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Practical Modeling:
Making the Invisible Visible
Elmendorf | Hinton | Hoff
1
Hello!
2
#ias15 #model
We are information architects at The Understanding Group (TUG)
where we get to model messes
Andrew ...
Intended Take Aways
• Confidence in your modeling ability
• Understanding of why modeling benefits a project
• Knowledge o...
Agenda
• Welcome
• What do we mean when we say Practical Modeling?
• Why Model?
• Activity: Warm-Up
• What Types of Concep...
Today…
5
Our focus is on getting you hands-on experience - you will not need your computers or phones - we will do everyth...
Say hello to the
person next to you
6
You’ll be working independently throughout the workshop and then sharing with the pe...
Modeling is freedom
7
It is going to be reeeallllllly tempting today to worry about the “right way” to model. We’d like to...
What do we mean when we say
Practical Modeling?
8
9
Abstract
Models
Physical
Models
Mathematical Models
Scientific Models
Conceptual Models
Many
kinds of
models
Our Focus To...
Scientific Models
10
• Manipulate ideas as objects
• Explore their relationships
• Work with complex systems
Conceptual Mod...
Conceptual is not
the opposite of practical.
11
We emphasize this is ‘practical modeling’ because there’s a misconception ...
12
Why Model?
13
IA is big
Information Architecture isn’t just about designing labels, links, and content arrangement … and it’s not jus...
To get at the “what”…
IAs do a lot of modeling
14
!
Semester - Based Activity Cycle
Enroll for semester Pay BillCourse Pla...
15
WHATHOW
WHAT How
Project
What (architecture) before how (design)

it’s about deciding on the big issues to focus on. Th...
Models establish understanding throughout the project
16
project
Before During
After
It is a common misconception that mod...
What.………………….How
17
This diagram shows the cost of doing tasks outside of their planned phases. You see, writing requireme...
18
Facets!
Location!
Search!
Learning!
Relevance!
Cross-selling!
Utilities!
Channels!
These days, there are a LOT of parts...
19
“culture”!
“love”!
“fun”!
“nature”!
“jazz”!
“economy”!
“smart”!
We get this out of our heads partially by naming it.

L...
20
Facets!
Location!
Search!
Learning!
Relevance!
Cross-selling!
Utilities!
Channels!
Here is an example of naming these p...
Models can do things interfaces can’t…
21
(relationships/ideas) (pixels/atoms)
Models Interfaces
We see Models on a sort o...
22
Models Interfaces
Why are we doing this? What is it? How
do all the parts relate?
How will someone use each part? What
...
People are visual
23
People learn visually 

- that is why people like to jump to interfaces, the obvious visual expressio...
What is this?
• 6 legs
• 4 wings
• 2 eyes
• Long abdomen
• Powerful jaws
24
Our clients are often from a different world th...
25
or this?
Conceptual models allow very different kinds of
information to get along
26
0"
2"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6"
A...
Too busy NOT to model
27
Agile
Waterfall
Wireframes=my job
“I am involved beginning to end.”
“I do user research, I
don’t ...
Products/services exist in a landscape
28
Competition / Time-to-Market
Brand / Reputation
Technology / Infrastructure
Serv...
29
Models become
molds for making.
Ultimately, the way we conceive of concepts and their relationships creates structures ...
30
Warm-Up Activity!
Model the way you get or make coffee/tea, as system
20 minutes to work independently
5 minutes each t...
31
Conceptual Models
help us work with
relationships.
32
Similarities
Influences
Dependencies
Sequences
Systems
Abstract Concrete
Vague vs Firm relationships
33
A
C
2
A
B
owned by
We can model the relationships in vague or firm expressions: 

Point to s...
Circles can help avoid implying structure prematurely …
34
no sides, no lines sides imply lines
When we start trying to fig...
Architects’ “bubble” diagrams
35
Now for a bit about the elements of a relational model.
Architects (many of them) use the...
Architects’ “bubble” diagrams
36
Here you can see how the bubble diagrams turn into something we are all more familiar wit...
From functional model to conceptual architecture …
37
ARTMAX HOME
[Visual Showcase]
Topical / curated
spotlight of brand-
...
Examples
38
Andrew
Now let’s look at some examples of relational models
39
Example: Relationships between various challenges,
and how they affect scalability and growth.
Most of these sorts of m...
Example: Finding functional priorities &
centers of gravity …
40
… before locking down structure.
Here’s that example from...
Example: Looking for emergent patterns
in all the elements …
41
Metadata Landscape Diagram | v. 0.4 | November 01, 2012 CO...
Example: illustrating information overwhelm
& overlapping contexts
42
Here a model is used to see the context of a user co...
4
15
3
18
22
2
4
29
20
32
31
30 28
19
21
1
14
2
16
5
6
7
17
25
26
27
8
9
10
11
12
13
Industry
Find
Personal
Optimize
Perso...
Example: An “Info Model” for a large non-profit
44
Advocacy (Generates Awareness)
Initiative 3
Volunteers
Initiatives
Init...
MID
Case Call
Corporate
Contact
Business Name
Status (state)
Related MIDs
Interaction
History
Action History
Escalated
Res...
46
Example: “Dumb” architecture, deciding the basics.
This one still only has 3 circles. It’s far from a smart, detailed i...
Semester - Based Activity Cycle
Enroll for semester Pay BillCourse Planning
Add/Drop classes
VETERAN:
A Enrollment
Verifica...
48
Example: behavior patterns and correlating IA approaches
In this case, a model helps to explain the way people make lis...
Example: Created to clarify structure of checkout
for developers
49
Cart
with Purchasable
Items
Messaging
asking users if
...
Example: Chef Searching Online for New Recipe
50
Determine which
to work off of
Modify
View in browser tabs
Save several o...
Example: Scenario Touchpoints
51
Facebook
Email welcoming
her to TV Show
Membership
Watches TV and
tells husband
Watching ...
52
How to get started
Organize what you know and
see what patterns emerge
53
The BEST way that I've found to START MODELING... is getting down w...
54
Take nothing for
granted.
This is the SIMPLEST, but also, maybe, the HARDEST to practice...
Too often we proceed under ...
Keep things pliable
55
It is important to keep our models PLIABLE for as long as possible. 

We need to be able to MAKE PI...
A map is not the territory it
represents, but, if correct, 

it has a similar structure to
the territory, which
accounts f...
Paradox of Cartography:
To present a useful
and truthful picture,
an accurate map must
tell white lies.
57
There is someth...
All Models Have Limits
58
Create several models
that provide specific
perspectives.
The primary value of differentiating be...
Map out the relationships
between the parts to
better understand
the whole.
59
Joe: This point builds on the first point a...
Don’t worry about being messy
60
Models are ITERATIVE. 

