World health day 2014

970 views

Published on

World health day 2014

Published in: Healthcare
  • Be the first to comment

World health day 2014

  1. 1. Md. Kabiul Akhter Ali VBD Consultant, PH Wing
  2. 2. World Health Day is celebrated on 7 April every year to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO in 1948 We are all one on “WORLD HEALTH DAY” Each year a theme is selected that highlights a priority area of public health. MD. K. A. ALI
  3. 3. Vector-borne disease (VBD): an illness caused by an infectious microorganism (pathogen) that is transmitted to people by a vector, usually arthropods Arthropod: an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (e.g. insects or arachnids) Definitions MD. K. A. ALI
  4. 4. Common Vector Borne Diseases (VBD-s) Dengue Chikungunya Yellow fever Malaria Japanese encephalitis Kala-azar Lymphatic filariasis Scrub typhus Plague MD. K. A. ALI
  5. 5. Impact of Vector Borne Diseases Causes High Burden…. Illness Death Worsening of poverty Negative impact on economy High health cost Overloading of Health System MD. K. A. ALI
  6. 6. VBD problem : global magnitude  50% population is at risk from Vector Borne Disease.  17% of infectious diseases due to VBDs.  40% population is at risk from Dengue.  1.3 Million new cases of Kala azar every year  Kill one million people every year out of which 660,000 die due to Malaria. Dengue has increased 30 folds during last 50 years MD. K. A. ALI
  7. 7. Types of VBD transmission Vector VectorVector Vector Humans HumansAnimals HumansAnimals MD. K. A. ALI
  8. 8. Vectors spread diseases Mosquitoes, flies, ticks, bugs and freshwater snails can spread diseases that cause serious illness and death 50% of world population is at risk Increased travel, trade and migration make even more people vulnerable MD. K. A. ALI
  9. 9. VBD & climate change A.Temperature B. Precipitation MD. K. A. ALI
  10. 10. Temperature Example – Summer: more days with higher temperature effects • • • Longer Longer Longer lifespan reproduction period activity period – Winter: less days with low temperature • Benefits overwintering • Shorter overwintering Dr.T.V.Rao MD MD. K. A. ALI
  11. 11. Temperature effects Pathogen Decreased extrinsic incubation period of pathogen in vector at higher temperature Changes in the transmission season Changes in geographical distribution Decreased viral replication MD. K. A. ALI
  12. 12. Precipitation effects Vector •Survival: increased rain may increase larval habitat •Excess rain can eliminate habitat by flooding •Low rainfall can create habitat as rivers dry into pools (dry season mosquitoes) •Decreased rain can increase container-breeding mosquitoes by forcing increased water storage MD. K. A. ALI
  13. 13. Precipitation effectsVector Heavy rainfall events can synchronize vector host-seeking and virus transmission Increased humidity increases vector survival and vice-versa Pathogen Few direct effects but some data on humidity effects on parasite development MD. K. A. ALI
  14. 14. Summary effects climate change Climate change has the potential to •Increase range or abundance of animal reservoirs and/or arthropod vectors •Enhance transmission •Increase importation of vectors or pathogens •Every Human at Risk MD. K. A. ALI
  15. 15. Diseases are Preventable Malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, JE and filariasis are preventable, yet they have the biggest impact on some of the world’s poorest people. MD. K. A. ALI
  16. 16. Treatment of VBD-s Malaria : • The current protocol is to - treat vivax cases with chloroquine for 3 days, and primaquine for 14 days to prevent relapse; - treat all falciparum cases with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and primaquine single dose for gametocyte clearance. Kala-azar : • First line regimen is miltefosine orally x 4 weeks (for VL) and x 12 weeks (for PKDL). • Shorter regimen with miltefosine & inj paromomycin or inj lyposomal amphotericin-B in pilot districts. MD. K. A. ALI
  17. 17. Limitation of treatment • No specific drug so far available for cure of Dengue, JE or Chikungunya. - Supportive care is the mainstay of treatment. - In Dengue, there is risk of haemorrhage/shock, particularly if a new serotype takes entry. • Specific drug available for Malaria & Kala-azar, but evolution of drug resistance is common. - Even resistance to artemisinin has started. • No effective vaccine as yet against Malaria or Dengue. So the vector issues should be further highlighted. The importance of vector control and reduction of man- vector contact need to be impressed upon the public. MD. K. A. ALI
  18. 18. Changes in the vector ecology • With worldwide changes in the climate and environment of villages & cities, vector breeding is on the rise. • Deforestation tilts the man-vector balance. • Because of mutations, certain mosquito species are becoming more efficient as vectors. • Mosquitoes are adapting their behaviour. - As example, we found aedes breeding in spots well exposed to sunlight. • Vectors developing resistance to insecticides. The threat is big ! MD. K. A. ALI
  19. 19. Protect yourself You can protect yourself and your family by taking simple measures that include sleeping under a bed net, wearing a long- sleeved shirt and trousers and using insect repellent. MD. K. A. ALI
  20. 20. Keep the Environment Clean and Save many Lives MD. K. A. ALI
  21. 21. SAVE THE PLANET SAVE FROM VECTOR BORN DISEASES MD. K. A. ALI
  22. 22. Challenges in prevention & control –(1/2) Though there is no dearth of technical knowledge, some of the challenges are : • Reaching health service to 100% population, both rural and urban. • Making services affordable to the population. • Quality assurance of health care, both in public and private systems – for diagnostics as well as treatment. • Adequate surveillance of disease, vectors and the determinants for diseases. • Involving people in vector control and bringing about behavioural change to make this possible. MD. K. A. ALI
  23. 23. Important components of Health system to meet the challenge (1)• Finance o Adequate budgetary allocation o Control over drug & diagnostic kit pricing o Health insurance o Provision of reimbursement to private sector • Health manpower (both public and private) o Adequate in number o Adequate skill through initial and periodic training • Health facilities o Geographical distribution o PPP model for hard to reach areas o Adequately equipped facilities • Standardised diagnostic and treatment protocol o Binding for both public and private settings MD. K. A. ALI
  24. 24. Challenges in prevention & control –(2/2) • Sustaining & managing the human resource of the programme. • Problems with vector control : - Non-availability of effective measures e.g. in JE. - Difficulty of access in disturbed/ hard to reach areas. • Changing social and environmental determinants to effectiveness of standard intervention in some high risk population. • Lack of inter-sectoral coordination and convergence of action. • Rehabilitation of survivors following JE. MD. K. A. ALI
  25. 25. More information www.climatetrap.eu www.ecdc.eu www.who.int/globalchange/en/ MD. K. A. ALI
  26. 26. Thank You MD. K. A. ALI

×