JECRC UDML COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KUKAS, JAIPUR

SESSION:-2013-14
A
PRACTICAL TRAINING PRESENTATION
ON

ANTENNA AND RADIATION PATTERN
(ALL INDIA RADIO, JAIPUR)

Submitted to :
Nupur Nigam
...
CONTENTS

Introduction To A.I.R.
Antenna Introduction
Type of Antennas
Radiation Pattern
Pattern Lobe and Beam Width
...
INTRODUCTION TO A.I.R.
 All India Radio(AIR) is one of the largest radio
networks in the world.

 The Bombay station was...


Around 2,75,000 receiving sets were at the time of
Independence, now there are about 132 million estimated radio
sets i...
SERVING FREQUENCIES IN JAIPUR
SERVICE

FREQUENCY

CHANNEL
NAME

FM

100.3 MHZ

RADIO PINKCITY/

LOCATION OF
TRANSMITTER
M....
Block Diagram Of Transmitter And Receiver
Introduction Of Antenna
 Antenna is usually a metallic device (as a rod or a
wire) used for radiating or receiving
electr...
Yagi Uda
Antenna
●

Type Of Antennas

9
½ Wave Dipole

¼ Wave Monopole

Horn Antenna

Microstrip Antenna

V Antenna
Radiation Pattern
 The radiation pattern of antenna is a representation
of the distribution of the power radiated from th...
Radiation Pattern
There are two types of pattern :

Auxiliary
antenna

Antenna
under test
Large distance

Power or
field-s...
Power pattern vs. Field pattern
 The power pattern is the calculated and plotted
received power |P(θ, ϕ)| at a constant (...
Radiation Pattern

3-D pattern
 Antenna radiation pattern
is 3-dimensional.
 The 3-D plot of antenna
pattern assumes bot...
Radiation Pattern

2-D pattern
 Usually the antenna pattern is
presented as a 2-D plot, with
only one of the direction an...
Pattern Lobe

Pattern lobe is a portion
of the radiation pattern
with a local maximum.
Lobes are classified as: 1)
Major l...
Beam Width
Beam Width
 Half-power beam width (HPBW) is the
angle between two vectors from the pattern’s
origin to the points of the ...
Antenna Gain
 Antenna gain
• A measure of the directionality of an antenna.
• Power output, in a particular direction, co...
Antenna Gain
 Relationship between antenna gain and effective
area

4πAe 4πf 2 Ae
G= 2 =
2
λ
c






G = antenna gai...
Radiation Efficiency
 The radiation efficiency e indicates how efficiently
the antenna uses the RF power.
 It is the rat...
Antenna Array
Antenna array consists of multiple antennas
collaborating to synthesize radiation characteristics
not avail...
Advantages of Antenna Array
 Possibilities to control electronically
•
•
•
•
•

Direction of maximum radiation
Directions...
A View of Antenna Array
27 antennas along 3 railroad tracks provide baselines
up to 35 km. Radio images are formed by corr...
KEY LEARNING’S AT TRAINING
 Important concepts of communication.
 Resource management.
 Discipline.
 Development of a ...
CONCLUSION
 It was a wonderful experience while training in A.I.R.
 There is great scope for engineers in the field of
c...
THANK YOU.
ANY QUERY ?
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  • Kailash 2

