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India Infrastructure Report 2011


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India Infrastructure Report 2011

  1. 1. India Infrastructure Report 2011 Water: Policy and Performance for Sustainable Development.2012 E11 Karthik Madhavan MBA, Batch of 2012-2014 Symbiosis Centre for Management & Human Resource Development
  2. 2. To present the existing water policies and its issues andhow we can improve the same for a sustainabledevelopment. Objective Overview Water in Cities Macro Reforms Irrigation Industrial Water Demand Rainwater Harvesting Pollution Transforming Water Recycling and Reuse Utilities Sector Reforms PPP 2
  3. 3. OverviewStrategic vision : Water•Water Resource Planning and Consumers Development•Empowerment of Local Institutions and Citizens Agriculture Industry Domestic•A Sound Legal Framework 85% 9% 6%•Better management of Water ResourcesPractical Options: Some facts:• Water use efficiency • Consumers• Changes in cropping patterns • Total utilizable water - 1,122 bcm.• Better irrigation techniques • National Water Policy 1987, 2002.• Water-saving innovations (SRI) • River Basins..• Improving the productivity of ‘rain- fed’ agriculture • Water Gap in India by 2030. 3
  4. 4. MacroeconomicsSources of Water•River Basins, Dams.•Rainfall – [ Rajasthan 100mm, Cherrapunji – 11000mm]Challenges•Floods and Droughts•Water Quality•Boundary Issues•Groundwater Development 4
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  6. 6. Groundwater Irrigation Canal Increasing effectiveWater logging and salinity irrigation areaDisplacement, rehabilitation Per capita dam storage needs to be enhancedInter- sectorial competition Inter-basin transfer ofGround water depletion surplus waterUnder utilization of ground PPP for distributionwater resources 6
  7. 7. Rainwater HarvestingImportance :- Recharges groundwater table. Increases the supply of water Positive impact on the cropping patterns Hours of irrigation from the wells increased by 32% Rise in water table depth by 6-7m. Increases net revenues Useful in semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions 7
  8. 8. Transforming Water Utilities Operational efficiency:- Institutional efficiency•Using improved •A mandatory water act performance as an •Amend municipal acts instrument to increase •Corporatization of service user charges delivery•Focus on performance •Appropriate improvement communication strategies•Recruitment 8
  9. 9. • Existing assets. • Land • On timeInvestment by • Right over assetsPrivate Sector • Freedom to sub-contract requires :- • Latest ULB database Risks:- Capital Risk Revenue Risk O&M Risks Why private companies Performance Guarantee don’t want to participate? On the job risks. 9
  10. 10. How to attract Private Capital in irrigation?• Viability Gap Fund (VGF)• Deferred payment structure• Annuity models• Creation of a Corpus FundKey Issues:- Capital Returns Areas of Private Sector Low revenues Participation: Land acquisition Construction and O&M Rehabilitation Remodelling and renovating Resettlement Development of tourism and pisciculture. Trained manpower. Distribution Excess water. Technologies and Marketing 10
  11. 11. Water in CitiesShortcomings: Strategies• Unreliable supply. • Shorter Management• Chronic under-investment. Contracts based on pilot zones.• Legal and administrative barriers. • JNNURM projects should be extra-traditional.• High cost of connections. • Better link between city• Inefficiency of existing governance, urban spaces subsidies. and water services 11
  12. 12. Industrial Water DemandVery high use :- Water availability increased by:- Maximizing retention, eliminating Obsolete process technology pollution and minimizing losses. Poor recycling and reuse Conservation consciousness should practices be promoted through Poor wastewater treatment. Education, regulation, incentives. 12
  13. 13. PollutionCauses of contamination:• Discharge of wastewater• No adequate water flow for dilution.• Household borne effluents• No standardization Abatement :-• Agricultural run-offsEffects of Water Pollution • Marketable benefits• Lack of water, sanitation, and hygiene. • Non-marketable• India loses 90 million days a year due to water borne diseases. benefits• Production losses and treatment costs worth Rs. 6 billion 13
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  15. 15. Types of Wastewater:• After domestic & public uses• Industrial Waste Water• Saline agricultural drainage water Recycling and Reuse• Brackish ground water• Sea water in coastal regionsIf we do not recycle and reuse… Government should include• Poor Water Availability• Increasing Cost for Water Supply Poor greywater treatment and Economic Performance of ULBs reuse as an integral part of• Interstate Disputes on Resource water reuse programmes in Allocation• Unsustainable Growth ministries. •Recharging aquifers and augmenting surface Indirect water reservoirs with reused water. reuse •(for non-potable purposes) - garden irrigation, toilet flushing, home air Direct reuse conditioning, car washing, agricultural irrigation. 15
  16. 16. Sector ReformsCentralization of governance of the water sectorNational water policyAttempt to develop constitutional basis for nationalization of water resourcesState level centralization of water governanceInequitable water distributionPriority of water allocationFor equitable water distributionFrom ‘affordability’ to ‘cost recovery’ 16
  17. 17. Thank You!1. Better Irrigation2. Rainwater Harvesting3. Implementation of PPP, ease of regulations4. Control Water Pollution!5. Reuse grey water 17