Time management


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  • Attending this lecture will not help you, unless you do some efforts to utilize all or some of the tools and techniques discussed in this lecture.
  • Cut the fat. Most of time wasters become habit. When completing a time log, you will be surprised to know that how much time you waste. This is a list of most common time wasters, we make you own list. You need to develop a habit of controlling your time wasters and utilizing that time for other important activities. Loosing things: how much time we spent on finding a document, an address, an email, or a telephone number. Telephone: How many times a day we are distracted from important work by the telephone ringing? What is the average length of each call. What proportion of theses calls are really necessary?Procrastination: What tasks have we been avoiding over the past few weeks? What excuses have been used to delay action. What is usually the end result of our procrastination? Reverse delegation: Do we respond to request for help by saying “leave it with me, I’ll tackle it later?” Is there work on desk that our subordinates have left of our input?
  • Perfectionism: Do we spend extra time getting things 100% right when 95% would do? Does our attention to detail on one project mean that something else more important doesn’t get done? Distractions: in the middle of one task, do we often find our attention being grabbed by other work?How do these distractions affect our work flow?Emails: Do we answer our emails as soon as they arrive?Do we read all our emails, regardless of how many are junk and should be deleted unread?Do we print our emails instead of storing them?Do we send emails when a phone call or note would be more appropriate?Do we write long emails when of a short one would do? Surfing the internet: How many times do we search the Internet for Information that could be obtained more quickly by looking in a book or asking somebody?Do we use Internet as a way of avoiding other work?When surfing the Internet do we get side-tracked by interesting or irrelevant sites?Working through our own personal list of time wasters, we should ask ourselves how much time we waste in each category during the typical week. You should be able to say at least one to two hours every week by controlling the time wasters.
  • The essential focus of the fourth generation of management can be captured in the time management matrix. Basically we spend time in one of the four ways.
  • Urgent means it requires immediate attention. A ringing phone is urgent. Most people can’t stand the though of just allowing the phone to ring. Urgent matters are usually visible . They press on us; they insist on action. They are often popular with others. They are usually right in front of us. And often are pleasant, easy, fun to do. But so often they are unimportant. Importance : on the other hand has to do with results. If some –thing is important, it contributes to your mission, your values, your high priority goals. We react to urgent matters. Important matters that are not urgent require more initiative, more procreativity. We act to seize opportunity, to make things happen. If we don’t practice to be proactive, if we don’t have a clear idea of what is important, of results we desire in our lives. We are easily diverted into responding to the urgent. Look for a moment at the four quadrants in the time management matrix. Quadrant 1 is both urgent and important . It deals with significant results that require immediate attention. We call these activities crises or problems. We all have some Quadrant I activities in our lives. But we Quadrant 1 consumes many people. They are crisis managers, problem-minded people, deadline-driven producers.
  • As long as you focus on Quadrant 1, it keeps getting bigger and bigger until it dominates you. A huge problem comes and knocks you down. You struggle back up only to face another one that knocks you down and slams you to the ground. Some people are literally beaten up by problems all day every day. The only relieve they have is in escaping to the not important , not urgent activities of Quadrant IV. SO when you look at their total matrix, 90% of their time is in Quadrant 1, and most of the remaining 10% in IV. With only negligible attention paid to Quadrants II and III . That’s how people who manage their lives by crisis live.
  • There are other people who spend a great deal of time in “urgent, but not important” Quadrant III, thinking they are in Quadrant 1. They spend most of their time reacting to things that are urgent, assuming they are also important. But the reality is that the urgency of these matters is often based on the priorities and expectations of others. People who spend time almost exclusively in Quadrant III and IV basically lead irresponsible lives.
  • Effective people stay of Quadrant III and IV because, urgent or not, they are not important. They also shrink Quadrant 1 down to size be spending more time in Quadrant II.