Only AFTER you’ve ARTICULATED your understanding should you BEGIN...
61
Ask QUESTIONS until you figure something out.
...or until you're FORCED TO STOP.
There is always more to uncover.
If yo...
62
Activity!
Things are getting harder
45 minutes to model independently
7 minutes per person to share with neighbor
These...
• Organize what you know and look for patterns
• Take nothing for granted
• Keep things flexible
• Create a representative ...
64
Sharing your Understanding
Models are helpful for articulating our understanding, but they’re also great tools for coll...
Others can
benefit
from our
models too
65
Models are an effective way to SHARE UNDERSTANDING of a system AMONGST individual...
Prioritize a
focus and Align
on strategic
direction
66
Models help us PRIORITIZE and ALIGN ON DIRECTION

Because even when...
Identify and
confront
assumptions
67
Models help us point out any elephants that might be in the room by making them UNAVO...
Keep participants on the same page
68
And it keeps those involved as ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS rather than PASSIVE OBSERVERS…

m...
Making Models More Shareable
69
Here are some practical steps we can take to make our models more sharable.
Clarity Matters
70
Clarity Matters

- Make sure you’re not DOING TOO MUCH in any given model 

- If you’re having a HARD T...
Set the Stage
71
Provide a CLEAR FRAMING for what a model is illustrating.

- What are the GOALS of the model?

- Somethin...
Know Your
Audience & Objective
72
Know your AUDIENCE & OBJECTIVE

Are you sharing this model for the purpose of COLLABORAT...
Make it Look Good
(maybe?)
73
A great example of where it is critical to KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE is in determining how to make ...
74
Activity!
Sharing is the Goal
20 minutes to work independently
10 minutes 1 person per table share their model and then...
• Make sure you’re not doing too much
• Provide a clear framing of what the model is doing
• Collaboration and Validation ...
Modeling:
Not just for breakfast anymore
76
- Modeling makes both small and big things clear
- Models aren’t only useful f...
Example: High-level Model of Sale
77
SALE PRICE
RETAIL PRICE
MEN WOMEN PETITE JEWELRY
&
ACCESS
ORIES
SHOES FACTORY
STORE
B...
78
• Modeling is a kind of making: it’s
the craft of understanding.
• It can work at many levels of
fidelity, from abstrac...
79
THANK
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Practical Modeling: Making the Invisible Visible

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4 hour workshop at Information Architecture Summit 2015

Brochure Description:
A practitioners are encountering problem spaces that are more complex than ever before. Cross-channel ecosystems, huge enterprise platforms, and decentralized content delivery are just a few challenges we are having to explore, understand, and gain direction around with stakeholders, before it’s wise to dive into the particulars of interfaces. But how can we collaborate on architecture without the entanglements of design detail? Enter modeling.

Modeling allows us to work with abstraction as tangible objects; it brings physicality to language, decisions, and conceptual relationships that make up and underpin the ecosystems we work with. It allows us to analyze and collaborate more efficiently, with less effort and distraction. It is especially valuable for:
- Discovering and defining “why” we should do something and “what” we should do before jumping into “how” we should do it
- Untangling complex concepts in order to explain something to yourself
- Collaborating about (and deciding on) functional capabilities as a group prior to fussing with interfaces
- Grappling with abstract and quantitative data and their intersections
- Understanding and relating the parts of big, complex systems
- Exploring and creating semantic structures and frameworks

Published in: Design
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Practical Modeling: Making the Invisible Visible

