Engaging Māori Learners: A Pedagogical Framework Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd, Otago Polytechnic, 2011
Mihi & Mihimihi <ul><li>Greet each other: Tēnā koe (hello to one) </li></ul><ul><li>Who are your ancestors, where do they ...
The Koru Model of Teaching &  Learning <ul><li>Koru is the young fern frond or leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of stalk an...
The Koru Model of Teaching &  Learning <ul><li>Koru used in carving and tattoos </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with identity...
The Koru Model of Teaching &  Learning Mauri Manaaki Whakapapa Whanaungatanga Tūmanako & Pūmanawa Tautoko Aroha Whakamana
Mauri <ul><li>Why do we see the mauri as so central in a teaching and learning model? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we go about...
Why nurturing the mauri is central <ul><ul><li>Will I cope? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will I be good enough? </li></ul></...
Reducing Fears and Anxiety <ul><ul><li>Clear course outlines, explicit marking criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introdu...
Reducing Fears and Anxiety <ul><li>Ice breakers  </li></ul><ul><li>Name games </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing kai </li></ul><ul>...
Why nurturing the mauri is central Smith (2010, p.14) has this to say… … .“In a classroom situation, having been a teacher...
How do we nurture our students mauri? By attending to….
Manaaki Included in our framework to indicate importance of taking care of student’s physical, mental, spiritual and socia...
Manaaki Physical Mental Spiritual Social <ul><li>Room set up </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient sp...
Whakapapa <ul><li>Refers  to: </li></ul><ul><li>Genealogy: incorporates ancestors as well as immediate whānau.   </li></ul...
Whakapapa <ul><li>Appreciating that students belong to whanau and that this has implications for who they are and what the...
Whanaungatanga <ul><li>Refers to:  </li></ul><ul><li>The building and maintenance of whānau connections and relationships ...
Whanaungatanga <ul><li>Modelling warm, trusting and reciprocal relationships between staff involved on a programme includi...
Tūmanako & Pūmanawa <ul><li>Tūmanako  refers to desires or aspirations while  Pūmanawa  refers to natural talents. </li></...
Tūmanako & Pūmanawa <ul><li>Focusing on talents, aspirations, resources and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Have students ...
Tautoko Included in our model because supporting Māori students in a way that works for them is crucial in effective engag...
Tautoko <ul><li>Meeting face to face prior to course commencement </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with Whanau </li></ul><ul><li>...
Aroha Included in our framework because these are essential qualities in an educator who is committed to engaging Māori st...
Aroha <ul><li>Completing your own education regarding Te Tiriti o Waitangi and doing so with an open heart </li></ul><ul><...
Whakamana Included in our framework because it reminds us to bring  social justice, human rights and a power analysis to o...
Whakamana <ul><li>Pro-actively working with students to reduce internalised stigma – removing the burden of individual bla...
Paulo Freire (1996)  <ul><li>Love, humility and faith establish trust </li></ul><ul><li>Trust enables dialogue </li></ul><...
Waiata: Te Aroha <ul><li>Te Aroha  </li></ul><ul><li>Te Whakapono </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rangimarie </li></ul><ul><li>Tātou ...
References <ul><li>Bishop, R., & Berryman, M. (2006).  Culture speaks: cultural relationships and classroom learning . Wel...
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Engaging Maori learners

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Timms-Dean, K., & Rudd, J. (2011, October). Engaging Maori learners [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presentes at the National Tertiary Teaching & Learning Conference 2011, Nelson, New Zealand.

