Greek civilization

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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. <number>
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Greek civilization

    1. 1. Project on Greek civilization Group members:- Dhara Desai (02) Nupur Juneja (11) Vishal Desai (04) Abhishek Patel Kaushal Joshi () (10) Submitted to:- Ms. Vabhiz
    2. 2. The Land Located in Europe in the A egean Sea
    3. 3. Brief History of Greece The first great civilization in Greece and Crete was the Minoan. It lasted roughly from 2000 BCE until 1400 BCE. Around 1400 BCE, the Mycenaean civilization supplanted the Minoan, and dominated Greece until about 1100 BCE, when barbarians known as Durians invaded.
    4. 4. EXTEND EARLY BEGINING OF POLIS
    5. 5. Greek Polis Time Line  c. 700 Homer  750-550 Age of Colonization  490 Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon  480 Xerxes invades Greece  479 Spartans defeat Persians at Platea  478-477 Formation of Delian League  431 Start of Peloponnesian War  413 Athenian defeat at Syracuse
    6. 6. What is Polis?  A city state  A community of citizens with distinctive customs, gods, and was also an object of intense religious-patriotic devotion  the Greeks answer to the perennial conflict between an individual and the community  What are some poleis? Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, Argos, Delphi.  The polis was an independent, self-governing city of between 50,000 and 300,000 people.  Several dozen polises (Greek “poleis”) dotted the Greek countryside  In each polis, politics, religion, and social life were closely intertwined.
    7. 7. Emergence of the Polis, or Greek City-State  Starting around 800 BCE a new civilization, the Hellenic, became dominant in Greece.  The Hellenic civilization was composed of two strands, the Dorian and the Ionian.  This civilization gave rise to a new form of social/political organization: the polis.
    8. 8. Major Polis
    9. 9. Types of Government  Two types of government were used in the Greek Polises.  The Dorians generally had an oligarchic form of government.  The Greek word oligarchy means rule by the few.  The Ionians developed the first democratic form of government.  Democracy means rule by the people.
    10. 10. Sparta and Athens  Generally speaking, the Dorians depended upon agriculture, while the Ionians were seafarers and merchants.  The two primary polises were Sparta and Athens.  Sparta was Dorian, oligarchic, and had an agriculture-based economy.  Athens was Ionian, democratic, and depended on seafaring and trade.
    11. 11. The Great Wars  After the Persian Wars, Greece was divided into two power blocs.  One, the Peloponnesian League, was led by Sparta.  The other was the Delian League, led by Athens.  These power blocs fought a great war, from 431-404 BCE.  The greatest challenge to Hellenic civilization came from Persia, to the east.  Greece fought two Persian wars, in 490 BCE, and in 481 BCE.  The Greek polises formed an alliance, led by Sparta and Athens.  The Greeks won both wars, ensuring that the roots of western civilization would include Greek thought.
    12. 12. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR, 431-404 BC  During the war, the soldiers of the Peloponnesian League besieged the cities of the Delian League by land.  The Delian League used its navies to supply itself with food, and to harass the home cities of its enemies.  The Spartans and their allies finally defeated Athens and its allies.
    13. 13. Socrates and The Rise of Political Philosophy  One of the greatest contributions of Hellenic Civilization was its origination of political philosophy.  Just before and during the Great War, an Athenian citizen, Socrates, began raising questions such as, “What is justice?”  Socrates asked these questions of his fellow citizens, in public places.
    14. 14. Plato  Socrates’ most famous student was Plato, who wrote the first great works of political philosophy.  Plato’s most famous work is The Republic,  Plato’s books are written as dialogues, or conversations.  These conversations are usually between a character named Socrates, and other Athenian citizens.  In the Republic, Socrates is portrayed as talking to two young men, Adeimantus and Glaucon.
