Lecture plant classification morphology


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Lecture plant classification morphology

  1. 1. BOT 2150 CPlant classification Lecture 1, May 11
  2. 2. What makes a plant?• Photosynthetic and contain chlorophyll a & b• Multicellular• Alternates between two generations• Produces embryos• Has cell walls made of cellulose• Mushrooms are not plants!
  3. 3. Plant kingdomNon-vascular Vascular (Tracheophyta) Plants without seeds Mosses Liverworts (Seedless vascular Plants with seeds(very moist areas) plants) (seeded vascular plants) Horsetails Ferns Gymnosperms: Angiosperms: Fronds & cones flowers & fruits spores Wetter areas
  4. 4. Gymnospermspage 2 Conifers Often trees with needle-like or scale-like leaves, male and female cones; female cones produce seeds (includes Podocarps) Cycads Large, pinnately compound leaves, male and female cones, cones large and colorful; female cones produce seeds Others: Ginko biloba Gnetales
  5. 5. angiosperms Monocots – one seed cotyledon, parallel leaf veins, flowers with multiples of 3 (3, 6, 9), stems lack secondary growth, most are herbaceous, fibrous root systems Eudicots – (dicots), 2 seed cotyledons, veins are usually netted, flowers are in multiples of 4 or 5, stems may have secondary growth, many are herbaceous, many are woody, tap root systems (fleshy included in this category) Others: Basal angiosperms Includes groups that are not monocots or eudicots Ex: water lily
  6. 6. Plant Monocot “Dicot”characteristicPlant 2,700/ 58,000 9,900/175,700genera/species(approx.)Cotyledons 1, usually develop 2, usually develop underground or above the ground inside the fruitMature root adventitious, often Mostly taprootsystem above ground, often system, prop roots occasionally adventitiousLeaf venation Usually parallel Usually netted
  7. 7. Stem Scattered; Arranged in a ring appearing around the stem; pith random distinctCambium Usually absent - Usually present – “true” no true secondary growth secondary growthHabit herbaceous Woody or herbaceousFloral parts Typically in Typically in multiples of multiples of 3 4 or 5Propagation Underground stem or seed Propagate from stem or leaf cuttings (success depends on the species and various techniques); seed, some tubers or underground stems will grow.
  8. 8. Scientific namesIndividual: Theobroma cacao Quercus virginiana Cacao Live OakClassificationKingdom Plantae PlantaeDivision (Phylum) Magnoliophyta MagnoliophytaClass Angiospermae (flowering Angiospermae (flowering plants) plants)Order Malvales FagalesFamily Malavaceae (hibiscus family) FagaceaeGenus (pl. genera) Theobroma QuercusSpecies Theobroma cacao Quercus virginiana Just remember: King David Came Over For Good Soup
  9. 9. Other termsOther terms HybridsSubspecies: ssp. Species hybrid: Cattleya skinneri X guatemalensisVariety: var.Cultivar (cultivated variety): Variety hybrid: Maypan (Malay dwarfcv “Malay dwarf” or “big boy” X Panama tall)
  10. 10. activity• Plants in the room – identify to basic group• Moss (non-vascular), fern, gymnosperm, angiosperm• Nursery tour
  11. 11. Vegetative characteristics-stems• Support structure of the plant• Hold leaves• Figure 22 page 9• Read specialized stem structure pages 9-15
  12. 12. http://www.pssc.ttu.edu/techhort/IMAGES/leaves/node.jpg
  13. 13. Vegetative characteristics- leaf function• Leaves – primary photosynthetic organ• Take in sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water and convert it into sugars
  14. 14. www.paulnoll.com/Oregon/Wildflower/leaf-parts.jpg
  15. 15. Vegetative characteristics- leaf typepage 20
  16. 16. Vegetative characteristics- leaf shapepage 17 spatulate deltoidsagittate margins
  17. 17. Vegetative characteristics- leaf marginpage 19
  18. 18. Vegetative characteristics- leaf arrangementpage 20
  19. 19. activity• Two example stems• For each stem determine: – 1. leaf type – 2. leaf shape – 3. leaf arrangement – 4. leaf margin
  20. 20. Reproductive organs• Flowers & fruit – only in angiosperms (pg 28-32) Collectively Collectively = calyx = corolla pedicel
  21. 21. Flower terminology cont.• Perfect – contains all parts, both male (stamens) and female (pistil)• Imperfect – does not contain all parts, only male or female flower• Naked flower – usually wind pollinated, no petals or sepals, often imperfect
  22. 22. Reproductive organs - inflorescence• Flowers are found on a stem (peduncle)• The flowering stem with flowers is called an inflorescence• Page 23-27
  23. 23. Inflorescence types
  24. 24. activity• Dissect 3 flowers and label the parts• For each flower, determine: – 1. perfect or imperfect – 2. ovary superior or inferior – 3. monocot or eudicot
  25. 25. Homework & activities to turn in• 1. turn in keyed out leaf – 2 examples• 2. flower diagrams – 3 flowers• Assigned reading: Botany Handbook for Florida – full booklet