  1. 1. Practical Modeling: Making the Invisible Visible Elmendorf | Hinton | Hoff 1
  2. 2. Hello! 2 #ias15 #model We are information architects at The Understanding Group (TUG) where we get to model messes Andrew Hinton Kaarin HoffJoe Elmendorf @josepilove @inkblurt @kaarinh
  3. 3. Intended Take Aways • Confidence in your modeling ability • Understanding of why modeling benefits a project • Knowledge of some major modeling modalities • Ability to use modeling to help you better understand complex problems • Insight into when collaborative model creation and discussion works and why 3
  4. 4. Agenda • Welcome • What do we mean when we say Practical Modeling? • Why Model? • Activity: Warm-Up • What Types of Conceptual Models? • How to Get Started • Activity: Modeling Complex Systems • Modeling for Sharing • Activity: Sharing is the Goal • Modeling, Not Just for Breakfast Anymore • Conclusion 4 9:30 8:30 11:30 12:30 10:30
  5. 5. Today… 5 Our focus is on getting you hands-on experience - you will not need your computers or phones - we will do everything with the paper and materials on your tables
  6. 6. Say hello to the person next to you 6 You’ll be working independently throughout the workshop and then sharing with the person next to you. So figure out how to divide up your tables, and quickly exchange greetings with your partner for the day.
  7. 7. Modeling is freedom 7 It is going to be reeeallllllly tempting today to worry about the “right way” to model. We’d like to calm your nerves from the start (or drive you completely crazy) by telling you there is no “right way.” We are going to explain some high-level categories of models and show you tons of examples. We want you to get a feel for the purpose behind certain approaches, but also that the information always demands something a little different. There is no way to give you a blank model and have you fill it in - half the value comes from what you learn while herding the information into a structure. So, don’t feel like you have to understand every example we are showing, try to absorb the variations as additions to your toolbox. Honestly, if we were to re-do any of those projects, we would probably end up with different models. Again, there is no “right way.” Most of the learning today will come from you doing this work yourselves. https://50thingsforyoutodo.wordpress.com/
  8. 8. What do we mean when we say Practical Modeling? 8
  9. 9. 9 Abstract Models Physical Models Mathematical Models Scientific Models Conceptual Models Many kinds of models Our Focus Today
  10. 10. Scientific Models 10 • Manipulate ideas as objects • Explore their relationships • Work with complex systems Conceptual Models help us
  11. 11. Conceptual is not the opposite of practical. 11 We emphasize this is ‘practical modeling’ because there’s a misconception that conceptual work isn’t practical. But, in fact, all these approaches are practical, when used for the right purposes.
  12. 12. 12 Why Model?
  13. 13. 13 IA is big Information Architecture isn’t just about designing labels, links, and content arrangement … and it’s not just about websites. It has to do with the way language acts as a sort of infrastructure. It addresses meanings and their relationships and how those create structures. And a lot of that is driven by, or disrupted by, the way the organization understands and talks about itself and what it is putting into the environment. The questions needed to get at navigation and filters and interfaces are the same questions that get at the core of an organization. Modeling can help expose all of that and help align a product or offering to deliver what the business needs and the user wants.
  14. 14. To get at the “what”… IAs do a lot of modeling 14 ! Semester - Based Activity Cycle Enroll for semester Pay BillCourse Planning Add/Drop classes VETERAN: A Enrollment Verification Start classes Warning grades Final grades State Intent To Attend university Admissions Financial Aid Enrollment DIAGRAM KEY Complete Degree/ Diploma Application Warning grades Final grades RSVP/Apply for Graduation CommencementResearch and Selection Considering all aspects of university Apply to university Considered for some merit based scholarships Acceptance to university Take Placement Exams Attend Orientation Visit Campus (Attend an Event) Register for Placement Exams and Orientation UNDERGRADUATE TRANSFER or high school dual enrollment: Request Official Transcripts from College(s) Send to university Get book vouchers Add/Drop classes Pay Bill TRANSFER: Receive Worksheet Notification of Merit- Based Scholarship Award Request Information Apply for Private Scholarships Special Event VETERAN: VA Enrollment Verification Start classesPay Enrollment Deposit Varies by Applicant Ideal Path Calendar Year - Based Activity Cycle Tuition Updated Apply for Current Scholarship & Department Specific Aid & Other options Apply for Private Scholarships Prospective Student First Semester Student at UMD Second through Final Semester Student Cycle Student Ready to Graduate Course Planning Change Colleges Track Grades & monitoring progress to degree Update Personal Ino Academic Calendar and Deadline Dates Ongoing Senior AuditRequest Senior Audit Readmission TRANSFER: Transfer Orientation INCOMING FRESHMEN or TRANSFER with <24 credits: Take ACT or SAT & Request Official Highschool(s) Transcripts Send scores to university TRANSFER: Petition for courses to be transferred if previously denied TRANSFER: Special Event If taking Summer Courses: Summer Financial Aid Application Applying for Financial Aid Receive Comprehensive Award Letter If selected for Verification Complete Verification process Applying for Financial Aid Receive Award Letter If selected for Verification Completer Verification process Meet with Academic Advisor Complete College & Program-specific requirements INTERNATIONAL: fulfill additional requirements Accept Loan(s) Accept Scholarship(s) Accept Aid Course Planning Change Colleges Track Grades & monitoring progress to degree Update Personal Ino Academic Calendar and Deadline Dates Ongoing Get book vouchers Cart with Purchasable Items Messaging asking users if they would like to keep their cart Cart empty Cart deleted No? Yes? Cart with Purchasable Items & Non-Purchasable Items Cart Non-Purchasable Items Checkout Confirmation of Purchase Page Purchasable Items purchased We’re here to talk about modeling today because it is the most useful tool in our tool box to get at the WHAT But, Why is the WHAT important?
  15. 15. 15 WHATHOW WHAT How Project What (architecture) before how (design) it’s about deciding on the big issues to focus on. The complex ecosystems we’re designing for these days require a strategy. How do you know when you KNOW ENOUGH? and you can move onto the next phase of a project. Through modeling. Modeling helps you measure COMPLETENESS... Of course there is always something MORE ONE CAN LEARN about anything...but from a practical stand-point, there NEEDS TO BE AN "END"......by showing what you ALREADY UNDERSTAND (or even think you might understand, or have even ENCOUNTERED)… you can identify what needs to be FILLED IN before your INITIAL UNDERSTANDING is complete and ready for VALIDATION. This is iterative, sometimes you have ask questions, model, validate, and repeat before reaching that completeness - but when you get to that point where you get it, you’ll know.
  16. 16. Models establish understanding throughout the project 16 project Before During After It is a common misconception that modeling is only useful at the beginning of a project. But we’ve found that models used at the beginning continue to be used and updated throughout the work, and even after something has been launched. In a typical engagement, definition, structural design, and connections are important throughout, at varying levels of focus. IA tends to have a “macro” perspective in the earlier part of a project, but it doesn’t go away as the details are sorted out. It just becomes more specific, within the larger patterns established earlier on. At no point is it only about “big” stuff – there are always elements of how architecture informs design even at the beginning. A quick UI sketch on a whiteboard to help illustrate a big structural approach is just fine during analysis, for example, but as a way to reflect on implications of architecture, not as a way to jump into design too quickly.
