Asif Kabani presentation on internet governance 2012
Internet Governance “Internet for Everyone”
What is the Internet• The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. It operates without a central governing body. However, to maintain interoperability, all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal namespaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, California. ICANN oversees the assignment of globally unique identifiers on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters.
What is the Internet• This creates a globally unified namespace that is essential for the global reach of the Internet. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities. However, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Commerce, continues to have final approval over changes to the DNS root zone.• This authority over the root zone file makes ICANN one of a few bodies with global, centralized influence over the otherwise distributed Internet
What is Internet governance?• Internet governance is the development and application of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and usage of the Internet.• Internet was and is currently governed, some of the controversies that occurred along the way, and the ongoing debates about how the Internet should or should not be governed in the future. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_governance
The Birth of Internet Governance Forum (IGF)• On November 16, 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to open an ongoing, non-binding conversation among multiple stakeholders about the future of Internet governance.• Since WSIS, the term "Internet governance" has been broadened beyond narrow technical concerns to include a wider range of Internet-related policy issues
THE INTERNET GOVERNANCE PROCESS1. How to make global governance broad enough to include all relevant players?2. How to make global governance deep enough to incorporate an efficient and effective decision-making process?The IGF experience and lessons learned are organised in four mainclusters:1. Approaches for addressing global policy issues2. Management of policy processes3. Dealing with scientific and technical aspects of policy issues4. Increasing inclusiveness and participation
THE INTERNET GOVERNANCE PROCESS1. Approaches for addressing global policy issues: The IGF was not designed to create a global, legally binding deal. IGF promotes national initiatives; Brazil has a remarkable way of managing national IGF policy, Egypt is a leader in child safety. Latin America has an excellent programme for the coordination of managing Internet names and numbers India is making breakthrough to bring Internet to the poorest communities Increase policy coherence through multistakeholderism, such as ICANN, UNESCO, ITU Facilitate coordination among national, regional, and global policy levels.
THE INTERNET GOVERNANCE PROCESS2. Management of policy processes• Efficient and effective leadership• Build trust through proper timing and sequencing• Let the policy process evolve• Recognise that text remains central to diplomacy• Recognise that informality in international conferences could cause inequality in participation3. Dealing with scientific and technical aspects of policy issues Acknowledge that science and technology are rarely policy neutral Improve communication among different professional and organisational cultures Make the right blend between technical knowledge and diplomatic skills
THE INTERNET GOVERNANCE PROCESS4. Increasing inclusiveness and participation• Enhance national „diplomatic footprints‟ through involvement of non- state actors in diplomatic initiatives.• Strengthen remote participation through the establishment of hubs• Harvest a variety of inputs through policy‟s „long tail‟• Ensure meaningful participation from developing states: moving from formal to functional equality
INTERNET GOVERNANCE STAKEHOLDERSMulti-Stakeholders system; GOVERNMENTS The US government VS The other government THE BUSINESS SECTOR : Domain-name companies, Internet Service Providers, Telecommunication companies, Software companies, Internet content companies. CIVIL SOCIETY WGIG (Working Groups on Internet Governance) INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS ITU (International Telecommunication Union), WSIS (World Summit on Information Society), UNESCO (UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). THE INTERNET COMMUNITY institutions and individuals who have developed and promoted the Internet since its inception ICANN (INTERNET CORPORATION FOR ASSIGNED NAMES AND NUMBERS)
Development BasketA. Technology is never neutralB. Digital DivideC. How Does ICT Affect the Development of Society? ICT does NOT facilitate development The “network externalities” help firstcomers establish a dominant position and it would be effectively frozen out of ecommerce. The shift in power from seller to buyer will harm commodity producers mainly from developing countries. Higher interest in high-tech shares in rich economies will reduce investor interest in developing countries. ICT facilitates development ICT lowers labour costs; it is cheaper to invest in developing countries. ICT is advancing in leaps and bounds. The opportunity to leapfrog old technologies by skipping intermediate stages, such as copper wires and analogue telephones, encourages development. ICT’s propensity to reduce the optimal size of a firm in most industries is much closer to the needs of developing countries.
THE ECONOMIC BASKET1. E-COMMERCE Business-to-consumer (B2C) – the most familiar type of e-commerce (e.g., Amazon.com); Business-to-business (B2B) – economically the most intensive, comprising over 90% of all e-commerce transactions; Business-to-government (B2G) – highly important in the area of procurement policy; Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) – for example, e-Bay auctions.2. CONSUMER PROTECTIONE-commerce regulation should protect customers in a number of areas: theonline handling of payment card information, misleading advertising, and thedelivery of defective products, which take place across international borders.Existing regulations formulated by OECD; the Guidelines for ConsumerProtection in the Context of E-commerce (2000) and the Guidelines forProtecting Consumers from Fraudulent and Deceptive Commercial PracticesAcross Borders (2003)
THE ECONOMIC BASKET3. TAXATION• The US governent declared the Internet a tax-free zone, and has applied the Tax Freedom Act from 1998-2014.• OECD (organisation Economic Cooperation and Development) declared the Ottawa Principles stated that there is no difference exists between traditional and e-taxation, which required non-EU e-commerce companies to pay value added tax (VAT) if they sold goods within the European Union.4. DIGITAL SIGNATURESDigital authentication in general is part of the e-commerce framework, whichfacilitate e-commerce transactions through the conclusion of e-contracts. Thereare three approaches: minimalist approach; electronic signatures as part of content of electronic form, adopted in law of the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Australia. maximalist approach; as a cryptography and used for public key identifiers, adopted in law of Germany, Italy. Combination of minimalist and maximalist
THE ECONOMIC BASKETRelated issues of Digital Signatures Privacy and Digital Signatures The Need for Detailed Implementation Standards The Risk of Incompatibility5. E-PAYMENTS: E-BANKING AND E-MONEYIssues: The further use of both e-banking and e-money could bring about changes to the worldwide banking system. Cybersecurity is one of the main challenges to the wider deployment of e- payments. The lack of e-payment methods in the developing countries. governments worldwide would need to encourage all forms of cash-free payments E-payment system for internet casino and other internet gambling.
THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND STANDARDISATION BASKETThese issues are grouped into the following three layers:a. The telecommunications infrastructure, through which all Internet traffic flows; related issues are: The “Last Mile” - “Local Loop” The Liberalisation of Telecommunication Markets The Establishment of Technical Infrastructure Standards Who Owns the Electromagnetic Spectrum?b. The Internet technical standards and services, the infrastructure that makes the Internetwork (e.g. TCP/IP, DNS, SSL); related issues are: Are There Enough IP Numbers? Changes in TCP/IP and Internet Security Changes in TCP/IP and the Problem of Limited Bandwidth The Creation of New Generic Domain Names Content-related New Generic Domain Names Generic Domain Names for Cultural and Linguistic Communities The Management of Country Domains The Problem of Languages: Multilingual Domain Namesc. The content and applications standards (e.g. HTML, XML).
THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND STANDARDISATION BASKETDOMAIN NAMES BUSINESS Generic Top Level Domain (gTLD) Minimal three characters Represent general category of organization Is not Geographic or country identityBefore Liberalization gTLD; Unsponsored gTLD; biz, .com, .info, .name, .net, .org, and .pro Sponsored gTLD; .aero, .asia, .cat, .coop, .jobs, .mobi, .museum, .tel and .travelAfter Liberalization gTLD; Start from January 12, 2012 to April 12, 2012 ICANN open for registration of gTLD “ .Everything”.
THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND STANDARDISATION BASKET Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) Only two characters Represent country’s name and registered in ISO 3166-1ISSUES.. Overlapping between ccTLD with other abbreviation “.CO” is “.Colombia” sold to COINTERNET , then has trademark as “. corporation. “.TV” is “ .Tuvalu” sold to VerySign, then has trademark as “.Television” “. ID” is “.INDONESIA” has potential as “.IDENTITY”, but hasn’t managed yet.
THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND STANDARDISATION BASKET• ISSUES.. Overlapping gTLD with Geographic names .BERLIN, .BALI, .JAVA Increase potential of Cybersquatting There is no certain protection for sensitive names such as : .GAY, .FAT,. JIHAD. Cost doesn’t represent protection for potential customer from developing countries: $US26,000 (per applicant) in historical program development costs plus $US100,000 per applicant for evaluating and processing an application and plus $US60,000 to cover additional elements of the application and delegation process. (about $186.000 per applicant in total)
THE LEGAL BASKET• A "real law" approach based on current telecommunication technology• A "cyberlaw" approach based on the presumption that the Internet introduces new types of social relationships in cyberspaceCyberlaw covers Legal Issues INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Protection of Knowledge and ideas are key resources in the global economy. COPYRIGHT Copyright protects only the expression of an idea when it is materialised in various forms, such as a book, CD, computer file, etc TRADEMARKS Related to cyber-squatting, the practice of registering names of companies and selling them later at a higher price. PATENTS Traditionally, a patent protects a new process or product of a mainly technical or production nature. Only recently have patents started being granted to software CYBERCRIME A crime use computer that is connected to the Internet Human rights VS security of using the Internet
THE SOCIO-CULTURAL BASKET HUMAN RIGHTS: “Real rights” vs. “cyber rights” Right to access the Internet The Freedom of expression and the right to seek, receive, and impart information CONTENT POLICYHow content policy is conducted? Governmental filtering of content Private rating and filtering systems Geo-location software Content control through search engines Web 2.0 challenge: users as contributors The need for an appropriate legal framework International initiatives
THE SOCIO-CULTURAL BASKETISSUES..• Content control vs. freedom of expression• “Illegal offline – illegal online”• The effectiveness of content control• Who should be responsible for content policy?
THE SOCIO-CULTURAL BASKET PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION
THE SOCIO-CULTURAL BASKET PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION Privacy protection: individuals and states; social security numbers, voting registration Privacy protection: individuals and businesses; bank account Privacy protection: states and businesses; data exchanges with other states and businesses to impede terrorist activities Privacy protection: individuals and individuals; The US Congress adopted the “Video Voyeurism Prevention Act,” prohibiting the taking of photos of unclothed people without their approval. MULTILINGUALISM AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY EDUCATION
CONCLUSION A Working group established after a United Nations-initiated World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) proposed the following definition of Internet governance as part of its June 2005 report:“ Internet governance is the development and application byGovernments, the private sector and civil society, in their respectiveroles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures,and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.” Yes, Internet Governance needs to be governed Law professor Yochai Benkler developed a conceptualization of Internet governance by the idea of three "layers" of governance: The "physical infrastructure" layer through which information travels; The "code" or "logical" layer that controls the infrastructure; and The "content" layer, which contains the information that signals through the network
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MORE INFORMATION• Contacts: Dwi Elfrida Martina, Internet Society (ISOC) ambassador from Indonesia, Email : email@example.com Kabani Asif, Internet Society (ISOC) ambassador from Pakistan, email : firstname.lastname@example.org. IGF Initiatives: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/igf-initiatives