    15. 15. Aristotle  Plato started a school, called The Academy.  His most famous student was Aristotle.  Aristotle wrote many works of philosophy, and made the first systematic effort to collect and organize information on a wide variety of topics.  Aristotle might be considered the first scientist.  His works are written as treatises, which are more systematic, but much drier than dialogues.  One of these is the Politics, the first systematic treatise on politics.
    16. 16. Plato and Aristotle from School of Athens by Raphael
    17. 17. GREEK THEATER
    18. 18. The Origins Of Drama  The dithyrambs celebrating Dionysus soon evolved into dramas.  The story goes: Thespis, a popular writer of Dithyrambs, is said to have invented drama when he asked one “performer” to stand outside the chorus to engage in some “call and response.”
    19. 19. The Stage Three Main Portions of Greek Theatre: Skene – Portion of stage where actors performed (included 1-3 doors in and out) Orchestra – “Dancing Place” where chorus sang to the audience Theatron – Seating for audience
    20. 20. Stages
    21. 21. Where and how were the dramas performed? …In an amphitheatre …With a chorus who described most of the action. …With masks …With all the fighting and movement going on off stage. ….With tragedy
    22. 22. Ma jor Greek Dr amatis ts Aeschylus 524 B.C. Seven Against Thebes Sophocles 496 B.C. Antigone Oedipus Euripides 480 B.C. Medea Dramatist Born Wrote
    23. 23. The Chorus Because of the dithyrambic origins of Greek drama, the plays featured Choruses. The chorus danced and either sung or chanted their lines.
    24. 24. Functions of the chorus  an ag e nt: g ive s advic e , as ks , take s part  e s tablis he s e thic al frame wo rk, s e ts up s tandard by whic h ac tio n will be judg e d  ide al s pe c tato r - re ac ts as playwrig ht ho pe s audie nc e wo uld  s e ts mo o d and he ig hte ns dramatic e ffe c ts  adds mo ve me nt, s pe c tac le , s o ng , and danc e  rhythmic al func tio n - paus e s / pac e s the ac tio n s o that the audie nc e c an re fle c t.
    25. 25. The Theatre of Dionysu s  The first plays were performed in the Theatre of Dionysus, built in the shadow of the Acropolis in Athens at the beginning of the 5th century,  These theatres proved to be so popular they soon spread all over Greece.
    26. 26. Amphitheatres Plays were performed out-of-doors. The side of the mountain was scooped out into a bowl shape, something like our amphitheatres today, and tiers of stone seats in concentric semi-circles were built on the hill. These theatres often seated as many as 20,000 spectators, with a special first row being reserved for dignitaries.
    27. 27. Theatron  The theatron (quot;viewing-placequot;) is where the spectators sat. The theatron was usually part of hillside overlooking the orchestra, and often wrapped around a large portion of the orchestra.
    28. 28. Orchestr a  The orchestra (literally, quot;dancing spacequot;) was norm ally circular. It was a level space w here the chorus w ould dance, sing, and interact w ith the actors w w on the stage (called the ho ere Proskenion) in front of the skene. In the center of the orchestra there w often an altar. as
    29. 29. Skene  The skene (literally, quot;tentquot;) w the building as directly in back of the stage, and w usually as decorated as a palace, tem ple, or other building, depending on the needs of the play. It had at least one set of doors, and actors could m ake entrances and exits through them .
    30. 30. Parados  The paro do i (quot; pas s ag e ways quot;) are the paths by whic h the c ho rus and s o me ac to rs (s uc h as tho s e re pre s e nting me s s e ng e rs o r pe o ple re turning fro m abro ad ) made the ir e ntranc e s and e xits .
