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Hsdpa principles

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Hsdpa principles

  1. 1. Page 1 Page 1 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential The Overview of HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access)
  2. 2. Page 2 Page 2 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Outline Introduction HSDPA New Techniques Transport and Physical Channels Spreading, Modulation and Coding Protocol Architecture Terminal Capabilities
  3. 3. Page 3 Page 3 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HSDPA Bit Rate Advantage 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 GPRS EDGE WCDMA EV-DO EV-DV HSDPA 1.5 Mbps 700 kbps 400 kbps 350 kbps 150 kbps 30 kbps kbps Typical average bit rate for different technologies in a medium loaded Macro cell.
  4. 4. Page 4 Page 4 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HSDPA Latency Advantage 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 GPRS/EDGE R99 WCDMA R99 HSDPA R5 ms 650 ms 200 ms 100 ms Typical average round trip time for different technologies. Smaller round trip times would benefit interactive applications.
  5. 5. Page 5 Page 5 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HSDPA Considerations The same carrier can be shared between WCDMA and HSPDA. It’s the DL power which should be intelligently divided between two services. Unlike 3GPP2 standards, EV-DO and IS-95/1xRTT, which can not share a carrier. An evolutionary rather than a revolutionary philosophy. WCDMA networks can be upgraded with HSDPA hardware/software on Node-B by Node-B basis. Even HSDPA features can be added gradually, if required. Priority to urban environments and indoor deployments. Support full mobility but should be optimized for low and medium speed users. Focus on streaming, interactive and background services. HSDPA new features should show significant incremental gains over existing R’99 performance. Consider value added to the user, cost to the operators, increased revenue for operators, etc., in adding any new feature.
  6. 6. Page 6 Page 6 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Outline Introduction HSDPA New Techniques Transport and Physical Channels Spreading, Modulation and Coding Protocol Architecture Terminal Capabilities
  7. 7. Page 7 Page 7 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Power Utilization in HSDPA Efficient use of power: the unused power by dedicated/common channels is exploited by HS-DSCH with use of dynamic power allocation.
  8. 8. Page 8 Page 8 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Channel Sharing in HSDPA Efficient use of time: several packet data streams are time multiplexed and sent over High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH).
  9. 9. Page 9 Page 9 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Major New Techniques Fast Scheduling Fast Hybrid ARQ Fast Link Adaptation
  10. 10. Page 10 Page 10 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Fast Scheduling
  11. 11. Page 11 Page 11 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Packet Scheduler The packet scheduler’s task is to maximize the network throughput while satisfying the QoS requirements of the users. The packet scheduling method has significant impact on the cell throughput and on the user-perceived quality of service. The scheduler is located in the Node B and can respond quickly to channel conditions, since the Iub and the RNC are not involved in the process. Multi-user diversity: Selection of the best users in the cell in terms of the UE’s received signal strength is known as multi- user diversity. The scheduler may select for transmission in each TTI (Transmission Time Interval) users that have good signal to noise ratio and therefore ensure better data reception and fewer retransmissions. Multi-user diversity will increase the average cell throughput by using the network resources more efficiently. TTI intervals Channel Quality UE1 UE2 UE1 UE2 Node B
  12. 12. Page 12 Page 12 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Scheduling Methods Round Robin Users are served in cyclic order ignoring channel conditions. It is simple and ensures a fair resource distribution among the users at the cost of cell capacity. Maximum C/I (example shown in next page) The cell serves in every TTI the user with the largest instantaneous supportable data rate. Users with lower average radio conditions receive less resources but due to large fading dynamics, these users are still able to receive service. Average C/I The cell serves in every TTI the user with the largest average C/I that has data to be transmitted. Averaging windows can be as large as 50 TTI’s. This tends to average the short term fading conditions for users. Proportional Fairness The cell serves the user with the largest relative channel quality, based on the short term data rate of the user relative to its average data throughput. Users with better short term channel conditions will have higher priority than users that are temporarily located in a fade. Fair Throughput Modifies the proportional fair algorithm to increase the priority of users that receive lower average throughput, in an attempt to equalize the throughput to all users. A variant that does not use instantaneous channel quality information and serves in every TTI the user with the lowest average throughput.
  13. 13. Page 13 Page 13 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Example of Max C/I Scheduling Method Example of Max C/I Scheduling
  14. 14. Page 14 Page 14 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Fast Hybrid ARQ
  15. 15. Page 15 Page 15 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Fast Retransmission All Release 99 (pre-HSDPA) transport channels are terminated at the RNC. Retransmission procedure is located in the serving RNC. The serving RNC (SRNC) may not be the controlling RNC (or drift RNC), and it may be several hops away from the controlling RNC, increasing response times. For high speed data, this potential delay is not acceptable. The new high speed channel, the HS-DSCH, terminates at Node B. A new MAC layer, the MAC-hs, is introduced in the Node B in order to control all retransmissions in the high speed data channel and provide a quick response to channel errors.