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  • Mihi / Kate’s Mihimihi Tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou katoa. Ka mihi ki te whenua o tēnei rohe. Ka mihi ki te mana whenua hoki. Ka mihi ki a koutou katoa. Kia ora. Ko wai au e tū mai nei? Ko Tararua te maunga. Ko Pukekaraka te puke. Ko Waiorongomai te roto. Ko te Moana o Raukawa te moana. Ko Tainui te waka. Ko Ngāti Raukawa te iwi. Ko Kate Timms-Dean taku ingoa. Ko Conway Dean taku tane. Ko Jacob rātou ko Charlotte, ko Torrey, ko Lachlan, ko Madeleine, ko Genevieve ā māua tamariki. My name is Kate Timms-Dean and I have ancestral links to Ngāti Raukawa in Ōtaki, Scotland and England. I feel a strong connection to my Māori and Scottish ancestry, and am currently completing a doctorate exploring Māori and Gaelic language revitalisation tactics. I am married to Conway Dean who is an artist from Perth, Western Australia. We have a blended family of six children aged from 19 to 5 years of age. Nā reira, tēnā tātou katoa.   Jenny’s Mihi Tena Koutou, Tena Koutou, Tena Koutou Katoa My father’s ancestor’s the Tuckey’s and the Richies hail from Ireland and England respectively. My mother’s ancestors the Morrison’s and the Martin’s hail from Scotland, the Morrison’s from Glasgow and the Martin’s from Edinburgh. I am lucky enough to have visited Edinburgh and I feel a strong sense of connection to this place. My father was born in Adelaide, Australia and moved to Dunedin New Zealand when he was seven. My mother was born in Wellington, New Zealand. She grew up in Owaka in the Catlins and moved to Dunedin as a teenager. I was born in Dunedin under the mantle of Ngai Tahu. I spent my early years moving around dam towns, Otamatata and Te Anau but ultimately grew up in Dunedin. I am married to Oliver Rudd who I met in Australia. Oliver and his family are from the North of England. Three of Oliver’s grandparents are from border riever families. They have lived in the same area for centuries. Oliver and I have two wonderful young adults, Samson &amp; Elizabeth and one delightful adolescent, Cohen.
  • Kate’s Kōrero: Mihi Mihi (a welcome) and mihimihi (personal introductions) are important protocols in Māori society. In the Māori world view, all events and activities are signified by an appropriate beginning point and end point. The beginning when meeting new people is usually marked by a process of mihi and mihimihi. This is when people are welcomed and introductions are made. We do not have time today for everyone to mihimihi. Instead we want you all to take 5 minutes to move around the room and introduce yourselves to as many people as possible – mihimihi to people you don’t know. We will let you know when there is one minute to go. Please use that minute to wrap up your introductions and re-seat yourselves.
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Pedagogical Framework   Today we want to introduce you to our pedagogical framework for engaging Māori learners. For anyone that doesn’t know, pedagogy just means education theory or values and principles. A framework or teaching philosophy integrates the knowledge, values and skills we integrate to inform our practice. A practice framework acts as a yard stick – something explicit against which we can measure our day to day practice.   We have called our framework The Koru Model of Teaching and Learning. The koru is the young fern frond or leaf and has a stalk and a number of blades. When the koru first emerges the stalk and blades are tightly coiled for protection. These unfurl as the koru matures (Wiakato University, 2007-2011).
  • Kate’s Kōrero: The Koru model   The Koru is used frequently in Māori carving and moko. It is associated with identity, growth and new life (Tauroa, 2009: Wilson 2001-3,) and with the concept of &amp;quot;Taonga Tuku Iho&amp;quot; which literally translates as“ treasures allowed down” and means “the passing of life, information and resources from one generation to the next” (Wilson 2001-3).   For us, the Koru captures the essence of teaching and learning in the tertiary technical sector. Many of our students arrive in a tightly coiled state. We see it as our responsibility to provide a safe and nurturing environment, one that responds to mental, physical, social and spiritual needs and that allows our students to uncoil and grow and be strong.    Just as the koru has a number of blades all part of the whole, our model has a number of components. The first of these is the Mauri.  
  • Kate’s Kōrero: The Mauri   We have located Mauri at the centre of the koru’s coil. Depending on which way you look, Mauri is the first or final point on our model. Mauri is the life force, that which enables “the heart to beat, the blood to flow, food to be eaten and digested, energy to be expended, the limbs to move, the mind to think and have some control over body systems, and the personality of the person to be vibrant, expressive and impressive” (Mead, 2003, p. 54). When a person is physically, mentally, socially and spiritually well, the mauri is well, when the person is unwell, the mauri is unwell too. When a person dies their mauri ceases to exist……Kate to develop this korero
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: The Mauri cont… This concept of Mauri or a life force can be a bit difficult to grasp. I don’t think it’s the same for everyone and I find it useful to visualise and consider how Mauri might look and feel for you. For me Mauri is a flame in the centre of my gut. When my energy is low, my flame dies downs, when I’m sick or very stressed my flame splutters but when I’m well my flame burns big and bright.   Question: When your flame is burning brightly what do you feel? Record responses on board: Hope, energised, excited, motivated etc Okay so maintaining or igniting those feelings of hope and energy and motivation or nurturing the mauri of each student is at the centre of our Koru model. This poses two questions: 1) Why do we see the mauri as so central in a teaching and learning model? 2) And how do we go about nurturing it?