  17. 17. What.………………….How 17 This diagram shows the cost of doing tasks outside of their planned phases. You see, writing requirements when the site is already launched has huge financial implications. Modeling gives us a lens to measure completeness, increasing our confidence and decreasing our overages source: http://www.stevemcconnell.com/articles/art04.htm
  18. 18. 18 Facets! Location! Search! Learning! Relevance! Cross-selling! Utilities! Channels! These days, there are a LOT of parts to figure out. There is no possible way we can keep this all in our heads
  19. 19. 19 “culture”! “love”! “fun”! “nature”! “jazz”! “economy”! “smart”! We get this out of our heads partially by naming it. Language is stuff we put into our environment, and it doesn’t all correlate to physical objects. Much of what we talk about is abstract – ideas that aren’t about a specific object, but classes of them, or concepts that we all seem to understand but don’t really have a clear definition and aren’t contained by just one example. Language is the material we have to do this work … we don’t have anything else.
  20. 20. 20 Facets! Location! Search! Learning! Relevance! Cross-selling! Utilities! Channels! Here is an example of naming these parts we have to figure out and account for. But there are still other parts that we don’t have clear ways or naming or discussing. It’s the interconnections, the context, the relationships between parts that holds so much of the meaning. Yet another reason we have to go beyond written reports to models - to express these deeper layers. This can be the reverse order as well - Models allows us to record and articulate our thoughts before we’re able to use the right words to describe something.
  21. 21. Models can do things interfaces can’t… 21 (relationships/ideas) (pixels/atoms) Models Interfaces We see Models on a sort of continuum with Interfaces. For digital design work, the ultimate goal is usually to create some kind of interface. But models can do things that the specifics of interfaces can’t. Models are a way to work through questions about relationships and ideas, without being tangled in the specifics of interaction.
  22. 22. 22 Models Interfaces Why are we doing this? What is it? How do all the parts relate? How will someone use each part? What will it look like? Both of them help us determine what we are making, but they’re better at different challenges. Some questions are better answered at one end of the spectrum than the other.
  23. 23. People are visual 23 People learn visually - that is why people like to jump to interfaces, the obvious visual expression of a system. - but we know from before not to do that. - we want to lower the barrier to learning.
  24. 24. What is this? • 6 legs • 4 wings • 2 eyes • Long abdomen • Powerful jaws 24 Our clients are often from a different world than us. You and I have vocabularies to handle a lot of these structural discussions, but to our clients these conversations and documentation can seem uninviting and far from clear. Example, which is easier to understand? This text - read it or
  25. 25. 25 or this?
  26. 26. Conceptual models allow very different kinds of information to get along 26 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" Another GREAT part about conceptual models is that they allows us to put very different types of information together to learn from the whole. Excel wants your text normalized to unlock the power of sorting. Graphs want numbers. Conceptual models want whatever you have. The model on the right can handle all types of data and express connections between to create even more data.
  27. 27. Too busy NOT to model 27 Agile Waterfall Wireframes=my job “I am involved beginning to end.” “I do user research, I don’t make structural decisions.” We hear a lot from folks that their work environment just can’t support modeling. We’d argue you’re too busy not to model. No matter if you work in agile or waterfall, if you’r involved in the entire project or just a portion of it, modeling can help you in your work. Now, we are not saying it will be easy, we know there are other individuals in your workplace that will have to be convinced. Hopefully we are giving you the tools to convince them
  28. 28. Products/services exist in a landscape 28 Competition / Time-to-Market Brand / Reputation Technology / Infrastructure Service Product Not only does it not matter what kind of company you work in, or where you fall in the production line, we’re also asking you to think 1 or 3 levels higher about the context what you are making falls in. There are really big things going on that are exerting pressure on the small things that we are typically asked to work on. Just as an architect has to consider the surrounding context and natural constraints in play for a building, we have to think about how the structures we are putting into the world fit into that larger world. As well as the other products and services that our project needs to fit into and co-exist with. Nothing is in a vacuum.
  29. 29. 29 Models become molds for making. Ultimately, the way we conceive of concepts and their relationships creates structures we use for making the final product — whether we realize it or not. So why not make them visible and work with them on purpose? http://tombanwell.blogspot.com/2010/09/olifant-neoprene-trunk-hose.html
  30. 30. 30 Warm-Up Activity! Model the way you get or make coffee/tea, as system 20 minutes to work independently 5 minutes each to share Time for a modeling warm-up activity! You have loads of materials on your tables to use. Activity: Model Small System (coffee- system) Remember, there is no “right way” to do this. And we haven’t shown you any examples yet. So you should feel free to do whatever comes to mind first. And then start again with a new idea. Go crazy!
  31. 31. 31 Conceptual Models help us work with relationships.
  32. 32. 32 Similarities Influences Dependencies Sequences Systems Abstract Concrete
  33. 33. Vague vs Firm relationships 33 A C 2 A B owned by We can model the relationships in vague or firm expressions: Point to slide parts as your explaining Vague - “Thing A is a lot like Thing C and a little like Thing 2, but nothing like Thing Star.” - We may be alluding to a relationship, but we aren’t stating it. Firm - “Entity A is owned by Entity B.” - We are describing the relationship between two parts in fairly certain terms.
  34. 34. Circles can help avoid implying structure prematurely … 34 no sides, no lines sides imply lines When we start trying to figure out new things, we often start with circles. Circles don’t have sides — so they don’t imply any particular direction or order. They let us move them around more easily than squares. As things get more figured out, they become more square.
  35. 35. Architects’ “bubble” diagrams 35 Now for a bit about the elements of a relational model. Architects (many of them) use these things called bubble diagrams – they’re not very structured, it seems, but that’s because they want to start without too many assumptions about structure. They’re looking for relationships between the big parts of meaning involved in what they’re going to architect. These are seemingly dumb diagrams – but they’re dumb in the good way we promote, in that they ask dumb questions without a lot of assumptions. They’re not trying to be too smart, at least not yet.
