Culinary art...kitchen operation

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Culinary art...kitchen operation

  1. 1. Culinary Art The Concepts and Theories in Kitchen Kanjanasit Chinnapha Chairperson, Dept. of Hospitality & Tourism Management Martin de Tours, School of Management Assumption University of Thailand
  2. 2. What is Culinary Art ? <ul><li>It is an the art of cooking . The word “ culinary ” is defined as something related to, or connected with, cooking or k itchens . A culinarian is a person working in the culinary arts. A culinarian working in restaurants is commonly known as a cook or a chef . Culinary artists are responsible for skillfully preparing meals that are as pleasing to the palate as to the eye. Increasingly they are required to have a knowledge of the science of food and an understanding of diet and nutrition . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Part 1 <ul><li>Food Science </li></ul>
  4. 4. The knowledge of food science <ul><li>The understanding knowledge of : </li></ul><ul><li>Food Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Food Microbiology </li></ul><ul><li>Food Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>*** All are linked together in some way or another </li></ul>
  5. 5. Food Safety <ul><li>Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation , and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness </li></ul><ul><li>Handling >> transportation of food </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation >> methods & techniques to </li></ul><ul><li>transform raw ingredients into food </li></ul><ul><li>Storage >> keeping and prevention of food </li></ul><ul><li>Food borne illness >> caused by bacteria </li></ul>
  6. 6. Storage of food <ul><li>Proper storage and refrigeration of food </li></ul><ul><li>Badly stored food in a refrigerator help in the prevention of food poisoning </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key Points Regarding Storage <ul><li>Check food specification and grading </li></ul><ul><li>First-in…First-out rule </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable container should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature and humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Food storage condition </li></ul>
  8. 8. Food contamination <ul><li>Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Food poisoning bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Physical objects </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning agents </li></ul><ul><li>Poisons in the food itself </li></ul>
  9. 9. Food borne illness / disease: Food poisoning <ul><li>This refers to any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food . Food borne illness usually arises from improper handling , preparation , or food storage. Good hygiene practices before , during , and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness . </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is a pathogen? <ul><li>A pathogen or more commonly known as germ , is a biological agent that causes disease to its host. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common bacterial foodborne pathogens are : </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella ----------------- > </li></ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli ( e-coli ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. HACCP <ul><li>Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety and pharmaceutical safety that addresses physical , chemical , and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions, known as Critical Control Points (CCPs) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realized. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food Preservation <ul><li>Food preservation is the process of </li></ul><ul><li>treating and handling food to stop or greatly </li></ul><ul><li>slow down spoilage ( loss of quality , edibility </li></ul><ul><li>or nutritive value ) caused or accelerated by </li></ul><ul><li>micro-organisms. Some methods, however, </li></ul><ul><li>use good bacteria , yeasts or fungi to add </li></ul><ul><li>specific qualities and to preserve food (e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>cheese, wine ). Maintaining or creating </li></ul><ul><li>nutritional value, texture and flavour is </li></ul><ul><li>important in preserving its value as food . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Food Preservation <ul><li>Common methods of applying these processes include drying , freeze drying , freezi n g , vacuum-packing , canning , preserving in syrup , sugar crystallisation , food irradiation , and adding preservatives or inert gases such as carbon dioxide . Other methods that not only help to preserve food, but also add flavour, include pickling , salting , smoking , preserving in syrup or alcohol , sugar crystallisation and curing . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diet and Nutrition <ul><li>In nutrition , diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism . Proper nutrition requires the proper ingestion and equally important, the absorption of vitamins , minerals , and food energy in the form of carbohydrates , proteins , and fats . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nutrients <ul><li>There are six major classes of nutrients : </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates , </li></ul><ul><li>fats , </li></ul><ul><li>dietary minerals , </li></ul><ul><li>protein , </li></ul><ul><li>vitamin , </li></ul><ul><li>water </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dietary minerals <ul><li>Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms , other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen present in common organic molecules . </li></ul><ul><li> - Potassium - Chloride </li></ul><ul><li> - Sodium - Calcium </li></ul><ul><li> - Phosphorus - Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li> - Zinc - Iron </li></ul><ul><li> - Manganese - Iodine </li></ul>
  17. 18. Diet Table Food Type Carnivore Omnivore Vegan Vegetarian Halal Hindu Kosher Hunter-gatherer Raw vegan Fruits and berries No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Greens No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Vegetables No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Starchy vegetables No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Grains No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Poultry Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Fish (scaled) Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Seafood (non-fish) Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes No Beef Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No Pork Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No Eggs Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Dairy No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Nuts No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  18. 19. Carnivore Carnivore is meat-eater.