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Why nurturing the mauri is central   Question: When your flame is spluttering or burning low what do you feel? Record responses on board: unenergised, unmotivated, sad, alone etc   A weak or unwell mauri is clearly not conducive to engaging with others or with learning.   Not all students, but many of those who come to us arrive in a tightly coiled state. They come with limited secondary education or with Masters degrees, with low self-esteem and a deep sense of failure, or with confidence and skills to match. Regardless of what they bring, most students start with some fear and anxiety about what to expect, concerns about whether they’ll be good enough, whether they’ll be able to cope with the workload and assessments or even whether we’ll be good enough for them. These fears and anxieties weaken the mauri and interfere with the student’s capacity to engage and learn.
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Why nurturing the mauri is central When engaging with and seeking to engage a new group of students, an educator can relieve a number of fears and anxieties for many students in a good orientation and induction process. Clear course outlines, manageable timetables, assessment marking criteria, introducing students to support services, scheduling a library tour and so on go a long way to alleviate fears and anxieties but for some students the fears and anxieties go very much deeper.
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Why nurturing the mauri is central Ice breakers, name games, sharing kai, group activities and learning waiata during orientation are also useful activities for alleviating fears and anxieties. One activity I do is have students work in groups to brainstorm and list all the fears they have and share these with the bigger group. Students are always relieved to see that their peers experience the same fears and I can often see the mauri of some students grow stronger after this exercise. It is evident in their body language, facial expression and engagement. I also use a name game to demonstrate for students who think they are incapable of learning that they are able to learn because they have just learnt 25 names.   But still for some students the fears and anxieties go very much deeper and for these students, constant monitoring and care and nurturing is required to light their fires and get those flames burning bright. Some students come to me with very damaged mauri.
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Why nurturing the mauri is central For these students, constant monitoring and care and nurturing is required to light their fires and get those flames burning bright. Some students come to me with very damaged mauri. Smith (2010, p.14) has this to say….“In a classroom situation, having been a teacher for many years, I have always thought about working with young children—how easy it is to hurt the mauri, as a teacher, as someone in power. A look, a word, an action can all do damage and it can happen in a single moment. Easy to damage, hard to recover” Activity: Discuss in groups (5 minutes) A classroom experience in which your mauri was damaged A classroom experience in which you damaged a student’s mauri   So many students come to us with very damaged mauri. As educators we need to take such care with our student’s mauri.
  • Kate’s Kōrero: How do we nurture our students Mauri?   Manaaki traditionally refers to the importance of hospitality and generosity on the marae. It can also relate to the importance of providing a nurturing environment and ensuring that people feel welcome. We have incorporated the concept of manaaki in our framework to draw attention to the importance of taking care of student’s physical, mental, spiritual and social needs. Engaging Maori learners through manaaki means that as educators we are aware that learners are not just two-dimensional beings. It is easy in a classroom setting to forget the things that our learners carry with them that we cannot see. This includes their lives outside our institutions, their families, their ancestors and their histories. It is important that we remember that our learners carry these things with them at all times. These can influence their learning, their confidence and their relationships with others. By including manaakitanga in our framework, we are signalling to you that when we welcome people to our classes, we welcome everything they bring, the seen and the unseen. Physical Mental Spiritual Social Room set up Temperature Sufficient space Air circulation Plugs for computers Lighting Comfortable chairs Water Flat structure (Not lecture theatre) Tables for group work Dedicated space (a home base for students) Attending to learning styles VARK Visual Aural/Audio Reader/ Writer Kinesthetic Stimulating content VARK approach to assessments Appropriate support and scaffolding One on one tutorial support Computer labs Fish &amp; Chip nights Peers support   Clarity about expectations, structure, roles and boundaries responsibilities Providing an Agenda Powhiri/ mihi whakatou/mihi haere mihimihi Karakia and blessings Opening and closing rituals Acknowledging ancestors/ Whakapapa Acknowledging ancestors presence Outdoor activities Carving, weaving or painting Mihimihi Introductions Signature search Name games Icebreakers Group activities Singing waiata Dedicated space Eating together Group assessments Learning communities  
