In some ways Humanism was not a philosophy per
se, but rather a method of learning.
In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which
focused on resolving contradictions between
authors, humanists would study ancient texts in the
original, and appraise them through a combination of
reasoning and empirical evidence.
Humanist education was based on the programme of
'Studia Humanitatis', that being the study of five
humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral
philosophy and rhetoric.
Teatro Carlo Felice, designed by
Aldo Rossi, who is considered the
founder of neo-rationalism
The intellectual principles of
Rationalism are based on
Vitruvius had already
established in his work
De Architectura that architecture
is a science that can be
This formulation was taken up and further developed
in the architectural treatises of the Renaissance.
Progressive art theory of the 18th-century opposed the
Baroque beauty of illusionism with the classic beauty
of truth and reason.
Twentieth-century Rationalism derived less from a
special, unified theoretical work than from a common
belief that the most varied problems posed by the real
world could be resolved by reason.
In that respect it represented a reaction to historicism
and a contrast to Art Nouveau and Expressionism.
A dome is a structural element of
architecture that resembles the
hollow upper half of a sphere.
Dome structures made of various
materials have a long architectural
Dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
crowned by a cupola. Designed
primarily by Michelangelo, the
dome was not completed until 1590
lineage extending into prehistory.
A dome can be thought of as an arch which has been
rotated around its central vertical axis.
Thus domes, like arches, have a great deal of structural
strength when properly built and can span large open
spaces without interior supports.
Corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each
horizontal layer of stones inward slightly farther than
the previous, lower, one until they meet at the top.
These are sometimes called false domes.
True, or real, domes are formed with increasingly
inward-angled layers which have ultimately turned 90
degrees from the base of the dome to the top.
The Pantheon in RomeEarly history and primitive domes
The façade is often cited as the least
satisfactory part of the design of St.
The facade designed by Maderno, is
114.69 metres (376.3 ft) wide and
45.55 metres (149.4 ft) high and is
built of travertine stone, with a giant
order of Corinthian columns and a
central pediment rising in front of a
tall attic surmounted by statues of
Christ, John the Baptist, and eleven
of the apostles.
pilasters on the county
A pilaster is a slightly-
projecting column built
into or applied to the face
of a wall. Most commonly
flattened or rectangular in
form, pilasters can also
take a half-round form or
the shape of any type of
column, including tortile.
A Vault (French.
voute, Italian. volta,) is an
architectural term for an
arched form used to
provide a space with a
ceiling or roof.
Gothic rib-vault ceiling of the Saint-
Séverin church in Paris.
Barrel vault Pointed barrel vault showing direction
of lateral forces.
A groin vault viewed from
the underside, showing
the arris or 'groin'.
Plan of the vault from
above showing resultant
Vault from above.
Rococo architecture, as
mentioned above, was a lighter,
more graceful, yet also more
elaborate version of Baroque
architecture, which was ornate
and austere. Whilst the styles
were similar, there are some
notable differences between both
Rococo and Baroque
architecture, one of them being
Although Rococo is usually thought of as developing first
in the decorative arts and interior design, its origins lie in
the late Baroque architectural work of Borromini (1599–
1667) mostly in Rome and Guarini (1624–83) mostly in
Northern Italy but also in Vienna, Prague, Lisbon, and
Paris. Italian architects of the late Baroque/early Rococo
were wooed to Catholic (Southern) Germany,Bohemia and
Austria by local princes, bishops and prince-bishops.
Inspired by their example, regional families of Central
European builders went further, creating churches and
palaces that took the local German Baroque style to the
greatest heights of Rococo elaboration and sensation.
Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative
arts, the style showed clearly in painting. These painters
used delicate colors and curving forms, decorating their
canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture
was also popular among Rococo painters. Some works
show a sort of naughtiness or impurity in the behavior
of their subjects, showing the historical trend of
departing away from the Baroque's church/state
orientation. Landscapes were pastoral and often
depicted the leisurely outings of aristocratic couples.
An interesting illustration of the hostility sometimes aroused by this
style (similar to that of early Modernists to High Victorian style) can be
found in the critical view of Rococo taken by the 1913Catholic
Encyclopedia, especially on the unsuitable nature of Rococo for
ecclesiastical contexts. due to the style's lack of simplicity, its
outwardness and its frivolity, all of which tend to distract from prayer
When the outwardness of the style was toned down it became more
acceptable in religious environments and contexts. As such, Rococo
decoration was able to be incorporated in sacred
architecture, although, due to the style's garishness, even when religious
motifs were used the results might not have always been pleasing.
1749–1774, by the Brazilian
The Rococo staircase of Gruber
Palacein LjubljanaThe Rococo staircase