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Getting food anthropology
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Getting food

  1. 1. Getting Food
  2. 2. Outline: I. Food collection II. General Features of Food Collectors III. Food Production IV. Environmental Restraints on Food-Getting
  3. 3. I. FOOD COLLECTION • May be generally defined as all forms of subsistence technology in which food-getting is dependent on naturally occurring sources.
  4. 4. Subsistence • The condition of staying alive • Survival • Existence • Maintenance • sustenance
  5. 5. Food collectors • Also referred to as Foragers or hunter-gatherers. • Live in marginal areas of the earth.
  6. 6. Why tackle or study about the manner/ways of man in food-getting?
  7. 7. Anthropologists are interested in studying the relatively few food-collecting societies
  8. 8. • Observation • Understanding some aspect of human life in the past
  9. 9. Let us examine two areas of the world with very different environments where recent food collectors lived
  10. 10. 1. Australian Aborigines 2. The Inuit (Eskimo)
  11. 11. 1. Australian Aborigines • Desert environment • Average 8 inches of rain per year • Temperature during summer rise to 117F
  12. 12. Roles in Food-getting • Children • Women • Men
  13. 13. 2. The Inuit (Eskimo) • North American Arctic • Plants are too scarce • Depend on sea and land mammal and fish • Techniques: harpoon
  14. 14. Harpoon • weapon similar to spear: a long pointed piece of metal attached to a cord and thrown or fired from a gun in order to capture whales or other large sea animals
  15. 15. • Spear • projectile • missile • lance
  16. 16. Techniques used in fishing • Hook • Line • Spearing • Ambushing nets and dams
  17. 17. Techniques used in fishing • Hook • Line • Spearing • Ambushing nets and dams
  18. 18. II. General Features of Food Collectors • Certain characteristic cultural patterns • Sparsely populated territory • Nomadic life-style • No differentiation of social classes
  19. 19. • Division of labor (age and gender)
  20. 20. III. FOOD PRODUCTION • Revolutionary changeover • Cultivation to domestication
  21. 21. What does cultivation and domestication means?
  22. 22. Cultivation • preparation of land or growing crops: the planting, growing, and harvesting of crops or plants, or the preparation of land for this purpose
  23. 23. Domesticate • tame animal: to accustom an animal to living with or near people, usually as a farm animal or pet
  24. 24. 3 Major types of Food- production systems 1. Horticulture 2. Intensive Agriculture 3. Pastoralism
  25. 25. 1.Horticulture • Means of growing of crops of all kinds with relatively simple tools and methods
  26. 26. 2 Kinds of Horticulture 1.Extensive or shifting cultivation • (slash-and-burn-technique) 2. Long-growing tree crops
  27. 27. 2 Horticulture Societies • Yanomamo • Samoans
  28. 28. 2. Intensive Agriculture • Use techniques that enable them to cultivate fields permanently • Used fertilizers (organic or inorganic)
  29. 29. 3. Pastoralism • way of life dependent on livestock: a way of life that depends on raising livestock and living on its milk and meat
  30. 30. General Features Food-production System Horticult ure Intensive Agricultu re Pastoralis m Land/nat ural resource s Simple farming techniqu es fertilizers Tend animals Commu nities Nomadi c Towns/ci ties grasslan d
  31. 31. IV. Environmental Restraints on Food-Getting • Physical environment • Neither food collection nor food production

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