David fried 2012 aero conference paper six sigma generation four v.4


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David Fried's 2012 Presentation at the Arizona Educatiional Research Organization.

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David fried 2012 aero conference paper six sigma generation four v.4

  1. 1. Running head: SIX SIGMA GENERATION FOUR 1Impact of The Great Discovery® (Six Sigma Generation Four) on Undergraduate StudentSuccess: A Test of the Sapir-Whorf HypothesisDavid FriedUniversity of Phoenix
  2. 2. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 2Impact of The Great Discovery® (Six Sigma Generation Four) on Undergraduate StudentSuccess: A Test of the Sapir-Whorf HypothesisHaveman and Smeeding (2006) state that, though more students qualify to attend college,the gap between the socio-economic status (SES) of college students is growing, as is the gapbetween student SES and student success at college with the almost 75% of new college studentsclassified as high-income. Mamiseishvili (2010) indicated that, access to a college education hasincreased for low-income individuals, yet the likelihood of low-income students return followingtheir freshman year is only 25% of the number of students who come from financiallyadvantageous backgrounds. Only 11% of low-income students finish their undergraduate degreein a six year period compared to a 55% completion rate for students from higher incomesituations (Mamiseishvili, 2010). Haveman and Smeeding (2006) stated that completing asecondary education is the catalyst for social mobility; however, that ―contrary to its stated goalsand repeated claims, the U.S. higher education system fails to equalize opportunities amongstudents from high- and low-income families‖ (p. 128).Environment and Language.Human understanding of the world and individual thought processes are the result of thelanguage and cultural environment as stated by linguistic scholars Johann Herder and Wilhelmvon Humboldt (Liang, 2011). Applying this to education, students in low socio-economic status(SES) environments experience a reduction in confidence, literacy, and academic achievement.Chu (2011) stated that culturally and linguistically diverse students may lack the knowledge andabilities needed for academic success. The lack of goal setting, process planning, force-fieldanalysis, and process execution knowledge is not beyond understanding of any SES providedindividuals are willing to overcome their self-doubt (Reboul, 2011). At one point students enter
  3. 3. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 3the workforce, some even after attending college, but will they understand the values necessaryfor advancement through organizations and be able to change their environmental conditions andSES?Communication and Language.Janicki (2011) described the speaker’s role in the process of idea communication as thecreation of a set of words representing the concept, then sent to the receiver who is responsiblefor not only understanding the words but the context surrounding them. Reboul (2011) addedthat communication barriers exist between individuals from different cultures, separatingstudents within schools and employees within organizations. The misunderstanding of languagenot only causes confusion surrounding the subject matter but also often creates conflict betweenthe speaker and receiver because of misinterpretations (Janicki, 2011).The Great Discovery®, Six Sigma Generation FourThe original Six Sigma methodology was created to reduce manufacturing defects,however, it contains defects of its own such as limited reach within an organization because ofthe complicated and technical nature of the tools (Sanders, 2010). Twenty years afterconception, Six Sigma co-architect Dr. Mikel Harry and one of the original Six Sigma MasterBlack Belts, Catherine Lawson, published How to Get Out of the Box and Win introducing thefourth generation of Six Sigma, referred to as The Great Discovery®, discussing higher qualitydecision-making using the foundational concepts of Six Sigma (Harry & Lawson, 2010). Thefunction of The Great Discovery is to make the proven quality methods of Six Sigma available toindividuals, in order that they may change their approach to goal setting and problem solvingwithout needing to learn complex statistical analysis (Harry & Lawson, 2010).
