Theileriosis are those tick-borne protozoandiseases associated with Theileria spp. In Sudan, most cases of Bovine theiler...
 Theileriosis of sheep and goat are caused by  Th. hirci (Th. lestoquardi - Malignant ovine  theileriosis) and Th. ovis (...
5) …divides with schizont inside  2 infected daughter cells                                       6) 10-15 days post-    ...
PathogenesisTick inoculation of sporozoites      lymphocytesin local lymph node      schizonts       lymphoidproliferation...
   Swelling of the draining lymph node, usually the    parotid.   Generalized lymphadenopathy.   Fever 40 – 41o C
   Poor condition and severe lymphadenopathy in heifer
Lacrimation and corneal opacity
Dyspnea
Diarrhoea
Recumbency
Death usually within three weeks of              infection
   In case of Equine theileriosis there is fever, anaemia,    jaundice and haemoglobinuria.                    Jaundice i...
   Occasional cases of brain involvement occur and    are characterized by circling, hence turning    sickness or cerebra...
   Splenic enlargement.   Severe pulmonary emphysema and edema along with    hydrothorax and hydropericardium.   Genera...
Pulmonary emphysema and edema   The Ln. is enlarged and diffusely pale, and                                contains numero...
Emaciated Carcass           Kidney, There are multiple petechiae on                            the surface of the cortex. ...
   East Coast Fever only occurs where R.    appendiculatus is present, although occasionally    outbreaks such areas have...
   In sick animals, macroschizonts are readily    detected in biopsy smears of lymph nodes and    in dead animals in impr...
There are two types of schizonts (Koch’s Blue Bodies)•    Macroschizont: one with large chromatin granules gives     (8-16...
In the field, diagnosis isusually achieved by findingTheileria parasites inGiemsa-stained bloodsmears and lymph nodeneedle...
Theileria PiroplasmosisLymphoblasts containingTheileria parasites
 The indirect fluorescent antibody test is of  value in detecting cattle which have recovered  from ECF.
Differential diagnosis1.   Heartwater because of pulmonary edema and hydrothorax.     Examination of brain smears and lymp...
Treatment Tetracyclines have a therapeutic effect if  given at the time of infection but they are of  no value in the tre...
Control   Integrated approach involving resistant animal    breeds.   Vaccination by infection-and-treatment    methods.
   Strategic application of    acaricides.
Dipping
Recommended actions if theileriosis is suspected•   Notification of authoritiesTheileria species including Th. annulata ha...
1.   http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/clinical-signs-photos.php?name=theileriosis2.   http://www.vetnext.com/searc...
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
Theileriosis
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Theileriosis

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Theileriosis Presented by Ahmed Abdulkadir Hassan
4th year student, college of veterinary medicine,
University of Bahri.
kadle010@gmail.com
khartoum, Sudan.

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  • Geographic DistributionThe distribution of ECF is strictly associated with the distribution of the vector tick species. In the case of Rhipicephalusappendiculatus, the area extends from southern Sudan to South Africa and as far west as Zaire.
  • The dominating pathological lesion is generalized lymphoid proliferation resulting from uncontrolled proliferation of T-Iymphocytes containing schizonts.This is followed later by necrosis of infected lymphoblasts induced by cytotoxic T-Iymphocytes. The severe lymphocytolysis often leads to immunosuppression.
  • Turning sickness: an aberrant form of theileriosis in which parasitized lymphocytes cause emboli and hemorrhagic infarcts in central nervous tissue.
  • Bovine, lung. The lung tissue is diffusely tan-brown, and lobules are non-collapsed and rubbery (interstitial pneumonia).The node is enlarged and diffusely pale, and contains numerous petechiae.Bovine, kidney. The multiple pale foci on the cortical surface are lymphoid infiltrates.
  • Bovine, kidney. There are multiple petechiae on the surface of the cortex. The lymph node near the hilus is markedly enlarged.
  • Koch’s blue bodies: sporozoites enter the lymphocytes.
  • Treatment with these compounds is highly effective when applied in the early stages of clinical disease but is less effective in the advanced stages in which there is extensive destruction of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues.
  • Infect animal with the sporozoite form of the parasite while at the same time treating the cattle with an antibiotic drug to lessen the severity of the infection.
  • Theileriosis