  36. 36. Architects’ “bubble” diagrams 36 Here you can see how the bubble diagrams turn into something we are all more familiar with, a floor plan. Now the floor plan is still a model, but it is much less not as conceptual, it is moving towards the very literal building it will become. If you look closely, the floor plan still mainly just doing the work of establishing the definitions and relationships between the main functional areas of a structure. If the family this house is for had seen a bubble diagram that gave equal weight to eating in the kitchen and eating in the dining room, they would not be surprised to see these two areas receiving similar square footage. This also points out the value of multiple models, the bubble diagram may have shown the play between the parts, but the much more literal doors in the floor plan really alerts the family to traffic flow in their house. Discussions at both stages allows the architect to know when their plan is complete enough to continue, and ensures the final product will be pleasing.
  37. 37. From functional model to conceptual architecture … 37 ARTMAX HOME [Visual Showcase] Topical / curated spotlight of brand- representative products. PRODUCTS COMMUNITYLEARNING ACCOUNT ABOUT [Brand Statement / Description (Links to "About")] Latest News Aggregated from learning, social media, community, etc. - Editorially curated (can have sticky posts) - Item from a given org links to that org's new or home. - Link to the main News area in "About" Social Media Links Promotion Spot History / Mission content. Store Managers’ Blog Sharing (curated) - Art - Tips / Ideas (more tbd) Events Calendar (cross-ref w/ store finder) Intro / Overview About the community, policies, etc. Cross-channel connections / directions / kiosk locations shortcut to ‘find store’ facet. Company News Store Managers’ Blog - Most Recent Utility Nav - Search - Contact - Find Store Footer - Required boilerplate - Business & B2B Links Tutorials - cross-ref w/ Products when specific to a particular catalog item For Each Product … (Specifics TBD) - Attributes should include editorial ranking + user ranking Browse by tree hierarchy + facets. (Account Specifics TBD) 2.0 3.0 3.1 4.0 6.0 7.05.0 Learning Blog / Stories Related products Global Nav PRIMARY emphasis SECONDARY emphasis Persistent Nav Elements 1.0 Here you can see something from our own work that is incredibly similar to the architecture example. More often than not, we find this sort of approach helps us discover the ultimate structure something can have — such as the navigation structure of a website or search application. The example on the right is a site structure diagram, but it’s more like a floor plan than a flow chart — it establishes places and their relationships, much like in building architecture. Because a lot of the bigger questions have already been settled, the conceptual architecture isn’t a big surprise — in fact, it often just feels inevitable, rather than unsettled and up for debate. After this, we can better focus on the finer points of detailed structure and interaction design, without disruptive surprises.
  38. 38. Examples 38 Andrew Now let’s look at some examples of relational models
  39. 39. 39 Example: Relationships between various challenges, and how they affect scalability and growth. Most of these sorts of models start out on paper or whiteboards, in collaboration with clients or among the team. In this case, we were working with the dependencies between many separate issues in the organization, and how they all contributed to an invisible system that was keeping the company from growing and scaling. Ultimately this led to justifying creation of a new customer relationship management platform.
  40. 40. Example: Finding functional priorities & centers of gravity … 40 … before locking down structure. Here’s that example from the earlier slide — a functional model. Big, simple models can help bring a lot of clarity to stakeholders. Sometimes we refer to models like this as “dumb” models — because they’re not trying to be that smart, they’re just trying to ask and answer the “dumb” questions that everyone tends to assume are already answered. This isn’t an architectural plan — it’s just gathering many bits learned in discovery into a hypothetical direction, arranging them into centers of gravity. Then it has some kind of shape for discussion and alignment. The aim is for alignment and no surprises when we get to structure. Showing overlaps is important at this stage, because they The translucent colors allow us to show the overlap, which is additional information.
  41. 41. Example: Looking for emergent patterns in all the elements … 41 Metadata Landscape Diagram | v. 0.4 | November 01, 2012 CONFIDENTIAL | The Understanding Group / DirecTV Analytics Digital Marketing Commercial Advertising & Marketing Video / Production / Technical Availability External Social Media Personal Details Cross-Channel Customer Relationship / History Hardware / Devices Contract Identification Descriptive Metadata (3rd party & Other) CUSTOMERS ▪ Personnel (Actors etc) ▪ Genre, Sub-genres ▪ User Ratings, Comments ▪ Availability (dates, channels) ▪ Format / Aspect Ratio ▪ Digital Assets (Posters etc) ▪ Personnel (Actors etc) ▪ Genre, Sub-genres ▪ Series, Season, Episode ▪ User Ratings, Comments ▪ Availability (dates, channels) ▪ Multi-channel content ▪ Related programming (e.g. "Talking Dead") ▪ Games / Schedule ▪ Channels, Packages ▪ Blackout areas ▪ Players & other Personnel ▪ Connectors to statistics ▪ Social media (hashtags, chat room links, etc.) INTERNAL IMDB Rotten Tomatoes Rovi Products Promotions Recommendations (Curated) Curated Content (Quality + Recency) Toolset Targeted Ads Engine Recommendations (Automated) Audience Measure Data Stats, Inc. Common Sense VTAP Flixter Clickster Noble Savage TMS ID / Channel ID Asset Name Provider Creation Date Run time Aspect Ratio Codec Frame Rate Bit Rate Top Box Office Top DVD Sales Social Sign-on Preferences Behaviors Favorite ProductsWishlist Loyalty / Heart Score Sentiment Social Graph Comments Social Favorites Ratings Sharing First-screen Second- screen Segment + Persona Device CapabilitiesAuthorizations Customer TV Remote Code Addressable DVR Data Home/ Receiver IP Billing Problem Resolution Touchpoints Service History Transactions Installation Notes Order History (PPV etc) OPPV vs IPPV (box vs online) Channel Favorites Hardware Protection Eligibility Hardware Segment Account Number Receiver ID Other IDs Email AddressSocial Email Phone / SMS GPS Location Device Management Device Management Clickstream Email Preferences / Opt-In Churn Risk Score Commitment Date Auto bill-pay Acct Type (Res, Biz, Pending) Credit Band Connected Box Y/N Zip/DMA Region Package Bundle Channels Consolidated Profiles & Sub-Accounts HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNT ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCT Programming Packages Premiums Licensing Windows PPV: Exp Date, Window, Price Rights Mgmt Start Date INTERNAL ROLES Product Placement "Shazam- able" Media & Retail RSN (Regional Sports Network) Buy Window Movies Series Sports This model has a lot more elements. It is a relief to get all the elements on the table as objects we can move around, and show relationships between. This allows us to find emergent patterns and dynamics. This model explores the role of metadata in a big media company, throughout a customer lifecycle. This again wasn’t a description of what to build, but how their world worked – bringing enormous scale and complexity into sharp relief that emphasized how their problems with metadata were at the root of a lot of their challenges.
  42. 42. Example: illustrating information overwhelm & overlapping contexts 42 Here a model is used to see the context of a user completing a task in the real-world. There are many more factors outside of our control, making it all the more important to document all the elements at play
  43. 43. 4 15 3 18 22 2 4 29 20 32 31 30 28 19 21 1 14 2 16 5 6 7 17 25 26 27 8 9 10 11 12 13 Industry Find Personal Optimize Persona 2 Persona 3 Persona 5 Persona 4 Persona 1 2A 1A Something B Something A Something C Example: X-Y Plane, Color, & Shape to determine user research trends and representative personas 43 Here is a more traditional model we used to determine which personas were appropriate. The faded out shapes are all the interviewees. The big shapes show where the 5 personas fit in the model. The x-y access shows to what extent each interviewee’s profile fits certain attributes. Color and shape are also used to denote categories.