  • Quadrant II is the heart of effective personal management. It deals with things that are not urgent, but are important. It deals with things like building relationships, writing a personal mission statement, long range planning, exercising, preventive maintenance, preparation – all those things we know we need to do, but somehow seldom get around to doing, because they aren’t urgent. According to Peter Drucker, effective people are not problem minded; they are opportunity-minded. They feed opportunities and starve problems and crisis. They think preventively. They have genuine Quadrant I crises and emergencies that require their immediate attention, but the number is comparatively small. They keep “Producing desired results” and “production capability” in balance by focusing on the important, but not urgent. High leverage capacity-building activities of Quadrant II. With the time management matrix in mind, take a moment now and consider how you answered the questions I asked you earlier.What quadrant do they fit in? Are they important ? Are they urgent?My guess is that they probably fit into Quadrant II. They are obviously important, but not urgent. And because they aren’t urgent, you don’t do them.
  • Organizing on a weekly basis provides much greater balance and context than daily planning.
  • With quadrant II weekly organizing, daily planning becomes more a function of daily adapting, of prioritizing activities and responding to unanticipated events, relationships, and experiences in a more meaningful way. Putting a few minutes each morning to review your schedule can put you in touch with the value-based decisions you made as you organized the week as well as unanticipated factors that may have come up. As you overview the day, you can see that your roles and goals provide a natural prioritization that grows out of your innate sense of balance.
  • Time management

    1. 1. Time Management Dr. Rafi Ashrafi Associate Professor and Head Information Systems DepartmentCollege of Commerce and Economics Sultan Qaboos University Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    2. 2. Agenda• Why to learn about time management?• What is the biggest Challenge in your life?• Where to start? What to do?• Self assessment -understating how you spend your time• Key to success• Time management Matrix• Organizing and planning your time• Determining priorities• Developing strategies Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    3. 3. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    4. 4. Why you need to learn about time management ?• Study a number of subject areas• Do clinical rotations and calls• Prepare for Exams• Deal with crisis• Need time for your personal life, study, health, family, entertainment, and other plans/objectives• Challenge: How to balance your personal, social, academic and professional life? Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    5. 5. Time Management is the art ofgetting things done effectively and efficiently Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    6. 6. Benefits of Time Management• Less time spent on firefighting and responding to crises• Focus on things that produce results• Help you how to work through problems and challenges• More time for family, friends, and leisure• Reduce stress and fatigue• Greater sense of achievement Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    7. 7. Facts about Time• Time is a precious commodity• We feel we can do more if we have more time• Allah Subhanahu Taala has given every one 24 hours• The real differentiating factor is how we utilize our time• Most of us do not realize how we spend our time• Try this for a week: Record a daily log of activities from waking-up to going to bed at night• You will be surprise to know that how much time – you spent on important and productive activities – you spent on unimportant activities and – how much time Lecture you waste College did presented at SQU Medical Oct 29, 2011
    8. 8. Balancing the different elements of your life• Ask yourself:• Are there elements of my life that are currently taking a greater portion of my time than they should? If so, what are they?• Why have they become so excessively demanding?• What elements in my life should I be spending more time on?• What I should do to start adjusting the balance between these? Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    9. 9. Effective time management• Right attitude – time conscious, commitment, positive thinking, motivation• Planning: – Assessing your current working practice – time log – Analyzing where time goes now – Developing strategies how to improve time management• Implementing the strategies• Monitoring and control – how are you doing? Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    10. 10. Identify and control time wasters• Loosing things• Telephone• Procrastination• Reverse delegation Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    11. 11. Identify and control time wasters• Perfectionism• Distractions• Emails• Surfing the Internet Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    12. 12. Things which matter mostmust never be at the mercy of things which matter least Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Goethe Oct 29, 2011