    1. 1. JECRC UDML COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KUKAS, JAIPUR SESSION:-2013-14
    2. 2. A PRACTICAL TRAINING PRESENTATION ON ANTENNA AND RADIATION PATTERN (ALL INDIA RADIO, JAIPUR) Submitted to : Nupur Nigam Assistant Professor ECE Department Presented By : Kailash Chandra Yadav 10EUDEC051 7th SEMESTER
    3. 3. CONTENTS Introduction To A.I.R. Antenna Introduction Type of Antennas Radiation Pattern Pattern Lobe and Beam Width Antenna Gain Antenna Array Key Learning's At Training Conclusion
    4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO A.I.R.  All India Radio(AIR) is one of the largest radio networks in the world.  The Bombay station was inaugurated on July 23, 1927, the Kolkata station followed on August 26, 1927.  AIR was established in 1930 and All India Radio,Jaipur was established at 9th April 1955.  The Satellite Earth station was established at 21st March,1944.
    5. 5.  Around 2,75,000 receiving sets were at the time of Independence, now there are about 132 million estimated radio sets in the country.  AIR today having a network of 237 broadcasting centres with 149 medium frequency (MW), 54 high frequency (SW) and 177 FM transmitters.  The coverage is 91.85% of the area, serving 99.18% of the people in the largest democracy of the world.  AIR covers 24 Languages and 146 dialects in home services.
    6. 6. SERVING FREQUENCIES IN JAIPUR SERVICE FREQUENCY CHANNEL NAME FM 100.3 MHZ RADIO PINKCITY/ LOCATION OF TRANSMITTER M.I ROAD,JAIPUR VIVIDH BHARTI 105.6 MHZ 91.1MHZ RADIO CITY 93.3MZ RED FM 94.5MHZ MY FM 95.0MHZ FM TADKA 98.3MHZ MW GYANVANI RADIO MIRCHI 1269 KHZ/ AKASHVANI, JAIPUR M.I ROAD,JAIPUR AKASHVANI, JAIPUR VAISHALI NAGAR,JAIPUR 1476 KHZ SW 4910 KHZ/ 7325 KHZ VAISHALI NAGAR,JAIPUR
    7. 7. Block Diagram Of Transmitter And Receiver
    8. 8. Introduction Of Antenna  Antenna is usually a metallic device (as a rod or a wire) used for radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves. • Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space • Reception - collects electromagnetic energy from space  In two-way communication, the same antenna can be used for transmission and reception
    9. 9. Yagi Uda Antenna ● Type Of Antennas 9
    10. 10. ½ Wave Dipole ¼ Wave Monopole Horn Antenna Microstrip Antenna V Antenna
    11. 11. Radiation Pattern  The radiation pattern of antenna is a representation of the distribution of the power radiated from the antenna or received to the antenna as a function of direction angles from the antenna.  It is independent on the power flow direction.  It is usually different for different frequencies and different polarizations of radio wave radiated / received.
    12. 12. Radiation Pattern There are two types of pattern : Auxiliary antenna Antenna under test Large distance Power or field-strength meter Turntable Generator
    13. 13. Power pattern vs. Field pattern  The power pattern is the calculated and plotted received power |P(θ, ϕ)| at a constant (large) distance from the antenna.  The amplitude field pattern is the calculated and plotted electric (magnetic) field intensity, |E(θ, ϕ)| or |H(θ, ϕ)| at a constant (large) distance from the antenna. The power pattern and the field patterns are inter-related: P(θ, ϕ) = (1/η)*|E(θ, ϕ)|2 = η*|H(θ, ϕ)|2 P = power E = electrical field component vector H = magnetic field component vector η = 377 ohm (free-space, plane wave impedance)
    14. 14. Radiation Pattern 3-D pattern  Antenna radiation pattern is 3-dimensional.  The 3-D plot of antenna pattern assumes both angles θ and ϕ varying, which is difficult to produce and to interpret 3-D pattern
    15. 15. Radiation Pattern 2-D pattern  Usually the antenna pattern is presented as a 2-D plot, with only one of the direction angles, θ or ϕ varies.  It is an intersection of the 3-D one with a given plane  usually it is a θ = const. plane or a ϕ= const. plane that contains the pattern’s maximum Two 2-D patterns
    16. 16. Pattern Lobe Pattern lobe is a portion of the radiation pattern with a local maximum. Lobes are classified as: 1) Major lobes 2) Minor lobes 3) Side lobes 4) Back lobes
    17. 17. Beam Width
    18. 18. Beam Width  Half-power beam width (HPBW) is the angle between two vectors from the pattern’s origin to the points of the major lobe where the radiation intensity is half its maximum ●  First-null beam width (FNBW) is the angle between two vectors, originating at the pattern’s origin and tangent to the main beam at its base.
    19. 19. Antenna Gain  Antenna gain • A measure of the directionality of an antenna. • Power output, in a particular direction, compared to that produced in any direction by a perfect omnidirectional antenna (isotropic antenna).  Effective area • Related to physical size and shape of antenna.
    20. 20. Antenna Gain  Relationship between antenna gain and effective area 4πAe 4πf 2 Ae G= 2 = 2 λ c      G = antenna gain Ae = effective area f = carrier frequency c = speed of light ( 3X108 m/sec.) λ = carrier wavelength
    21. 21. Radiation Efficiency  The radiation efficiency e indicates how efficiently the antenna uses the RF power.  It is the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna and the total power delivered to the antenna terminals. In terms of equivalent circuit parameters: Rr e= Rr + Rl
    22. 22. Antenna Array Antenna array consists of multiple antennas collaborating to synthesize radiation characteristics not available with a single antenna. They are able ● ● ● ● To match the radiation pattern to the desired coverage area. To change the radiation pattern electronically through the control of the phase and the amplitude of the signal fed to each element. To adapt to changing signal conditions. To increase transmission capacity by better use of the radio resources and by reducing interference.
    23. 23. Advantages of Antenna Array  Possibilities to control electronically • • • • • Direction of maximum radiation Directions (positions) of nulls Beam-width Directivity Levels of side lobes Using standard antennas (or antenna collections) independently of their radiation patterns.  Antenna elements can be distributed along straight lines, arcs, squares, circles, etc.
    24. 24. A View of Antenna Array 27 antennas along 3 railroad tracks provide baselines up to 35 km. Radio images are formed by correlating the signals garnered by each antenna.
    25. 25. KEY LEARNING’S AT TRAINING  Important concepts of communication.  Resource management.  Discipline.  Development of a practical point of view towards the work.
    26. 26. CONCLUSION  It was a wonderful experience while training in A.I.R.  There is great scope for engineers in the field of communication.  Exposure to practical working conditions will be beneficial for our career.
    27. 27. THANK YOU. ANY QUERY ?

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