  44. 44. Example: An “Info Model” for a large non-profit 44 Advocacy (Generates Awareness) Initiative 3 Volunteers Initiatives Initiative 4 is a Grant is a is a is a is of type Initiative 1 Initiative 2 for is aimed at is a is a prepare agenda for the have Government ZMags (publications, products, catalogs) Online System Unit 6 State & Federal Organization* make aware Law Violators make Congress Board of Delegates is an feed content and the best practices in is primarily aimed at help in driving the organizes EHS focused Award Dinner has is an DB for Volunteers DB are placed in Initiative 5 Division Delegates two are delegates to the get appointed to form two are part of Members* (Organizations) five together form a feed best best practice, policy recommendations Commercial Direct Support Unit 6 are acquired by Territory Chapters Locations Companies Training Centers Members (Organizations) Have Participation Record Trade Associations Organizatio n* ▪ Direct Email Campaigns ▪ Sales Teams (Field and Internal) ▪ Direct Marketing (SEM, Organic Searches) can be participants in LMS DB Classroom Training Onsite Training Online Training Librarians have Knowledge Management and Creation KMS DB take care of Course-books, Classes, Videos, Work-books, Training Materials Reference Librarian Services (alerts, emails) use Inventory Products deliveres supplied to Sales Team are also sold by International Council is a subsidiary of Companies Outside US owns VAR Distributor Partner Engaged Chapters are labeled into Internal Team (Subject Matter Experts) External Team Content Vision Creative Packaging and Products Modules and Training Material handles handle Contact (primary, training center) Person is a belongs to belongs to Intranet Employees of Organization Online Interface search, do research on has a limited functionality call, email Archived content (brochures, magazines, articles etc.) dating back to Organization inception contains Sponsorship is a is of type for Business Units Unit 2 Unit 1 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 3 Unit 6 Unit 8 Unit 7 Products Product 7Product 2 Product 4 Product 5 Product 3 Product 1 Product 8 Product 9 Product 6 get assisted by offer drives is aimed at for other offer is offered on delivered by delivered by delivered by Members Non Members Safety and Health ePublications Colleges CD Version Monthly Emails is also available in is of types are available as is of type are purchased primarily by are subscribed to by have Channels Distributors Direct (Inside, Field Sales) Chapters Public Instructors Service Aggregators are are being sold using assist in creation of has has connect to have links to assist in creation of are acquired by are acquired by solve queries of CRM DB are placed in are placed in are of type assist in creation of take give services to offers offers gain access to/ can modify based on permissions CMS (Wordpress, Sharepoint) DB Shopping Cart Online System is build using Shared Services Lead Generation Awards Packaged Training Research & StatisticsMarketing Communication Publications are of types are of types offers Purchasers is a purchase through are sold via are sold via purchase through archives Magazines Books Facts NewsletterWebinars Pay-wall Free Members only provide Compu-System (data and campaign management) Online System Organizatio n* are are being sold using Exhibitors pay to present on provide take Campaigns Campaign 1 Campaign 2 Awesome Award are published on are of type is a is a Great Plains - Accounting System DB Email Campaigns Tool export emails to Marketing used for sales data are accessed viahandle advertising data is stored in sales data Course Course 1 Course 5 Course 4 Course 3 Course 2 Court Corporate State give This is a model of a very complex ecosystem, we call it an Info Model... It shows actors, systems, and relationships...Basically, it started out as a dump of everything we knew... The colors were added later to help group related elements - This was one of the only ways to articulate and keep track of the volume of information we were learning throughout the project. - In addition to helping us ask better questions, this model went a long way to help us articulate constraints of the ecosystem back to the client. We never actually completed this model...there are some areas that are still pretty unclear... and that frankly fell out of scope of the engagement... But the stuff that did get modeled provided a lot of clarity. At the end ... the client said that this model showed them something they all knew, but could never figure out how to talk about…and as a result were unable to effect change on. After having this model they were not only able to talk articulately about their world, but they were able to clearly address problems head on.
  45. 45. MID Case Call Corporate Contact Business Name Status (state) Related MIDs Interaction History Action History Escalated Resolved Category Notes Agent Info Phone Queue MID Value Agent Value Equipment Documents …has associated… …has a… …has a set of… …has… …has... … is based on… …has… …can be… …can be… …is associated with a least one… …is assigned a… …has corresponding… …has... …was in a… …is with a… …is associated with one or more… …is associated with one or more… …has a… …has a… …has a… Agent …has… …is a… …is created for each… …is an action in the… …has a… …has an… …based on… …based on… Example: An “Info Model” for one part of a complex financial institution 45 Here is an info model showing one segment of a complex system. Note that in both info model examples, many of the lines include labels - has a, is a, loosely defined by, etc.
  46. 46. 46 Example: “Dumb” architecture, deciding the basics. This one still only has 3 circles. It’s far from a smart, detailed information architecture. But before the details could be hashed out, these basic relationships had to be established. It was a basic conceptual model for a major retailer that established the overall information architecture for their evolving website. It helped the stakeholders to decide that all three areas of its online presence needed to be co-equal and integrated. And this model allows a relatively uncomplicated view, so everyone can see clearly that’s our foundation.
  47. 47. Semester - Based Activity Cycle Enroll for semester Pay BillCourse Planning Add/Drop classes VETERAN: A Enrollment Verification Start classes Warning grades Final grades State Intent To Attend university Admissions Financial Aid Enrollment DIAGRAM KEY Warning grades Final gradesResearch and Selection Considering all aspects of university Apply to university Considered for some merit based scholarships Acceptance to university Take Placement Exams Attend Orientation Visit Campus (Attend an Event) Register for Placement Exams and Orientation UNDERGRADUATE TRANSFER or high school dual enrollment: Request Official Transcripts from College(s) Send to university Get book vouchers Add/Drop classes Pay Bill TRANSFER: Receive Worksheet Notification of Merit- Based Scholarship Award Request Information Apply for Private Scholarships Special Event VETERAN: VA Enrollment Verification Start classesPay Enrollment Deposit Varies by Applicant Ideal Path Calendar Ye Apply for Cu Specific Aid & Apply for Pri Prospective Student First Semester Student at UMD Second through Final Semester Student Cycle Course Planning Change Colleges Track Grades & monitoring progress to degree Update Personal Ino Academic Calendar and Deadline Dates Ongoing Readmission TRANSFER: Transfer Orientation INCOMING FRESHMEN or TRANSFER with <24 credits: Take ACT or SAT & Request Official Highschool(s) Transcripts Send scores to university TRANSFER: Petition for courses to be transferred if previously denied TRANSFER: Special Event Applying for Financial Aid Receive Comprehensive Award Letter If selected for Verification Complete Verification process Applying for Financial Aid Meet with Academic Advisor Complete College & Program-specific requirements INTERNATIONAL: fulfill additional requirements Accept Loan(s) Accept Scholarship(s) Course Planning Change Colleges Track Grades & monitoring progress to degree Update Personal Ino Academic Calendar and Deadline Dates Ongoing Get book vouchers Example: Describing complex workflow before making the system 47 In this case, we modeled a process over time to work through the stages and pain points that needed to be addressed – it’s a more formal model, with more linear detail. This has 2 paths - the dark grey is the “ideal path” and the light grey path shows how things vary by user type.