  16. 16. Page 16 Page 16 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Hybrid ARQ Types HARQ is an implicit link adaptation technique It uses ACK/NACKS to produce correct packets (implicit adaptation to channel conditions). It uses samples weighted by the signal to noise ratio to combine received versions of the packets, which provides time-diversity. There are three types of ARQ: Type I ARQ - a pure repetition mode, the original data block is retransmitted. Variants are called Chase Combining, when the data block is soft-combined with the original block and Optimum Combining, where each block is weighted by the signal to noise ratio and then combined. Type II ARQ - This is called Full Incremental Redundancy (FIR) combining. A non-self decodable retransmission is sent. This retransmission must be combined with the original block in order to decode. It consists of parity bits and does not include the original data. Type III ARQ - This is called Partial Incremental Redundancy (PIR) The retransmitted block must be self-decodable, that is, it must include the original version of the data in addition to any other redundant information.
  17. 17. Page 17 Page 17 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Fast Link Adaptation
  18. 18. Page 18 Page 18 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Link Adaptation by Transport Format The HS-DSCH does not use fast power control. The transmitted power in the HS-DSCH is substantially constant, depending on power sharing for other downlink channels in the Node-B. The adaptation to channel conditions is done by selection of the transport format, such as modulation and coding rate. The transport format may be changed every TTI (2 ms). UE Node B Transport Format: Modulation and Coding Power measurement, CQI selection CQI report every 1 to 80 TTI’s Transport Format selection, new modulation and coding
  19. 19. Page 19 Page 19 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Link Adaptation The transmitter receives information on the channel conditions from the UE and selects an appropriate transport format for transmission. Selects QPSK or 16QAM modulation. Selects a specific coding rate that works well in those conditions (approximately a 10% block error rate). Lets the HARQ process fine-tune the coding rate by use of retransmissions to bring down the error rate. Link adaptation is fast, since it all happens in the Physical layer between the UE and the Node-B. Example of Adaptive Modulation and Coding:
  20. 20. Page 20 Page 20 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Outline Introduction HSDPA New Techniques Transport and Physical Channels Spreading, Modulation and Coding Protocol Architecture Terminal Capabilities
  21. 21. Page 21 Page 21 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Channels and Layers Radio Link Control (RLC) Medium Access Control (MAC) Physical Layer Layer 1 Layer 2 Transport Channels: How data is sent Logical Channels: Type of data sent Physical Channels: Media used for data
  22. 22. Page 22 Page 22 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Transport Channels Transport Channels Broadcast Channel (BCH) (Downlink) Common ChannelsDedicated Channels Downlink Shared Channel(DSCH) (Downlink) Common Packet Channel (CPCH) (Uplink) Forward-Access Channel (FACH) (Downlink) Paging Channel (PCH) (Downlink) Random-Access Channel (RACH) (Uplink) Dedicated Channel (DCH) (Down & uplink) High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH)
  23. 23. Page 23 Page 23 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Downlink Data Transport Channels DCH- Dedicated Channel Voice, data up to 2 Mbps Long channel set-up times, long channel release time, not good utilization for bursty traffic Fixed Spreading Factor (SF), code tree is reserved for maximum data rate Fast power control Soft handoffs FACH- Forward Access Channel Common channel, no channel set-up time required Suitable for small IP packets, infrequent packets for interactive gaming High power channel - no feedback from UE No fast power control, fixed SF No soft handoffs - so cell reselection process takes time DSCH- Downlink Shared Channel Paired with a DCH that carries control information Suitable for bursty traffic, channel is shared by UE’s Dynamic SF Fast power control No soft handoffs HS-DSCH- High Speed- Downlink Shared Channel Supports HSDPA, associated with HS-SCCH and HS-DPCCH
  24. 24. Page 24 Page 24 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HS-DSCH Attributes (Summary) High Speed downlink channel to support high data rates Shared among UE’s No fast power control No soft handoffs Fixed SF (SF=16) Fixed CRC size (24 bits) Uses Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) to support different data rates Uses Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) to provide error-free operation Support multi-code operation (up to 15 codes) for data rates up to 10 Mbps Uses Turbo code R1/3, with rate adaptation to support other coding rates Uses a short Transmission Time Interval (TTI) 2 msec long, consisting of 3 timeslots (TSs) in order to achieve a short round trip delay Possible to use beam-forming for broadcast to part of a cell, or to the entire cell Possible to vary transmit power Always associated with a DPCH and one or more DSCHs
  25. 25. Page 25 Page 25 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HS-SCCH (High Speed Shared Control Channel) A DL channel which carries the information required to demodulate the HS-DSCH. Every UE using the HS-DSCH is assigned an HS-SCCH by the Node-B. The HS-SCCH has a fixed rate of 60 kbps, fixed Spreading Factor (SF) of 128 and uses rate 1/3 convolutional coding. The HS-SCCH block consists of three Time Slots (1 TS = 667 microseconds) and is transmitted two time slots before the start of the HS-DSCH transmission in order to allow the UE to demodulate the data. An HS-SCCH block carries necessary information in two separate coding chains: Part 1 information: Coding information, according to the UE’s capabilities Modulation used for the HS-DSCH, i.e., QPSK or 16 QAM Part 2 information: Redundancy information, to allow the UE to combine with prior information HARQ process information New date indicator, whether the transmission is a first transmission or a re-transmission Transport block size
  26. 26. Page 26 Page 26 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HS-DPCCH (HS Dedicated Physical Control Channel) An uplink control channel which uses SF=256 code multiplexed with other uplink control channels. Channel used to provide constant feedback to the Node-B on signal quality and packet errors. Transmitted 5 msec after the reception of the HS-DSCH frame. This packet is divided into two parts: ACK/NACK information part - One bit long transmitted in one timeslot, provides the result of the CRC check after packet decoding and indicates whether a retransmission is required or not. Downlink Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) - 5 bits long transmitted in two timeslots, to indicate what block size, modulation and number of parallel codes could be received with reasonable error rate based on measured channel conditions. This information is used by the Node-B to determine the modulation and coding to be used in the next HS-DSCH transmission.
