Between 10 and 30 degrees N and or S Prairie of North America, the Pampa of Argentina, and the steppes of Europe Savannas, Grasslands, Shrublands By Kaitlin O'Connor
Abiotic Factors Savanna: Rainfall >25cm/year, has a rainy & dry season. Usually around 60° F. Grasslands: 20-60cm of rain/year, depending on the region. Usually around 45° F. Limiting factors: Amount of fires annually, precipitation, grazing of livestock, invasive weeds
Abiotic Factors Grassland soils developed on the glacial till. These soils have a deep layer that is filled with broken down organic material. Fires are important for returning nutrients to the soil. Kettle lakes are often found in grasslands.
Climatogram The two climatograms depict a grassland and savanna. They show that both have the most precipitation in the summer months and dry winters. The dry season is also when the most fires occur in both biomes.
Species and Characteristics Common types of plants : Buffalo Grass, Sunflower, Asters, Blazing Stars, Cone flowers, Goldenrods, Clover, and Wild Indigos. Some common animals: Coyotes, Eagles, Bobcats, the Gray Wolf, Wild Turkey, Fly Catcher, Canadian Geese, Crickets, Dung Beetle, Bison, and Prairie Chicken.
Species and Characteristics Common types of plants : Acacia Senegal Baobab, Bermuda Grass, Candelabra Tree, Elephant Grass, Gum Tree, Eucalyptus, Jackalberry Tree, Whistling Thorn. Common types of animals : African Elephant, African Wild Dog, Black Mamba, Caracal, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Mongoose, Emu, Koala Bear, Lion
Environmental Status Degradation due to : Recreation Resort Development Housing Introduction of foreign weeds Introduction of foreign species Grazing Wind Storms Controlled fires
Environmental Status United States National Grasslands : Black Kettle National Grassland – Western Oklahoma Buffalo Gap National Grassland Caddo National Grassland -- North Texas Cedar River National Grassland Africa Savanna Reserves : Kenya -The Masai Mara Nation Reserve Kruger and Kalahari Gemsbok National Parks
Groups Taking Action The SAFE program for the preservation of Grasslands addresses the issue of the decline in pollinators, such as bees, due to agricultural development and farming. The NRCS is a voluntary program that helps give landowners opportunities to restore and preserve land that they privately own.
Bibliography "Grassland Ecosystems: Grassland Extended." World Resources Institute. 10 sep 2008. 19 Oct 2008 <http://www.wri.org/publication/content/8269>. "Biotic Components." Grasslands Conservation Council. 15 sep 2008. GCC. 19 Oct 2008 <http://www.bcgrasslands.org/grasslands/bioticcomponents.htm>. Strahler, Arthur N., Strahler, Arthur H., Elements of Physical Geography. John Wiley & Sons, 1984. Ritter, Michael. "Kettle Hole." The Physical Environment. 26 sep 2006. 19 Oct 2008 <http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/glossary/h_k/kettle_hole.html>. McDonald, Dave. "Savanna BIome." PlantzAfrica. 26 oct 2007. 19 Oct 2008 <http://www.plantzafrica.com/vegetation/savanna.htm>.