  48. 48. 48 Example: behavior patterns and correlating IA approaches In this case, a model helps to explain the way people make lists, and why, for a retail website. It takes a complex continuum of behaviors and breaks it down two three essential categories, which can translate to architectural structure & functionality. This is a more concrete, clever model, with meaningful axes, and lots of text — but the big soft squares help to simplify and structure what is otherwise a really organic set of behaviors.
  49. 49. Example: Created to clarify structure of checkout for developers 49 Cart with Purchasable Items Messaging asking users if they would like to keep their cart Cart empty Cart deleted No? Yes? Cart with Purchasable Items & Non-Purchasable Items Cart Non-Purchasable Items Checkout Confirmation of Purchase Page Purchasable Items purchased This was a “just in time” model created in the midst of development, to help everyone on an agile team get centered on an essential bit of structural design and rationale – it clarified an invisible roadblock that everyone was tripping over but couldn’t articulate. This is an example of how modeling is useful through the entire project timeline
  50. 50. Example: Chef Searching Online for New Recipe 50 Determine which to work off of Modify View in browser tabs Save several options to hard drive Physically write notes Print Don’t Print Question Select starting point(s) ID nomenclature ScanSearch Refine Compare Candidates New / additional nomenclature Filter Sort Search within search results one or more Save to one or more Hard drive Network View on screen Blog Add print out to notebook along with original print out with hand written notes Hard drive Network Make Recipe Print Troubleshoot Finalize Recipe Save to one or more Read & remember Chef Searching Online for New Recipe/Technique Select Candidates This is showing the pattern of searching, refining, combining results, printing, physically making the recipe, troubleshooting, and finally documenting a recipe for future use. It has many cyclical sections and include the physical and digital worlds involved in this experience.
  51. 51. Example: Scenario Touchpoints 51 Facebook Email welcoming her to TV Show Membership Watches TV and tells husband Watching TV Show on TV Watching TV Show on TV Sees Tweet about earning points, follows link About TV Show page Next time she watches TV Show she checks-in and earns points Hears promotion Visits TV Show website to find out more Follows TV Show Twitter to get alerts about the promotion Sees Game promotion & son asks to play Plays with son on TVShow.com Prompted to join TV Show Club to earn points Joins Creates wish list TV Show & game play becomes nightly ritual Husband joins TV Show Club Watch for TV Show together About TV Show page Sweepstakes page on TV Show Club page Signs up using Facebook login Shares on Facebook Social Key I understand Membership Benefits! Family friendly! I can get things I need! thought Signs up for TV Show club Here are 3 simple sequential models summarizing 3 scenarios. These high-level views can increase the likelihood of documentation informing future phases of the project, since they make the information easier to consume than plain text.
  52. 52. 52 How to get started
  53. 53. Organize what you know and see what patterns emerge 53 The BEST way that I've found to START MODELING... is getting down what you know... especially if your knowledge feels INCOMPLETE... As you ORGANIZE what you know... new information WILL BE CREATED...and will allow you to make NEW INSIGHTS based on these CONNECTIONS.
  54. 54. 54 Take nothing for granted. This is the SIMPLEST, but also, maybe, the HARDEST to practice... Too often we proceed under the assumption that EVERYONE is on the same page…only to meet seemingly INEXPLICABLE CONFUSION. We can AVOID a lot of this confusion by making SIMPLE DISTINCTIONS around seemingly common points that will end up helping make complex concepts CLEAR. In some instances you are going to need to RELY on WHAT YOU KNOW about a subject because you’ve been given LIMITED BACKGROUND (like in our activity in a few minutes). This is fine, but make sure you KEEP TRACK of your ASSUMPTIONS and be ready to throw them away when you learn something CONTRADICTORY about the ACTUAL SYSTEM you’re working with.
  55. 55. Keep things pliable 55 It is important to keep our models PLIABLE for as long as possible. We need to be able to MAKE PIECES and MOVE THEM AROUND as much as needed. Try SEVERAL ITERATIONS and approaches, certain approaches will FEEL MORE RIGHT than others, go with those. This is why there are a STACK OF STICKY notes in front of you. You can move them around and make associations WITHOUT COMMITTING to anything. It is a great way to start because… The more PERFECT LOOKING or firm you make something, the LESS LIKELY you are to CHANGE it - and the LESS LIKELY ANYONE is to change it. At this point these are tools for DISCOVERY, COLLABORATION, and DISCUSSION, they are meant to be changed and even SCRAPPED ALTOGETHER. source:https://www.flickr.com/photos/shoot-art/
  56. 56. A map is not the territory it represents, but, if correct, 
 it has a similar structure to the territory, which accounts for its usefulness Alfred Korzybski 56 Models are NEVER going to be THE THING they are representing. They are always be REPRESENTATIONS used to help ARTICULATE a SYSTEM in the most EFFECTIVE means possible. source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thecollegehelper.com%2Fcollege- workout-plan&ei=Im8tVc2vNMzUgwSf64OgCg&bvm=bv.90790515,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNF0tR1APNtCZN1SvxZku7VjE4cRHA&ust=1429127288706729 source: https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAcQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsteroid-anabolic.com%2Fforum%2Fprofile %2Fadmin%2F%3Farea%3Dshowposts%3Bsa%3Dtopics%3Bstart%3D400&ei=RW8tVbCpAoO1ggT91oGwBA&bvm=bv. 90790515,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNF0tR1APNtCZN1SvxZku7VjE4cRHA&ust=1429127288706729
  57. 57. Paradox of Cartography: To present a useful and truthful picture, an accurate map must tell white lies. 57 There is something called the Paradox of Cartography Which states... To present a USEFUL and TRUTHFUL picture... an accurate map MUST tell white lies. Very rarely can you model ALL FACETS of a system with a single model... The MORE COMPLEXITY you show, the narrower your SCOPE needs to be...and VISA VERSA the MORE SCOPE you include, the LESS COMPLEXITY you can show. A great example of this is...a map. A map of the United States needs to show FAR LESS DETAIL than a map of Minneapolis, even though all of the SAME INFORMATION about Minneapolis is STILL TRUE with the United States map, in order to make the larger picture USEFUL, we need to show less detail. Being able to have a NARROW FOCUS will help AVOID CONFUSION and INACCURACIES... So keep the focus of your models narrow... and make A LOT OF THEM.
  58. 58. All Models Have Limits 58 Create several models that provide specific perspectives. The primary value of differentiating between DIFFERENT KINDS OF MODELS, as we have, is to help DELINEATE the bounds on any single model. A single model can ONLY DO SO MUCH before we hit DIMINISHING returns, so it is BEST to create SEVERAL models that provide very SPECIFIC PERSPECTIVES rather than trying to do everything ALL AT ONCE in the SAME SPACE. DON’T WORRY ABOUT WASTING PAPER!