  27. 27. Page 27 Page 27 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Outline Introduction HSDPA New Techniques Transport and Physical Channels Spreading and Coding Protocol Architecture Terminal Capabilities
  28. 28. Page 28 Page 28 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Channelisation & Scrambling Channelisation spreads the input bits or symbols into a chip sequence by a factor equal to the spreading factor. It separates the transmissions within a single source (i.e., a sector or a UE). It uses Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes which are built by Walsh codes. Scrambling multiplies the already spread sequence by a second code that separates the sources of the data (i.e., different sectors in DL or different UE’s in UL). It uses Gold Codes or shorter codes. Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell nCell 3 Cell 4 ScramblingChannelisation & Spreading 1 2 3 n432 1
  29. 29. Page 29 Page 29 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential DL Channelization and Modulation Channelization codes are OVSF (Walsh) codes with SF=16 for HS-DSCH and SF=128 for HS-SCCH. Modulation mapper maps symbols to the I and Q branches For QPSK, symbols are sent alternatively to the I and Q branches For 16QAM, two pairs of symbols are first mapped to a constellation value and then sent to the I and Q branches alternatively I Downlink physical channel Serial to Parallel Converter Channelization code, SF value j Scrambling code Q I+jQ S Modulation Mapper
  30. 30. Page 30 Page 30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Outline Introduction HSDPA New Techniques Transport and Physical Channels Spreading, Modulation and Coding Protocol Architecture Terminal Capabilities
  31. 31. Page 31 Page 31 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HSDPA Protocol Architecture UE Node B SRNC Uu Air Interface IUb Layer 1 MAC-hs MAC-d RLC Transport Frame Protocol MAC-d RLC Layer 1 MAC-hs Transport Frame Protocol
  32. 32. Page 32 Page 32 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential MAC Layer and MAC-hs The Medium Access Control (MAC) layer maps the logical channels coming from the Radio Link Control (RLC) function to the transport channels connecting it to the Physical layer. The MAC layer is responsible for selecting an appropriate transport format for each transport channel based on the requirements of the logical channels. The MAC-hs is a new MAC entity located in the Node-B (in order to be closer to the air interface) and the UE, to support the HSDPA high speed channel. MAC-hs is responsible for: Handling the new high speed shared channel, HS-DSCH. Managing physical resources allocated to HSDPA. Other MAC entities: MAC-d is responsible for handling the dedicated channels (DCH transport channel). It is located in the Serving RNC (SRNC). MAC-b handles the broadcast channel (BCH). It is located in the Node-B. MAC-c/sh handles the common and the shared channels, including the DSCH. It is located in the SRNC.
  33. 33. Page 33 Page 33 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential MAC Architecture MAC-d MAC Control MAC-c/shMAC-hs HS-DSCH PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH PCH FACH RACH CPCH DSCH DCH Associated Downlink Associated Uplink Signaling Signaling
  34. 34. Page 34 Page 34 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Outline Introduction HSDPA New Techniques Transport and Physical Channels Spreading, Modulation and Coding Protocol Architecture Terminal Capabilities
  35. 35. Page 35 Page 35 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential HSDPA Terminal Capabilities UE Power Class Power Class III is 24 dBm and Class IV is 21 dBm. Initially, most UEs fall in Class IV. There are UE Categories defined for HSDPA: 14.0QPSK, 16-QAM11510 0.9QPSK2511 QPSK QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM QPSK, 16-QAM Modulation Scheme 1.81512 10.01159 7.21108 7.21107 3.6156 3.6155 1.8254 1.8253 1.2352 1.2351 Max data rate (Mbps) Min. Inter-TTI interval Max number of parallel codes Category Reference UE capability combinations: 1.2 Mbps class 3.6 Mbps class 7.2 Mbps class 10 Mbps class
  36. 36. Page 36 Page 36 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential UE Capability Classes Examples of UE capability classes proposed in 3GPP are listed in Table below. Note that more combinations are still possible. 1.2 Mbps class 3.6 Mbps class 7.2 Mbps class 10 Mbps class
  37. 37. Page 37 Page 37 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd. Huawei Confidential Thank you!

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