Road Pricing And The Reduction...Powerpoint


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Road Pricing And The Reduction...Powerpoint

  1. 1. Road Pricing and the Reduction/Removal of Traffic Congestion in a Metropolis: Prospects and Problems of Application in Accra. Hayford Kofi Doe Adjavor M.Phil (II) By:
  2. 2. Introduction/Background: <ul><li> What is transport? </li></ul><ul><li> According to Hoyle and Knowles (1992): “Transport is an epitome of the complex relationships that exist between the physical environment, patterns of social and political activity and levels of economic development.” </li></ul><ul><li> A United Nation’s study by Voigt (1967) claimed that transport is “…the formative power of economic growth and the differentiating process.” </li></ul><ul><li>  “ A good transportation system is a prerequisite for economic growth”…Ghana National Transport Policy Document (Green Paper). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Statement of Problem: <ul><li>Traffic congestion in the Accra Metropolis… </li></ul><ul><li>The proliferation of low capacity vehicles in the Metropolis have contributed immensely towards the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The roads in the Metropolis are not sufficient to match the travel demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Other causes of traffic congestion: behavioral factors….. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Table 1. Population of Vehicles Registered in Accra District, and Registered Categories in Ghana. Statement of Problem Continued: 127,475 24,129 36,125 127,863 Total 24,884 5,585 6,686 22,949 2005 21,458 4,882 7,642 20,333 2004 19,136 5,110 5,110 20,564 2003 20,884 2,601 6,015 18,512 2002 18,092 2,676 5,568 17,953 2001 23,021 5,469 5,104 27,552 2000 No. of Registered Vehicles in Accra Buses & Coaches COMM MV Upto 2000cc PTE MV Upto 2000cc Year
  5. 5. Definition of Terms: <ul><li>Road Pricing: </li></ul><ul><li>Tolls </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion Pricing or Value Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Trips </li></ul><ul><li>Cordon (area) Tolls </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Use Fees </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assumptions: <ul><li>That there can hardly be any more physical extension in the roads/streets… </li></ul><ul><li>The road-pricing scheme would enhance the efficiency in the operations of the public transport sector. </li></ul><ul><li>The road pricing scheme will reduce low capacity vehicles, increase public transport use, and reduce non-essential trips. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Goals: <ul><li>To thoroughly examine the problems and prospects of road price implementation in Accra </li></ul><ul><li>To create new ideas to improve accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>To bring to light the sentiments of road users and the general public </li></ul>
  8. 8. Objectives: <ul><li>Establish the connection between income levels and car ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain likely effects of road pricing on private car ownership and/or use </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the relationship that may emerge between road pricing and the patronage of vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain the potential effects of road pricing on metro transport patronage </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, to make a recommendation that will guide policy formulation and implementation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Propositions: <ul><li>That a relationship may exist between road pricing and reduction in traffic congestion. </li></ul><ul><li>That road pricing would help reduce the number of low capacity vehicles entering the study area . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Study Area/Routes: <ul><li>Population of the Accra Metropolis: 1,658,937 </li></ul><ul><li>But the G.A.R. has a Population of 1,945,284 </li></ul><ul><li>1,377,903 (70.8%) of the G.A.R. figure were employed whilst 183,343 were unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cordon (area)/Routes: </li></ul><ul><li>Okai Mensah Lane at Trust Bank Tower </li></ul><ul><li>The South Liberia Road </li></ul><ul><li>The Liberia Road </li></ul><ul><li>Through Jamestown </li></ul><ul><li>Obetsebi Lamptey Roundabout – Graphic Road </li></ul>
  11. 11.    
  12. 12. Conceptual Framework: <ul><li>Rising incomes would generally lead to an increase in car ownership and thus, more car travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Population increase and urbanization would lead to further increase in traffic congestion resulting in less public bus travel, higher bus fares, and reduced services. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Justification/Rationale: <ul><li>During the last decade or so transport geography had shared with other aspects of the discipline in a general swing towards ‘geography of relevance’ (Williams 1981, pp 22). </li></ul><ul><li>“ First as geographers seeking a much more active role in the promotion of human welfare” (Smith 1977, pp 1), and then as researchers offering explanations of such activities, it is important that we take up the issue of road pricing and traffic congestion more seriously as it ultimately borders on socio-economic development </li></ul>
  14. 15. Justification/Rationale Cont’d <ul><li>Costs and Benefits Issues of Road Price Implementation: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many economists consider urban traffic congestion virtually unsolvable without some sort of congestion pricing” Goodwin (1997) . </li></ul><ul><li> However, Shefer and Rietvald (1997) also; “shifting vehicle traffic to other routes or times provide few other benefits, causes spill over impact and many increase crash costs”. </li></ul><ul><li>VTPI road pricing that reduces total vehicle travel can reduce road and parking facility costs, increase road safety, protect the environment, encourage more efficient land use, and improve community livability. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Methodology: Sample Frame and Design: 100 200 Total 15 30 General Public 10 20 Policy Formulators 10 20 PublicTransport Operators 50 100 Private Car Owners/Drivers 15 30 Commercial Vehicle Operators Percentage Share Sub-Group
  16. 17. Methodology Cont’d <ul><li>Methods of data analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>A Simple correlation equation : Y = a +bX. </li></ul><ul><li>' Y’ is the dependent variable (patronage of low capacity vehicles) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ a’ is known as the Y intercept if X is zero, meaning the point at which the line best cuts the Y-axis, shall be employed. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ b’ is the gradient or slope of the line of best fit </li></ul><ul><li>‘ X’ is the independent variable (road pricing) </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Economists View on Road Pricing: <ul><li>Yildirim; “Economic theory argues that to achieve economic efficiency in the market, the price of goods and services should be at its full cost to society”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The users should be informed and persuaded that tolling the roads will make life easier in terms of congestion and public transportation” (Yildirim, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>External costs are all costs, which appear hidden and do not appear in a company’s…Hibbs (2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal Social Cost Pricing (MSCP) tolls are the best form of road pricing that is equal to the negative externalities imposed on other users in order to have an efficient utilization of the transportation network. </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Geography of Road Pricing: <ul><li>Singapore: </li></ul><ul><li>Population, 3,665,920. City covers 647.5 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>Total No. of vehicles in the city no. approx. 707,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Charging area smaller than London and divided into CBDs where scheme applies 7am to 7pm. </li></ul><ul><li>The ERP system was introduced in 1998 after the manual system in 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>CashCards can be bought at retail shops, banks, gas stations etc. to topple up. </li></ul><ul><li>different charges for diff. Roads at diff. Times. </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Geography of…Cont’d <ul><li>Trondheim: </li></ul><ul><li>Population; 140,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Charging area, approx. 4km by 6km. </li></ul><ul><li>Fully automatic ‘toll ring’ intro. in 1991 & subsequently divided into sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Charging period; 6am to 6pm from Mon. to Fri. </li></ul><ul><li>Unmanned electronic booths that do the deductions. </li></ul><ul><li>But, occasional users can pay by automatic coin machine or by ‘swipecards’ at barriered lanes. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Geography of...Cont’d <ul><li>Toronto: </li></ul><ul><li>Population 4.3 million, & city covers 100 sq km. </li></ul><ul><li>The city handles over 263,000 average trips. </li></ul><ul><li>All the toll roads are electronic, with open access toll highway. </li></ul><ul><li>In this city, 70% of tolls are collected by electronic transponders and 30% are collected by license plates, all at gantries. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Merry X’mas!!! Thank you for your attention