    13. 13. Self assessment• Take a moment and write down a short answer to the following two questions:• Q.1. What one thing could you do (you aren’t doing now) that if you did on a regular basis, would make a tremendous positive difference in your personal life?• Q.2. What one thing in your professional life would bring similar results. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    14. 14. Key to Success• E.M. Gray spent his life in searching for the one denominator that all successful people share.• He found it wasn’t hard work, good luck, or astute human relations, though those were all important.• The one factor that seemed to transcend all the rest embodies the essence of: putting first things first• The successful people have the habit of doing the things failures don’t like to do.• Key is to: Organize and execute around priorities Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    15. 15. Four generations of Time Management• 1st G: Notes and Checklists• 2nd G: Calendars and Appointments books• 3rd G: current time management,• it adds to those preceding generations: – the important idea of prioritization, – of clarifying values and of comparing the relative worth of activities. – it focuses on setting goals - specific long term, intermediate and short term targets – It also includes the concept of daily planning, of making a specific plan to accomplish those goals and activities that are of greatest worth. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    16. 16. Four generations of Time Management• 4th G: Emerging• It recognizes that time management is really a misnomer- the challenge is not to manage time, but to manage ourselves.• Rather focusing on things and time, the 4th G expectations focus on preserving and enhancing relationships and on accomplishing results.• The essential focus of 4th G of management can be captured in the time management matrix diagram. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    17. 17. The Time Management Matrix Urgent Not Urgent I II ACTIVITIES: ACTIVITIES:Important Crises Prevention, PC activities Pressing problems Relationship building Deadlines-driven projects Recognizing new opportunities Planning, recreation III IV ACTIVITIES: ACTIVITIES:Not Important Interruptions, some calls Trivia, busy work Some mail, some reports Some mail Some meetings Some phone calls Proximate, pressing matters Time wasters Popular activitiesLecture presented at SQU Medical College activities Pleasant Oct 29, 2011
    18. 18. III RESULTS: IV• Stress• Burnout• Crisis management• Always putting out firesIII Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    19. 19. I II IVIII RESULTS:• Short-term focus• Crisis management• Reputation• See goals and plans as worthless• Feel victimized, out of control• Shallow or broken relationships Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    20. 20. I IIIII IV RESULTS: • Total irresponsibility • Fired from jobs • Dependent on others or institution for basics Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    21. 21. I II RESULTS: • Vision, perspective • Balance • Discipline • Control • Few crises Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    22. 22. Determining Priorities• Quadrant I: Urgent and important – Need immediate attention• Quadrant II: Important but not urgent – Spent as much time as possible on these tasks• Quadrant III: Urgent but not important – Don’t let these items draw your attention away from those in Quadrant II – Such tasks may be delegated, or say no• Quadrant IV: Nor urgent neither important – Don’t waste time on theseMedical College Lecture presented at SQU tasks Oct 29, 2011
    23. 23. Self assessment• If you were to fault yourself in one of three areas, which would it be:• 1) the inability to prioritize• 2)The inability or desire to organize around those priorities• 3)The lack of discipline to execute around them, to stay with your priorities and organization?• Most people say their main fault is a lack of discipline. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    24. 24. Key to success: Self Management• You need a tool that encourages you, motivates you, actually helps you spend the time you need in Quadrant II,• So that you are dealing with prevention rather than prioritizing crises.• The best way is to organize your life on weekly basis.• You can still adapt and prioritize on daily basis, but the fundamental thrust is organizing the week.• The key is not to prioritize what’s on your schedule, but to schedule your priorities. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    25. 25. Self Management• Selecting Goals:• Think one or two important results you feel you should accomplish in each role during the next seven days.• These would be recorded as goals• At least some of these goals should reflect Quadrant II activities• Ideally , these weekly goals should be tied with your long-term goals you have identified in your mission statement. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    26. 26. Self Management• Scheduling:• Look at the week ahead with your goals in mind and schedule time to achieve them.• A good habit is to set aside a block of one or two hour time on a day and work on it.• Thursday or Friday or other day of the week is often the ideal time to plan your more personally uplifting activities, including weekly organizing. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    27. 27. Self Management• Daily adapting:• With Quadrant II weekly organizing, – daily planning becomes a function of daily prioritizing activities and responding to unanticipated events.• Taking a few minutes each morning to review your schedule will put you in control of your daily activities• As you overview the day, you can see your roles and goals provide a natural prioritization to balance your long term life goals. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    28. 28. A week in Clinical rotations Sat Sun Mon Tues Wed8-9 AM Morning Morning Morning Morning Morning report report report report report9 AM-2 PM CTU CTU CTU CTU CTU2-3 PM Seminar Radiology Bedside Seminar Seminar Breathlessnes CXR&HRCT procedures Jaundice Hepatitis s3-4 PM Clin Seminar Spirometry Biochemist Mx of Physiology Management Interpretation Hepatitis of LFTs PFT4 PM On-call On-call On-call On-call On-callonwards Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    29. 29. Mission Roles Goals Statement LONG-TERM ORGANIZING ScheduleMission Roles GoalsStatement Delegate WEEKLY ORGANIZING Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    30. 30. Draft personal mission statement Register for a seminar on timeIndividual- managementPersonal Development. Visit Grandfather in hospital Confirm concert tickets Help my son/daughter in his/her scienceSpouse/Parent project Get Abeer’s bike fixed Visit Uncle/aunty Prepare for testStudent /Intern Complete round reports Attend seminar on cancer Review progress with your advisor Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    31. 31. Week of: Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday The WEEKLY SCHEDULE Roles Goals Weekly Today’s Priorities Priorities Draft personal mission Prepare for Concert Seminar Mission 1 Ahmed’s Visit test ticket registration Statement Science Grand- 3 4 project father statement 7 8 2 5Individual- 1Personal Register seminar Abeer’e bikeDevelopment 2 1 6 Visit grandfather in 3 9 0 hospital Appointment/Commitments Confirm concert 8-9 morning 8 -9 morning 8-9 morning 8-9 morning 8-9 morning 8-9 8-9 tickets 4 report report report report report Private time private timeSpouse/Parent Ahmed’s science 5 project 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-11 am 9: 10 6 CTU CTU CTU CTU CTU Ahmed’s Reading Abeer’s bike Science 5 Quran project Prepare for Test 2-3 pm 2-3- pm 2-3- pm 2-3- pm 2-3-pm 11-12 10 -11 7 Seminar Seminar Bedside Radiology Seminar Abeer’s bike study Hepatitis Jaundice procedures CXR&HRCT Breathlessnes 6 sStudent/Intern Complete reports 8 Mx of Biochemistry Spirometry Seminar Clin 11:30 12:30 11-12 Hepatitis Interpretation Management Physiology Gym private time Review progress of LFTs PFT 9 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 2-5 prepare Attend cancer seminar 1 onwards onwards onwards onwards onwards for test 7 0 On-call On-call On-call On-call On-call Evening Evening after Evening Evening after Evening after Evening 4- 6 pm after 5:00 7 5:00 pm 8 after 5:00 5:00 pm 5:00 pm after 5:00 Visit pm pm 4 2 pm Grand- Lecture presented at SQU Medical College 9 1 1 private time father 3 Oct 29, 2011 0
    32. 32. Organize your time• You may download a preplanning journal: http://www.kztraining.com/timekeepingjournal/ pdf/Timekeeping%20Journal.pdf• Analyze your daily activities and find out: – What proportion of your time is currently spent on unimportant tasks (Quadrants III and IV ) – What could you do to reduce the number of tasks appearing in these sectors (Quadrants III and IV ), unimportant. – Was enough of your time spent on tasks in Quadrant II (Important and not urgent) – How can you increase time devoted to tasks in Quadrant II (Important and not urgent) Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    33. 33. Planning your time• Develop a personal Mission Statement• Short term and long term goals• Plan your daily activities for the next day at the end of the day, or the first thing in the day• Plan for next week activities at the end of the week• Plan for next four month (semester): block time for major projects/activities. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    34. 34. Suggestions• At the end of the week, evaluate how well your plan achieved your goals• Commit yourself to start organizing on weekly basis and set up a regular time to do it.• You need to do it regularly for at least 3-4 weeks in order to develop a habit of doing it.• Either convert your current planning tool into a fourth generation tool or secure such a tool Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    35. 