    1. 1. Theileriosis are those tick-borne protozoandiseases associated with Theileria spp. In Sudan, most cases of Bovine theileriosis are caused by Th. annulata (tropical or Mediterranean theileriosis) and Th. mutans (benign theileriosis), and Th. parva (ECF) may exist in Southern Sudan.
    2. 2.  Theileriosis of sheep and goat are caused by Th. hirci (Th. lestoquardi - Malignant ovine theileriosis) and Th. ovis (mild theileriosis). Equine theileriosis are caused by Th. equi. Transmission: Stage to stage (Transtadial Transmission).
    3. 3. 5) …divides with schizont inside  2 infected daughter cells 6) 10-15 days post- infection, schizont  merozoite (invades erythrocyte (RBC))4) Lymphocyte  lymphoblast (enlargedlymphocyte) and… * 5-8 days post-infection: found in lymph nodes * Schizonts increase 10- fold every 3 days3) Sporozoite enters 7) In RBC,lymphocyte (WBC)  schizont merozoite  piroplasm (infect ticks) 2) Sporozoites transfer to ungulate if tick is attached for 48-72 hrs 1) Sporozoites produced in tick salivary glands 8) RBCs ingested by nymphs during feeding Incubation Period 9) Once in gut, undergoes sexual reproduction  Experimentally Infected: 8-12 days motile stage, moves to Naturally Infected: up to 3 weeks tick’s salivary gland
    4. 4. PathogenesisTick inoculation of sporozoites lymphocytesin local lymph node schizonts lymphoidproliferation merozoites erythrocytespiroplasms ticks. Damage mainly by schizonts.
    5. 5.  Swelling of the draining lymph node, usually the parotid. Generalized lymphadenopathy. Fever 40 – 41o C
    6. 6.  Poor condition and severe lymphadenopathy in heifer
    7. 7. Lacrimation and corneal opacity
    8. 8. Dyspnea
    9. 9. Diarrhoea
    10. 10. Recumbency
    11. 11. Death usually within three weeks of infection
    12. 12.  In case of Equine theileriosis there is fever, anaemia, jaundice and haemoglobinuria. Jaundice in a horse’s eye
    13. 13.  Occasional cases of brain involvement occur and are characterized by circling, hence turning sickness or cerebral theileriosis due to the presence of schizont in the cerebral capillaries.
    14. 14.  Splenic enlargement. Severe pulmonary emphysema and edema along with hydrothorax and hydropericardium. Generalized lymphoid hyperplasia. Small lymphoid nodules (the so-called pseudo-infarcts) are present in liver, kidney, and alimentary track. The carcass is emaciated and hemorrhages are evident in a variety of tissues and organs.
    15. 15. Pulmonary emphysema and edema The Ln. is enlarged and diffusely pale, and contains numerous petechiae. Multiple pale foci on the cortical surface of the kidney are lymphoid infiltrates.
    16. 16. Emaciated Carcass Kidney, There are multiple petechiae on the surface of the cortex. The lymph node near the hilus is markedly enlarged Hydropericardium
    17. 17.  East Coast Fever only occurs where R. appendiculatus is present, although occasionally outbreaks such areas have been recorded due to the introduction of tick-infected cattle from an enzootic area.
    18. 18.  In sick animals, macroschizonts are readily detected in biopsy smears of lymph nodes and in dead animals in impression smears of lymph nodes and spleen.
    19. 19. There are two types of schizonts (Koch’s Blue Bodies)• Macroschizont: one with large chromatin granules gives (8-16 macromerozoites).• Microschizont: one with small chromatin granules gives (50-120 Micromerozoites) (Sexually differentiated) and infect RBCs.
    20. 20. In the field, diagnosis isusually achieved by findingTheileria parasites inGiemsa-stained bloodsmears and lymph nodeneedle biopsy smears
    21. 21. Theileria PiroplasmosisLymphoblasts containingTheileria parasites
    22. 22.  The indirect fluorescent antibody test is of value in detecting cattle which have recovered from ECF.
    23. 23. Differential diagnosis1. Heartwater because of pulmonary edema and hydrothorax. Examination of brain smears and lymph node or spleen impression smears can differentiate between the two diseases.2. Trypanosomiasis because of edema, lymphadenopathy, and anemia. Blood and lymph node smear examination will normally differentiate between the two diseases.3. Babesiosis and anaplasmosis because of anemia. These diseases can easily be differentiated from theileriosis on examination of blood smears.4. Malignant catarrhal fever because of lymphadenopathy and corneal opacity. Examination of blood and lymph node smears will clearly differentiate between the two diseases.
    24. 24. Treatment Tetracyclines have a therapeutic effect if given at the time of infection but they are of no value in the treatment of clinical cases.
    25. 25. Control Integrated approach involving resistant animal breeds. Vaccination by infection-and-treatment methods.
    26. 26.  Strategic application of acaricides.
    27. 27. Dipping
    28. 28. Recommended actions if theileriosis is suspected• Notification of authoritiesTheileria species including Th. annulata have beenreported in Sudan; however, Th. parva, is exotic.East Coast fever and diseases caused by otherexotic Theileria spp. must be reported to state orfederal authorities immediately upon diagnosis orsuspicion of the disease.
    29. 29. 1. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/clinical-signs-photos.php?name=theileriosis2. http://www.vetnext.com/search.php?s=aandoening&id=73289151820%20278

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