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  1. 1. Tundra Kaden Vannorsdel and Will Beauchamp
  2. 2. The Tundra <ul><li>The tundra is an arctic land. It is very cold, and it is one of the newest biomes, only ten thousand years old. Tundra winds are very cold, and precipitation is not very common. There is animal life in the tundra but very little vegetation because of permafrost. Permafrost plays a large role in the tundra. Permafrost is a permanently frozen layer of the earth. In the summer the top layer of soil might thaw out enough so plants can grow in, while melted snow or frost causes lakes and marshes each summer. There are two types of tundra. The first is the arctic tundra and the second type is the Alpine tundra. They are very similar, except the Alpine tundra is located on tops of rocky mountains. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Average Precipitation in Tundra
  4. 4. Average Temperature in Tundra
  5. 5. Plantae in Tundra <ul><li>Arctic tundra wildflowers and Calliergon giganteum, dwarfed shrubs, sedges, and perrenial forbs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anamalia in Tundra <ul><li>Polar bears, caribou, arctic fox, arctic hare, snowy owl, musk ox, rock ptarmigan, killer whale, sea lion, ground squirrel, lemming, seal, moose, beluga whale, red fox, gray wolf, emperor penguin, snow goose, and reindeer. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Protista in Tundra <ul><li>Algae, Tracheleugly padenata, and D. ovifomis. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fungi in Tundra <ul><li>Lichen and Amanita muscaria (mushroom). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Archaebacteria in Tundra <ul><li>Achromabacter and Alcaligenus </li></ul>
  10. 10. Eubacteria in Tundra <ul><li>Arthrobacter, Clostridium, and Pseudomonas are Eubacteria and Archaeoglobus, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Abiotic Factors in Tundra <ul><li>Elevation - Because of the Tundra’s high elevation water freezes, causes permafrost, which leads to the decrease in plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Topography - not a lot of trees because of poor soil. Permafrost creates topographical features. Such as Polygons which are areas where soil rises over ice so that it can get nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Average Yearly Wind Speed - Blow around plants, the winds the winds are freezing cold, winds create plateaus, and they blow snow off the plateaus which collect in valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Conditions - Conditions- Because of permafrost, soil is frozen much of the year. During the summer the soil thaws out but because of the lack of nutrients plant growth is very difficult. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food Chains in Tundra
  13. 13. Tundra Food Web Everything is Decomposed after they die.
  14. 14. Water Cycle in Tundra Permafrost Soil Snow Precipitation Seepage River Ocean Evaporation Condensation Accumulation
  15. 15. Nitrogen Cycle in Tundra Permafrost Death and Waste Nitrogen Fixation Decomposers Amonification Ammonia (NH3) Nitrification Nitrates Dentrification Nitrogen Gas Assimilation
  16. 16. Carbon Cycle in Tundra Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Permafrost Soil Death or Decomposition Fossil Fuels Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  17. 17. Phosphorus Cycle in Tundra
  18. 18. Symbiosis in Tundra <ul><li>Mutualism - Alga and fungus. The fungus is &quot;fed&quot; sugars by the photosynthetic alga and the alga receives protection from the fungus. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism - liver tapeworm infects moose, caribou, and wolves. Tapeworm makes animals very ill. </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism - Arctic fox follows polar bear. Polar bear is the larger predator so the arctic fox follows it and eats scraps of food left behind. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disaster in Tundra <ul><li>Extreme Heat Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme heat waves cause fires in the arctic tundra. In Alaska several reports of wildfires have been filed and the source of these unexpected fires is extreme heat waves. Fires will destroy some of the only existing plant life in the Tundra, with the loss of plant life, herbivores in the area such as lemmings and hares will either have to relocate or they will starve. </li></ul><ul><li>Because primary succession occurred before the forest fire, secondary succession will rebuild the area destroyed by the fire. Secondary succession begins in the soil of the destroyed are. After about a year weeds will begin to grow, after two to four years flowers will begin to grow, and after five to fifteen years seedlings and saplings will sprout. After a while the area will return to its normal conditions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Websites Used <ul><li>Thanks to : </li></ul>http:// www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra.htm http:// earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Experiments/Biome/graphs.php http:// www.tundraanimals.net / http://www2.lhric.org/kat/3tundra.htm#REINDEER http://www2.needham.k12.ma.us/nhs/cur/Bio96_97/P5/tundra/final.html http://www.biology.buffalo.edu/courses/bio531/lecture4.html http:// www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra_climate.htm http:// biomesfirst.wikispaces.com /Tundra (symbiotic relationship example) http://biomesfirst.wikispaces.com/Tundra+Food+Web http:// tundra.itgo.com/watercy.htm