    31. 31. The Actors All of the actors w m ere en. W en w not allow to om ere ed participate. The actors played m ultiple roles, so a w ooden, cork, or linen m ask w used to show the change in as character or m ood. If playing a fem role, the m ale ale actor in w of a fem ant ale appearance w the prosternida ore before the chest and the progastrida before the belly
    32. 32. MASKS Comedies Tragedies
    33. 33. Costumes  Consisted of standard Greek attire  Chiton: a sleeveless tunic belted belowthe breast  the him ation: draped around the right shoulder  the chlam or short cloak, w over the left ys, orn shoulder  elaborately em broidered patterns
    34. 34. Types of Greek Drama Com edy Tragedy Satyr Com edy and tragedy w the m popular ere ost types of plays in ancient Greece. Hence, the m odern popularity of the com edy and tragedy m asks to sym bolize theatre.
    35. 35. Structure of a Comedy Pro lo g ue — leading character conceives a quot;happy ideaquot; Parado s : entrance of the chorus Ag o n: dram atized debate betw een proponent and opponent of the quot;happy ideaquot;
    36. 36. Satyr Plays  These were short plays performed between the acts of tragedies. They made fun of the plight of the tragedy's characters.  The satyrs were mythical half- human, half-goat servants of Dionysus.
    37. 37. Important Playwrights  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides  Aristophanes  Menander
    38. 38. Ancient Greek Art
    39. 39. Geometric Art Geometric Krater from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens ca. 740 B.C.E. Hero and centaur ca. 750-730 B.C.E. bronze Votive Statuette of a Horse late 8th Century B.C.E. bronze
    40. 40. Orientalizing Art Mantiklos Apollo Corinthian black-figure amphora ca. 700-680 B.C.E. bronze ca. 625-600 B.C.E. ceramic
    41. 41. Archaic Art Calf Bearer (Moschophoros) Kroisos Kourous from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece from Anavysos, Greececa. 600 B.C.E. ca. 560 B.C.E. ca. 530 B.C.E. marble marble marble
    42. 42. Peplos Kore from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 530 B.C.E. marble 48 in. high
    43. 43. Early Classical Art Kritios Boy Zeus (or Poseidon) Myron ca. 480 B.C.E. ca. 460-450 B.C.E. ca. 450 B.C.E. marble bronze Roman marble copy after a bronze original
    44. 44. Polykleitos Polykleitos ca. 450-440 B.C.E. Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) original ca. 450-440 B.C.E.
    45. 45. High Classical Art Acropolis Athens, Greece
    46. 46. Iktinos and Kallikrates Parthenon, Temple of Athena Parthenos Acropolis, Athens, Greece 447-438 B.C.E.
    47. 47. Phidas Lapith versus Centaur Athena Parthenos (model) Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 447-438 marble ca. 438 B.C.E. 4 ft. 8 in. high 38 ft. tall
    48. 48. Caryatids from the South Porch of the Erechtheion Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 421-405 B.C.E. marble Erechtheion Acropolis, Athens, Greece ca. 421-405 B.C.E.
    49. 49. Late Classical Art Battle of Issus ca. 310 B.C.E. Lysippos tessera Mosaic Praxiteles ca. 330 B.C.E. . ca. 350-340 B.C.E. Roman marble copy after a bronze original Roman marble copy after a bronze original
    50. 50. Philoxenes of Eretria Battle of Issus ca. 310 B.C.E. tessera Mosaic Polykleitos the Younger Theater Choragic Monument of Lysikrates Epidauros, Greece 334 B.C.E. 350 B.C.E. marble
    51. 51. Hellenistic Art Alexandros of Antioch-on-the- Nike of Samothrace Meander Aphrodite, Eros and Pan ca. 190 B.C.E. ca. 150-125 B.C.E. ca. 100 B.C.E. marble marble marble
    52. 52. Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Sleeping Satyr ca. 230-200 B.C.E. Polydoros of Rhodes marble Old Market Woman 1st century C.E. ca. 150-100 B.C.E. marble marble
    53. 53. Religion & religious beliefs God & Goddess
    54. 54. goddess of luv ares god of war appollo god of purity music guidance zeus king of gods
    55. 55. Thank You PPT design & composed by Kaushal Joshi

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