  19. 20. Omnivore <ul><li>Omnivore eats both plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Human Raven / Crow </li></ul>
  20. 21. Vegans <ul><li>Various fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains; </li></ul><ul><li>some basic ingredients of a vegan diet . </li></ul>Vegans endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind .
  21. 22. Vegetarian Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet including fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or without dairy products and eggs.
  22. 23. Halal <ul><li>The term is used to designate food seen as </li></ul><ul><li>permissible according to Islamic law . </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly forbidden substances: Pork, blood, carrion, alcohol . </li></ul>
  23. 24. Hindu dietary law <ul><li>The great majority of Hindus avoid beef . Most also avoid the meat of water buffalo and yak as being too cow - like as well as pork , crabs , reptiles , amphibians , snails , insects and worms . Goat or mutton is often the only acceptable meat but many are completely vegetarian . </li></ul>
  24. 25. Kosher <ul><li>Kosher is the set of Jewish dietary laws . Mammals that both chew their cud ( ruminate ) and have cloven hooves can be kosher . </li></ul><ul><li>Cloven hooves animals The circle U indicates that this </li></ul><ul><li>product is certified as Kosher by </li></ul><ul><li>the Orthodox Union (OU) </li></ul>
  25. 26. Hunter–gatherer <ul><li>A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild, foraging and hunting without significant recourse to the domestication of either . </li></ul>
  26. 27. Raw veganism Raw veganism is a diet which combines veganism and raw foodism . It excludes all food of animal origin, and all food cooked above 48 degrees Celsius. A raw vegan diet includes raw vegetables and fruits, nuts and nut pastes, grain and legume sprouts, seeds, plant oils, sea vegetables, herbs, and fresh juices.
  27. 28. Part 2 <ul><li>Equipment, Preparation, Methods of Cookery and Organisational Structure in Kitchen </li></ul>
  28. 29. Kitchen Knives <ul><li>Boning knife </li></ul><ul><li>Chef knife </li></ul><ul><li>Clever </li></ul><ul><li>Filet knife </li></ul><ul><li>Paring knife </li></ul>
  29. 30. Kitchen Knives <ul><li>Mincing knife </li></ul><ul><li>Santoku knife </li></ul><ul><li>Meat & Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Slicers </li></ul>
  30. 31. Kitchen Equipment & Culinary terms <ul><li>Refer to the video-presentation </li></ul>
  31. 32. Principles of Heat Transference <ul><li>All methods of cooking depend on one or more of the following principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul>
  32. 33. Radiation <ul><li>Heat passes from its source in directly rays until it falls on an object in its path such as grilling. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Conduction <ul><li>Transferring of heat through a solid object by conduct. Some materials for example, metal used for pans , transfer heat more quickly than wood. Conduction is the principle involved in the solid electric / gas ranges. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Convection <ul><li>The movement of heated particles of gases or liquids . On heating, the particles expand, become less dense and rise. The colder particles sink to take their place, causing convection currents which distribute heat. This principle is used in heating a gas oven and in the heating of liquids. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Methods of Cookery 1. Boiling 2. Poaching 3. Steaming 4. Braising 5. Stewing 6. Roasting 7. Baking 8. Grilling 9. Frying 10. Paper bag ( En papillote ) 11. Microwave
  36. 37. Boiling <ul><li>In cookery, boiling is the method of cooking food in boiling water , or other water-based liquid such as stock or milk . Simmering is gentle boiling, while in poaching the cooking liquid moves but scarcely bubbles. Boiling point of water is typically considered to be 100 ° C or 212 ° F . </li></ul>
  37. 38. Poaching <ul><li>Poaching is the process of gently simmering food in liquid , generally water , milk , stock or wine . Poaching is particularly suitable for fragile food, such as eggs , poultry , fish and fruit , which might easily fall apart or dry out . </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature should be </li></ul><ul><li>around 71-85 °C </li></ul>
  38. 39. Steaming Steaming is a method of cooking using steam . Steaming is considered a healthy cooking technique and capable of cooking almost all kinds of food. Steaming works by boiling water continuously, causing it to evaporate into steam; the steam then carries heat to the nearby food, thus cooking the food . The food is separated from the boiling water but has direct contact with the steam, resulting in a moist texture to the dishes .