  4. 4. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 4The Great Discovery on Changing Socio-economic Status.The Great Discovery is the Six Sigma way of thinking in that it focuses practitioners onconstructing dynamic processes for the prevention of error before beginning the process ratherthan trying to prevent it under situational constraint or fix processes after the error has occurred(Harry & Lawson, 2010). The Six Sigma way of thinking is a function of quality language suchas goals, catalyst, process, driving force, restraining force, leverage, divergent thinking,convergent thinking, and milestones.Definitions6 sigma – is a quantitative metric from an analysis of variance (ANOVA) where a given datapoint is six standard deviations away from the average on a normal distribution where 99.74% ofthe data set resides under the normal distribution (Caulcutt, 2001). 6 sigma is used indetermining the consistency or reliability of data.Defect – is an occurrence outside the allowable limits of a process such as a student not knowingwhat or restaurant customers who receive food they did not order.Sigma – noted as the Greek symbol σ, this is the value of one standard deviation from the meanof a normal distribution (Caulcutt, 2001).Six Sigma – ―is a business process that allows companies to drastically improve their bottom lineby designing and monitoring everyday business activities in ways that minimize waste andresources while increasing customer satisfaction‖ (Harry & Schroeder, 2000)Standard Deviation – known as a sigma (σ), is a statistical measurement of the variation within aset of data (Ha, 2005).
  5. 5. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 5Problem FormulationThe problem is, though individuals living within poverty conditions may want to attendand successfully complete college as a means of escaping their current financial situation, theycannot because of a limited ability to perceive an alternate reality caused by a lack of language.This is described by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that states an individual’s language provides thestructure for a person’s conceptualization of thought. Without the language needed to properlydescribe the new outcomes or the processes for arriving at them, people are unable to changetheir socio-economic status. The relationship of language and a human’s ability to conceive anidea was first conceptualized in fourth century Greece by Aristotle. It has been discussed sinceby individuals such as linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt in the eighteen hundreds who postulatedthat language was responsible for framing an individual’s perception, to Edward Sapir andBenjamin Lee Whorf who, in 1929 identified language as the navigation system for socialperception (Jing, 2011). Applying von Wumboldt’s understanding and the Sapir-Whorfhypothesis, individuals lacking language that extends beyond their situation of poverty cannotconceptualize the methods or practices necessary to make changes to escape their economiccondition. An example of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the hypothetical story of anarcheologist searching through the uncharted jungle of southeastern Peru for lost ancienttemples. After breaking through some brush the archeologist finds himself at the edge of aprimitive village and face-to-face with six of its inhabitants. The archeologist raises his cameraand begins snapping pictures to document his discovery when the men of the group lunge at himwith spears. Held captive by the villagers, the archeologist frantically attempts to explain whathis camera does but with no word for photograph or camera, the villagers are unable tounderstand his explanations and kill the archeologist. Jing explains the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  6. 6. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 6using European languages and the native American language of the Hopi tribe by stating thatfrom a European language perspective, time is a quantifiable aspect of life whereas the Hopi usetime as a relationship to before or after an event. Whorf understood that the language anindividual uses is a direct reflection of the individual’s perception of the world, according toJing, which can be expanded to include the environment that an individual exists within as adirect cause of the barriers that exist surrounding education. The language of the neighborhoodbecomes the language of the individual, even if unintentionally, framing the perception ofthought conception (Jing, 2011).Study PurposeThe purpose of the proposed research is to perform a timeline study measuring the affectsof The Great Discovery (Six Sigma Generation Four) via the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis on thelowest income undergraduate students at an institution for post-secondary education on NativeAmerican tribal land to determine if training in The Great Discovery methods of goal setting,process planning, force field analysis, and execution strategies raises low-income students’ gradein comparison to students of higher income status. The benchmark data from research studyparticipants will then be compared to same data for the entire student population of the sameuniversity.Study Research QuestionsQ1: Do the participant’s report a change in the methods of goal setting and processexecution following The Great Discovery training?Q2: Do the participant’s report a change in their language surrounding goal setting andgoal achievement following The Great Discovery training?Q4: Do the participant’s feel they are more following The Great Discovery training?