  59. 59. Map out the relationships between the parts to better understand the whole. 59 Joe: This point builds on the first point around START WITH WHAT YOU KNOW... and is useful when you've EXHAUSTED your current knowledge... or you're just UNSURE of what you know. Dive deep into the relationships BETWEEN THE PARTS to better understand THE WHOLE. By exploring how the parts relate to one another... you're TESTING and PUSHING the BOUNDARIES of your overall understanding... And like all models, if it HOLDS WATER, awesome…If not, THROW IT OUT and move on.
  60. 60. Don’t worry about being messy 60 Models are ITERATIVE. Only AFTER you’ve ARTICULATED your understanding should you BEGIN to clean up the model to make it MORE CLEAR to people OTHER THAN YOU.
  61. 61. 61 Ask QUESTIONS until you figure something out. ...or until you're FORCED TO STOP. There is always more to uncover. If you can’t ask someone directly, keep a LIST OF QUESTIONS and assumptions that can be VETTED later. flickr: dullhunk
  62. 62. 62 Activity! Things are getting harder 45 minutes to model independently 7 minutes per person to share with neighbor These are notes taken by a colleague and handed to you at the start of a project. You want to prepare for your first meeting with the client by getting a good picture of their world. Website suuuuuuper out of date. The university/hospital is low on staff and the web hosting system is antiquated. Changes have to be submitted through a certain process and changes can only be made by a small group of people. The visuals are old. The content is old. Don’t use the website as main source of information. When sharing: Remember you partner read the same information you did. Start by sharing your process - what big divisions & connections did you make. Explain how what you discovered, how you now see the world.
  63. 63. • Organize what you know and look for patterns • Take nothing for granted • Keep things flexible • Create a representative view, not a perfect view • Create lots of small models • When you get stuck, focus on the relationships between the parts • Don’t worry about being messy or starting over • Keep track of questions and assumptions 63 Up during activity
  64. 64. 64 Sharing your Understanding Models are helpful for articulating our understanding, but they’re also great tools for collaboration.
  65. 65. Others can benefit from our models too 65 Models are an effective way to SHARE UNDERSTANDING of a system AMONGST individuals - WE LEARN about a system through the act of CREATING the model - OTHERS CAN LEARN by VALIDATING and aligning the system, AS EXPRESSED in the model, to THEIR OWN understanding. - When YOU DON’T KNOW MUCH, collaborating over a model you whipped together can be the PERFECT TOOL to get at the conversations you need to have with your stakeholders. All the BENEFITS of modeling for your OWN UNDERSTANDING can be seen when we share our models with others. But there are also BENEFITS we see a lot more WHEN WE SHARE our models.
  66. 66. Prioritize a focus and Align on strategic direction 66 Models help us PRIORITIZE and ALIGN ON DIRECTION Because even when people EXPERIENCE the SAME THINGS, they experience them IN DIFFERENT WAYS. Modeling can help individuals WORK OUT any differences and get to a SHARED UNDERSTANDING.
  67. 67. Identify and confront assumptions 67 Models help us point out any elephants that might be in the room by making them UNAVOIDABLE. What one person might be ASSUMING, another person might have a CONCRETE ANSWER for. If we INCLUDE assumptions in our models we can ENSURE they aren’t JUST IN OUR HEADS. source: http://images.clipartpanda.com/indian-elephant-drawing-elephant-drawing-25423-hd-wallpapers.jpg
  68. 68. Keep participants on the same page 68 And it keeps those involved as ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS rather than PASSIVE OBSERVERS… modeling FOSTERS COLLABORATION by allowing thoughts to be expressed WITH PICTURES before an individual’s understanding has MATURED ENOUGH to where it can be EXPRESSED WITH WORDS. Without modeling, the MOST COMMON place to use pictures in our line of work is INTERFACES; and that is NOT THE KIND of place we want to be FIGURING OUT HOW a system works. source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/pmillera4/9451514604
  69. 69. Making Models More Shareable 69 Here are some practical steps we can take to make our models more sharable.
  70. 70. Clarity Matters 70 Clarity Matters - Make sure you’re not DOING TOO MUCH in any given model - If you’re having a HARD TIME making something CLEAR, there is a good chance you’re DOING TOO MUCH in a single space and need to PARE DOWN what you’re including. source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jacqtai/
  71. 71. Set the Stage 71 Provide a CLEAR FRAMING for what a model is illustrating. - What are the GOALS of the model? - Something as simple as a TITLE can set the stage, but sometimes a PARAGRAPH is needed to explain the CONTEXT OUTSIDE of the model. souce: https://www.flickr.com/photos/juska/
  72. 72. Know Your Audience & Objective 72 Know your AUDIENCE & OBJECTIVE Are you sharing this model for the purpose of COLLABORATION and VALIDATION? or are you sharing it as a PRESENTATION and method for PRESERVATION?
  73. 73. Make it Look Good (maybe?) 73 A great example of where it is critical to KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE is in determining how to make the MODEL LOOK. Making a model look TOO GOOD and polished will INHIBIT collaboration because it will LOOK COMPLETE. However, a polished and highly-tweaked model is often BETTER SUITED to clearly articulating a certain POINT and PERSPECTIVE on its own. It is important to STRIKE the right BALANCE for your situation. source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/heartlover1717/
  74. 74. 74 Activity! Sharing is the Goal 20 minutes to work independently 10 minutes 1 person per table share their model and then discuss
  75. 75. • Make sure you’re not doing too much • Provide a clear framing of what the model is doing • Collaboration and Validation or Presentation and Preservation • Make it look good enough for what you’re trying to achieve 75 Take your model from earlier and adapt it to be more shareable in a collaborative environment. up during activity
  76. 76. Modeling: Not just for breakfast anymore 76 - Modeling makes both small and big things clear - Models aren’t only useful for big messy things - Anything can be modeled, everything should be modeled You know this now. You’ve modeled getting coffee, you’ve modeled higher ed, you are ready to model everything. But we just wanted to take a second here at the end to remind you that this activity can really be a part of everything you do. Here’s an example. Doesn’t have to be big and complex Modeling is always helpful Model EVERYTHING
  77. 77. Example: High-level Model of Sale 77 SALE PRICE RETAIL PRICE MEN WOMEN PETITE JEWELRY & ACCESS ORIES SHOES FACTORY STORE BABY I gave myself a scenario and whipped up this model Scenario: My company has been hired to just do Banana Republic’s sale pages. I have just been asked to join the team and have 30 minutes to prepare. I read over navigated to the site. Looking at the header and the sale in-page navigation, it was apparent that the sale structure varies from the rest of the site. A quick model shows that women’s sizes are inconsistent across the 2 areas and baby only appears in sale. You could write down these 2 notes and ask about them during the meeting. But what questions have you missed in your mad-dash to prepare? Perhaps this model can prompt the client to share more inconsistencies and the reasons behind them. When you don’t know much, collaborating over a model you whipped together can be the perfect tool to get at the conversations you need to have with your stakeholders.
  78. 78. 78 • Modeling is a kind of making: it’s the craft of understanding. • It can work at many levels of fidelity, from abstract to specific. • You can do it whenever, to figure out big / complex concepts. Practical Modeling
  79. 79. 79 THANK

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