IPY OSC Presentation

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IPY OSC Presentation

  1. 1. “The Stranger Within” : <br />Representations of Sámi in Norden in 19th-century Swedish Natural Scientific Works<br />Ph.D. Karin Granqvist, Sweden<br />Acknowledgements:<br /><ul><li> Karl Staaff’s Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden
  2. 2. Professor S. Sörlin, History of Science and Technology, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden</li></ul>Seashore in Norway. Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  3. 3. Representations of Sámi in Works <br />by Natural Scientists:<br />Göran Wahlenberg (1780-1851)<br />Lars Levi Læstadius (1800-1861)<br />Sven Lovén (1809-1895)<br />Axel Hamberg (1863-1933)<br />”Kaisepakte”, mountain, Sweden<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  4. 4. Lars Levi Læstadius’ research area<br />Sven Loven’s research area<br />Göran Wahlenberg’s area of research<br />Axel Hamberg’s area of research<br />
  5. 5. Themes of Interest for Natural Scientists<br /><ul><li> Clothes
  6. 6. Dwellings
  7. 7. Customs
  8. 8. Food
  9. 9. Tools
  10. 10. Language(s)
  11. 11. Origin</li></ul> Anthropology & Ethnology<br />Bottom of mountain lake, Sweden<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  12. 12. Evolutionary Process & a Society’s Social Status <br /><ul><li> Savagery
  13. 13. Barbary
  14. 14. Civilisation</li></ul>Anthropological and ethnographicals studies placed people at different stages on that scale: portable dwellings such as tents indicated a ’low’ stage; ploughs and stationary dwelling (houses) were markers for a civilized life style; languagescategorised people according to origin.<br />Mountains in Sweden<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  15. 15. Topics that Reinforced the Idea of Evolution<br />were Studies of Sámi’s Nature and Disposition<br />Lovén:<br /><ul><li> Sámi’s good sense of locality was a product of their close contact with nature
  16. 16. They led a poor life, but it was suited for them – and they alone</li></ul>Wahlenberg:<br /><ul><li> Sámi had bad and low moral
  17. 17. In business were they greedy and stingy
  18. 18. They cheated and could never be trusted
  19. 19. They had good sense of locality</li></ul>Læstadius:<br /><ul><li> Sámi were biological predestined to a life as reindeer herders – other life styles would make them perish, and they would be extinct</li></ul>Hamberg:<br /><ul><li> Sámi were lazy and weak, and never showed any type of stamina or endurance
  20. 20. His Sámi assistant Lars Nilsson Tuorda was describe as very competent (poster 1214)</li></ul>Seashore, Norway<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  21. 21. Representations of Sámi <br />in 19th-century Natural Scientific Works<br /><ul><li>Exotic and picturesque (and/or)
  22. 22. Racist and condescending</li></ul>Mountains in afternoon sun, July, Sweden<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  23. 23. 19th-century Theories when Representing Sámi<br /><ul><li>19th-century theories on ”duality” of Man: most famous example is Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in
  24. 24. Robert Stevenson’s novel from 1886
  25. 25. Similar theories got to be lamented with Charles Darwin’s theory on the evolution
  26. 26. Helped explain theories on ’the Others’; ’the Stranger within the nation’, ’the savages in the civilisation’ such as the Sámi</li></ul>Cover of new edition of Robert Louis Stevenson’s ”The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”<br />
  27. 27. Results of the Theories<br /><ul><li>Duality of man was, in the scientific context, suggested not to be found in the single individual(s) – like in the case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde – but amongst people of a larger group, such of a nation or a continent with a non-homogeneity population.
  28. 28. Representations of Sámi – based on the idea on duality of Man– could also be set in the context of the nation where the Sámi’s existence was appointed to be ‘the other side’ of the nation.
  29. 29. The theory on the Evolution emphasised the location of the Sámi outside a civilised nation The Sámi as Stranger</li></li></ul><li>Impact on the Swedish Industrialisation<br /><ul><li>Sámi core areas held natural resources: forests, ores, rivers and a designated ’wilderness’
  30. 30. Forestry
  31. 31. Mining industry
  32. 32. Hydroelectric power plants
  33. 33. National parks, such as Sarek in 1905</li></ul>Mountain ”glaicer lake”, Sweden<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  34. 34. The Making of the Industrialisation in the North<br />The making of the industrialisation in the North<br />Similarities with the colonisation of Africa in the 19th century The African was seen as ’no one’<br />’No one’ inhabited the area, therefore colonisation met no obstacles because no one was in the way<br />The Nordic countries turned their colonisation towards their northern regions. The Sámi had been represented as excisting outside the nation the exploitationof the North was made in a designated ’inhabited’ area.<br />Mountain ”glaicer lake”, Sweden<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />
  35. 35. Conclusion<br />The 19th-century representations of Sámi as “The Stranger”, “The Other” and a Swedish-Nordic “Mr Hyde” – that can be found in 19th-century natural scientific works – placed Sámi ‘outside’ the nation. Therefore was, on an ideological level, no one in the way in Sámi core areas when the exploitation of natural resources in the Swedish and Nordic North started and advanced.<br />Seashore, Norway<br />Photo: Karin Granqvist<br />

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