  • Kate’s Kōrero: How do we nurture our students Mauri Whakapapa - means to trace or recite genealogy and incorporates ancestors as well as immediate whanau. We are incorporating whakapapa in our framework to draw attention to the importance of creating space for whanau. The concept of whakapapa is related to manaaki. A learner’s social networks have a huge influence on the learning experience. This includes their family, friends and communities. In the Māori worldview, it can also include whānau, hapū and iwi. It is important to remember the important role and influence that social connections and relationships have on our learners. The implications of this are: Making space for whānau in our classrooms. Allowing children, parents, partners and friends to engage, share and celebrate through attendance at orientation, group presentations, graduation celebrations and class functions. Recognising whakapapa as an aspect of identity – identity has been linked to health and well-being by people such as Mason Durie. Allowing opportunities for students to explore and share genealogy can enhance engagement for some learners. Another way that the concept of whakapapa can be utilised to support Māori learners is through accessing scholarships offered by iwi and hapū groups. This can be achieved by linking Māori learners to Māori support services within institutions.   Simply recognising that students are part of a whanau and that this has implications for who they are and what they bring Encouraging potential students to bring whanau members to initial pre-course meetings Including a ‘meet the family’ session during orientation Including whanau in official welcoming ceremonies A whanau orientated signature search Allowing children to come to class as required and making it comfortable for parents to feel okay about children being present Fostering a family tolerant environment among class members Asking class members to invite whanau with relevant expertise to come to class and share their stories and experiences Inviting whanau to assessment presentations and end of term/semester/year celebrations – establishing a class culture around this Being flexible about due dates in recognition of family/community responsibilities Creating opportunities to talk about whanau/whakapapa and share photo’s histories, and family stories Using mihi whakatau and mihi harere ceremonies within your class Sharing of yourself appropriately to indicate that it is okay to talk about family Using the term whakapapa and talking about ancestry and the way that it impacts on values, beliefs, customs and so on
  • Kate’s Kōrero: Whanaungatanga – refers to the building and maintenance of whānau connections and relationships through shared experience. It extends to non-kinship relations where there is mutual need, support and reciprocity. We have incorporated whanaungatanga in our framework to draw attention to the importance of establishing relationship, belonging and a sense of community. Whanaungatanga is an essential component in seeking to engage Maori learners. It involves establishing a warm, trusting and reciprocal relationship between teaching staff and individual students and also establishing warm, trusting and reciprocal relationships between the students themselves.   Checklist Engaging Māori learners through whanaungatanga involves: Modelling warm, trusting and reciprocal relationships between staff involved on a programme including support, teaching, tutoring and management. We have found that it is very important not to let students play staff off against each other and for staff to maintain a strong and united front. Making time to see students one on one Having an open door policy or an open door policy one day per week Providing opportunities for students to share their stories and experiences during class time or as part of assessments. Lot and lots of group activities during class time provides an excellent opportunity to move among the groups and build relationships with groups Discussion based activities in the classroom Ice breakers and name games are essential. One thing I do is plan orientation activities so that students go for breaks in groups or in pairs with tasks to discuss. I work hard to ensure that students aren’t left out or alone in these initial days. Incorporate activities involving self-awareness and awareness of others into orientation sessions. I get students to do a range of temperament, personality and learning styles test and discuss their characteristics and needs in groups Sharing of characteristics and needs in the creation of a class kawa Group work activities that include developing and revisiting a group kawa. Group activities that encourage students meeting outside of class time Planned social events as part of the academic year Discussion forums, Facebook
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Tumanako refers to desires or Aspirations while Pūmanawa refers to natural talents. We have incorporated these two important concepts to draw attention to the importance of a Strengths approach when seeking to engage Maori students. Strengths theory is a paradigm shift in western human service approaches. It signifies a move away from a deficit or problem focus and instead advocates focusing on strengths and aspirations (Rapp &amp; Goscha, 2006).   When working with a student from a strengths perspective the idea is to focus on the talents, aspirations, resources and opportunities: what does the student want to achieve figure out how to support the student to achieve their aspiration adapt their approach to accommodate the student rather than expecting the student to accommodate them seek to counteract the students negative self-image and consistently reinforce the students achievements, abilities, talents, courage and resilience provide opportunities for the student to be successful Have high expectations of each student  
  • Tautoku means support. We incorporate this value because supporting Maori students in a way that works for them is crucial in effective engagement. Bishop and Berryman (2006) drew attention to the deficit support model – whereby Maori students have been perceived as academically limited and provided with remedial support.   There is a tendency in education to think badly or become frustrated with those who don’t think or act or process in the same way that we do. Take a minute to remember a time when you have thought a student stupid .   I have found that I frequently need to work in a different way with Maori students than I do with European pakeha, equally I need to work differently to accommodate Asian and African students.  