35. Planning and tracking tools• Notebook and a diary to Palmtop computers and Smart phones• Choose that best suite your preferred lifestyle• Most of the planners and organizers contain: – Year planner, Diaries – Daily planning sheets- appointments and things to do – Monthly objectives and project planning sheets – Telephone and address book inserts – Budget planning and expense planning (if needed) – Pages for notes (for reference etc)• The idea is that all necessary working information is contained in one convenient folder or place. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    36. 36. PC – based Personal Information Managers (PIMs)• Outlook, Lotus notes (IBM)• Typical contents: – An address book to manage contacts – ‘To do’ list that can be arranged under subject categories – Simple project planning and tracking in terms of date, person responsible, planned duration and percentage of the tasks completed.• A calendar and appointments scheduler, may be integrated with the address book and ‘to do list” and – offers reminders and recurring appointments – time spent and expense tracking – free note space Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    37. 37. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and Smart Phones• All PDAs incorporate standard PIM features- address book, calendar/appointments scheduler, task lists• Also include email, e-book readers and pocket versions of standard office software• What system is best?• Depend on your preferred life style, System must include: – ‘To do’ lists – Scheduling your time- Estimating time requirements – Slot tasks into the day – commitments, appointments, meeting, regular scheduled tasks and flexible ones. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    38. 38. Organize information• Separate the important information from the junk• Maintain a systematic approach with all incoming information• Handle all incoming information as carefully as possible• Take steps to reduce unnecessary incoming mail• In order to increase your productivity: – Build up your reading speed and comprehension – Use memory techniques and review to assist your recall Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    39. 39. Other strategies• Organize your desk space• Get rid of the piles on the desk• Organize and use a filing system• Use technology effectively – get training in using outlook, PDA or SMART phone effectively• A small investment of time in training will save you lot of time later. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    40. 40. Procrastination• We postpone tasks for a number of reasons: – Fear of failing or making mistakes – boredom – Uncertainty over how to go about a task – Anxiety about the possible consequences of an action – Perfectionism-unwilling to start a task unless it can be completed perfectly – May need more information Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    41. 41. Strategies for overcoming procrastination• Clarify in your own mind the consequences in terms of loss of control over your life• Feel pleasure of completing it• Take seriously your ‘To do prioritized list’• Don’t allow postponement of tasks to become a habit• Schedule specific time for tasks that you don’t like or are resisting to do• Tackle boredom by allowing your self short breaks• Do a good job. Don’t strive for perfection• Look for an easy point of entry – the key is to start it• Divide large complicated tasks into bite-size chunks• Set your own deadlines Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    42. 42. Summary• Analyze your current use of time• Define Mission of your life• Identify your roles and long-term term goals• Translate your roles and goals into plans• Prioritize your goals and tasks• Identify time wasters and interrupters and control them• Develop effective time management habits• Plan and organize your time Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    43. 43. Summary• Use effective strategies to mange your time better• Use a time management system• Use technology for planning and implementing your time management system• Organize all information effectively• Have fun, short breaks, find time for enjoyment and relaxation Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    44. 44. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011
    45. 45. References• Carnegie Mellon Professor Randy Pausch gave a lecture on Time Management. Randy Pausch Lecture: Time Management – YouTube, www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTugjssqOT06 Feb 2008 - 76 min - Uploaded by Carnegie-Mellon.• Stephen Covey: The 7 habits of highly Effective people, Free Press, 2004. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Habits-Highly-Effective-People• Caunt, J. Organize Yourself, The Sunday Times, Kogan page, 2nd ed., UK, 2006.• Forsyth, P. Successful Time Management, revised 2nd Ed, The Sunday Times, Kogan Page, UK, 2010.• Manktelow, J. Manage your time, DK publishers, UK, 2006. Lecture presented at SQU Medical College Oct 29, 2011