  39. 40. Braising Braising (from the French “braiser”), is a combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat; typically the food is first seared at a high temperature and then finished in a covered pot with a variable amount of liquid , resulting in a particular flavour.
  40. 41. Stewing A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy . Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables ( such as carrots , potatoes , beans , peppers and tomatoes etc .) , meat , poultry , sausages and seafood.
  41. 42. Roasting <ul><li>Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat , whether an open flame, oven , or other heat source. Roasting usually causes caramelization or Maillard browning of the surface of the food, which is considered a flavor enhancement </li></ul>
  42. 43. Baking <ul><li>Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection , and not by radiation , normally in an oven , but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. It is primarily used for the preparation of bread , cakes , pastries and pies , tarts , quiches , cookies and crackers . </li></ul>
  43. 44. Grilling <ul><li>Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Frying <ul><li>Frying is the cooking of food in oil or fat , a technique that originated in ancient Egypt around 2500 BC . Frying techniques vary in the amount of fat required. </li></ul><ul><li>Sautéing and stir - frying </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow frying </li></ul><ul><li>Deep frying </li></ul>
  45. 46. Paper bag (En papillote) <ul><li>En Papillote (French: &quot;in parchment&quot;) is a method of cooking in which the food is put into a folded pouch or parcel and then baked . The parcel is typically made from folded parchment paper , but other material such as a paper bag or aluminum foil may be used. The parcel holds in moisture to steam the food. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Microwave Cooking <ul><li>A microwave oven , or a microwave , is a kitchen appliance that cooks or heats food by dielectric heating. This is accomplished by using microwave radiation to heat water and other polarized molecules within the food . </li></ul>
  47. 48. Organizational Structure in kitchen <ul><li>Executive Chef / Head Chef </li></ul><ul><li>Sous Chef / Second Chef </li></ul><ul><li>Chef de Partie / Section Chef / Station Chef </li></ul><ul><li>Relief Chef / Chef Tournant </li></ul><ul><li>First Cook / Commis Chef </li></ul><ul><li>Cook </li></ul><ul><li>Cook Helper / Apprentice </li></ul><ul><li>Steward / Kitchen Porter </li></ul>
  48. 49. Executive Chef <ul><li>Organising the duties and responsibilities of kitchen staff </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering of inventory – set specification and grading </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation and other paper works </li></ul>
  49. 50. Organizational Structure in kitchen <ul><li>Organizational Structure in kitchen depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Types of food ( ethnic cuisine ) </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the operation </li></ul><ul><li>***Related to: </li></ul><ul><li>How the establishment should be operated and managed </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of equipments and ingredients required </li></ul>
  50. 51. Key points to remember when working in the kitchen <ul><li>Cleanliness and hygiene – both personal </li></ul><ul><li>and environment >> e.g. handling of food </li></ul><ul><li>Follow safety rules and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on team work and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Set up effective operational system to </li></ul><ul><li>match the establishment’s features </li></ul><ul><li>Have good attitude and be friendly >> smile </li></ul>

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