  7. 7. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 7Quantitative Research Questions and HypothesesQ5: Was the average participant’s score for the class affected by The Great Discoverytraining?H10: The Great Discovery training will not affect participant’s class grades.H1a: The Great Discovery training will positively affect participant’s class grades asmeasured by a greater grade increase than students of the same socio-economicstatus.Research Method and DesignThe researcher has selected a timeline study using a Solomon four-group design todetermine if The Great Discovery intervention affects student’s performance in class apart fromthe natural proficiency gained with increased topic familiarity. In a Solomon four-group design,each sample of students is divided into four groups; the first receiving no pretest or treatment, thesecond receiving a pretest but no treatment, the third receiving no pretest but the study treatment,and the fourth receiving the pretest and treatment. This method should identify the change, ifany, attributed to The Great Discovery training. The proposed research will be conducted withina single class, facilitated by one instructor to ensure the validity of the potential change followingThe Great Discovery training.Study PopulationThe study sample will be undergraduate students at an institution for post-secondaryeducation on Native American tribal land scheduled on roster for entry into the study course.Each student of the study sample will be randomly assigned to one of the four groups (no pretestor treatment, pretest but no treatment, no pretest but the study treatment, pretest and treatment)so necessary pretesting can be done with time for participant completion of The Great Discovery
  8. 8. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 8training. Following participant’s assignment to study group and prior to the beginning of thecourse, The Great Discovery training will be provided to participants of groups three and four viainternet-based training program.ConclusionZailani and Sasthriyar (2011) indicate that Six Sigma has been used as a qualityimprovement tool and a management tool, though traditional Six Sigma deployments rely on thehighly trained practitioners executing the complex statistical investigations seeking to eliminatedefect (Tarantino, 2009). The proposed research study aims to determine if The GreatDiscovery, is a valid strategy for improving goal setting techniques, process planning, force-fieldanalysis, and process execution in undergraduate students at the University of Phoenix.
  9. 9. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 9ReferencesCaulcutt, R. (2001). Why is Six Sigma so successful? Journal of Applied Sciences, 28(3&4),301-306. doi 10.1080/02664760120034045Chu, S. Y. (2011). Perspectives in understanding the schooling and achievement of students fromculturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Journal of Instructional Psychology,38(3), 201-209. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.Ha, S. M. (2005). Above the curve: Six Sigma learning begins at home. Industrial Engineer: IE,37(11), 36-41. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.Harry, M. J. & Lawson, C. (2010). How to get out of the box and win. Scottsdale AZ: The GreatDiscovery Publishing L.L.C.Harry, M. J., & Schroeder, R. (2000). Six Sigma: The breakthrough management strategyrevolutionizing the world’s top corporations. New York, NY: Currency PublishingHaveman, R., & Smeeding, T. (2006). The role of higher education in social mobility. TheFuture of Children, 16(2), 179-203. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.Janicki, K. (2011). Communication and understanding. AILA Review, 24(1), 68-77. Retrievedfrom EBSCOHost.Jing, H. (2011). The validity of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis-Rethinking the relationship amonglanguage, thought and culture. US-China Foreign Language, 9(9), 560-568. Retrievedfrom EBSCOHost.Liang, H. Y., (2011). The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and foreign language teaching and learning.US-China Foreign Language, 9(9), 569-574. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.
  10. 10. Six Sigma Generation Four for Undergraduate Student Success 10Mamiseishvilli, K. (2010). Effects of employment on persistence of low-income, first generationcollege students. College Student Affairs Journal, 29(1), 65-74. Retrieved fromEBSCOHost.Reboul, A. (2011). Language—Of freedom and human bondage. Social Science Information,50(1), 128-141. doi: 10.1177/053901841038836Sanders, J. H. (2010). Six Sigma myths busted. Industrial Engineer, 42(3), 41-46. Retrievedfrom ProQuest.Tatantino, A. (2009). Risk management for the next generation. Industrial Management, 51(1),14-17. doi: 10.1080-00207543.2010.508952Zailani, S., & Sasthriyar, S. (2011). Investigation on the Six Sigma critical success factors.European Journal of Scientific Research, 57(1), 124-132. Retrieved from EBSCOHost.