive material is best choice for the gutter, spouts,etc. for the disposal of rainwater. 39
  40. 40. RIDGING AND ANGLE OF ROOF • The aluminium can be used for all building requirement of corner flashings,ridgings,monit or roofs,and gable end flashings. 40
  41. 41. FOIL AND POWDER BASED • DECORTIVE LAMINATES: The printed decorative laminates are extensively used as wallpapers ,partition panels,etc. 41
  42. 42. INSULATIVE FOILS • These can be conventionally used for for insulatingair conditioning duct in large air conditioned system. 42
  43. 43. PAINTS • Aluminium powder based paints are useful to grant building protection against corrosion 43
  44. 44. EXTRUSION BASED • DOOR AND WINDOW FRAMES:This is the major applications of aluminium in buildings. • Several sizes of frames are available Gauge Price 16 Rs.195/kg 18 Rs.195/kg 20 Rs.195/kg 44
  45. 45. • 45
  46. 46. • Maximum outer frame sizes: • Solid fixed light maximum length of 3m but area may not exceed 6 square meters. • Fixed frame with mullions and sashes: • max length 4m but max area may not exceed 6 square meters. • Maximum sizes &weight of the opening section of a window  Top hung sash with friction stay: width 1200 and height 1000, glass weight max 40kg  Side hung sash with friction stay: width 600 and height 1500 , glass weight 40kg  Side hung sash with 90 degree hinge: • width 1200 and height 2100, glass weight 150kg  Tilt and turn sash: width 1200 and height 2100, glass weight 150kg 46
  47. 47. FASCIA PANELS AND CURTAIN WALLS  External non-load bearing wall designed to carry its own weight Sufficient strong to carry wind loads  Larger sizes can be produced by using interlocking sections. 47
  48. 48. GEODESIC DOMES • Vaulted structure of light weight straight elements that form interlocking polygons 48
  49. 49. GREEN HOUSES • A greenhouse is a building or complex in which plants are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings 49
  50. 50. ROOF TOP GARDENS • A roof garden is a garden on the roof of a building. • Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings may provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement. 50
  51. 51. NORTH LIGHT GLAZING FRAMES • North Light Glazing is used to take natural day light from North side. With specialtiy desingned require aluminium Glazing bars, shoe stop, & tension clips 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. The use of recycled aluminum saves 95 percent of the energy, and avoids 95 percent of the emissions, associated with the production of the metal from ore, and it reduces the amount of waste consigned to landfills  With appropriate sorting, scrap aluminium can advantageously be recycled to produce the same sorts of products over and over again. Requires only 5% of the original energy input. So easy to recycle:perfect ‘eco-metal’. Very little aluminium is lost in the remelting process. . RECYCLING 53
  54. 54. Difference • Cost- Aluminum is much more costly than upvc • Durability-although upvc has a long life it degrade over along time but aluminum does not corrode • Cleaner profile-upvc has a thick channel profile while aluminum is thinner but the strength of aluminum Is good • Flexibility-flexibility in upvc is less than compared to aluminum • Colors- aluminum offer the vide range of colors as compared to upvc. 54
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  56. 56. THANK YOU 56