  • Aroha – refers to compassion, empathy and love. These are essential qualities in an educator who is committed to engaging Māori students.   For me the compassion and empathy comes from my own learning and education regarding Te Tiriti o Waitangi, its history, its function for Maori, Crown breaches, inequity and its current place in New Zealand’s constitutional framework. An educator who wants to engage Maori students must try to understand what happens to a people when you take away their right to be, their right to speak in their own language, their right to function according to their own protocol. When you take away a people’s land, their capacity to feed their children, their capacity to prosper, what will be the consequences? What have you done to their mauri? When you tell them to sit in your classrooms, and read your books and follow your protocol and speak your language and when you fail them because they don’t get it, what will the consequences be? For me compassion is about living with the consequences, it’s about understanding why my Maori students might not always come to class, understanding why they struggle trying to a function in western teaching and learning environment. Most recently it’s been about trying to get my own head around the fact that the support that I provide for Maori students isn’t extra support – its different support. I’m aiming for a bi-cultural classroom. I have a long way to go. Kate’s Kōrero My last job was as a Māori support person at a university. Many Māori learners that I worked with expressed their feeling that when they entered the institution, they had to leave their identity at the front door. Who they are, their history and their ancestors had no place within the institution. What this showed me was that by practicing in this way, educators are continuing a process of assimilation that ignore the cultures and identities that our learners carry with them. Our role should be to let our learners be who they are within the context of an environment in which they are learning and growing.  
  • Empowerment Theory is represented as the final or first blade on our koru model, depending on which way you look. For me feeling or being empowered is analogous with having a healthy mauri.   Paulo Friere (1996) is typically identified as the father of empowerment theory. He was an educator who worked with Brazilian peasants in the 1960s. His ideas have been hugely influential in mobilizing indigenous peoples and he brings a social justice, human rights and power analysis to our pedagogical framework.
  • Checklist Take a minute to review the strategies we have discussed today. Put a tick next to those you are already doing. If you’re already doing everything on that list put your hand up and we’ll give you a big gold star. For the rest of you, identify three strategies that you are not yet implementing and put an astrix next to those. Let’s have a quick round and share one strategy that you will go away and implement.
  • Engaging Maori learners

    1. 1. Engaging Māori Learners: A Pedagogical Framework Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd, Otago Polytechnic, 2011
    2. 2. Mihi & Mihimihi <ul><li>Greet each other: Tēnā koe (hello to one) </li></ul><ul><li>Who are your ancestors, where do they come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are your parents, where do they come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are you? Where do you come from? Where do you live? </li></ul><ul><li>Include siblings, partner and children if you want to… </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Koru Model of Teaching & Learning <ul><li>Koru is the young fern frond or leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of stalk and blades </li></ul><ul><li>When young tightly furled </li></ul><ul><li>Unfurls as it matures </li></ul>Blades
    4. 4. The Koru Model of Teaching & Learning <ul><li>Koru used in carving and tattoos </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with identity, growth and new life </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Taonga Tuku Iho’ </li></ul><ul><li>“ the passing of life, information and resources from one generation to the next” </li></ul>(Tauroa, 2009; Wilson 2001-2003)
    5. 5. The Koru Model of Teaching & Learning Mauri Manaaki Whakapapa Whanaungatanga Tūmanako & Pūmanawa Tautoko Aroha Whakamana
    6. 6. Mauri <ul><li>Why do we see the mauri as so central in a teaching and learning model? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we go about nurturing it? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why nurturing the mauri is central <ul><ul><li>Will I cope? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will I be good enough? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it meet my needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fears and anxieties weaken the mauri and reduce a student’s capacity to engage and learn </li></ul><ul><li>Students come with fears and anxieties </li></ul>
    8. 8. Reducing Fears and Anxiety <ul><ul><li>Clear course outlines, explicit marking criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing students to support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manageable timetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ‘Amazing Race’ campus tour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ‘treasure hunt’ in the Library </li></ul></ul>A good orientation and induction process can reduce fears and anxieties: But for some students the fears and anxieties go very much deeper….
    9. 9. Reducing Fears and Anxiety <ul><li>Ice breakers </li></ul><ul><li>Name games </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing kai </li></ul><ul><li>Group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning waiata </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming and sharing fears </li></ul>Can all help but for some students the fears and anxieties go much deeper still…..
    10. 10. Why nurturing the mauri is central Smith (2010, p.14) has this to say… … .“In a classroom situation, having been a teacher for many years, I have always thought about working with young children—how easy it is to hurt the mauri, as a teacher, as someone in power. A look, a word, an action can all do damage and it can happen in a single moment. Easy to damage, hard to recover”…
    11. 11. How do we nurture our students mauri? By attending to….
    12. 12. Manaaki Included in our framework to indicate importance of taking care of student’s physical, mental, spiritual and social needs. <ul><li>Refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitality: providing a nurturing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring that people feel welcome </li></ul>
    13. 13. Manaaki Physical Mental Spiritual Social <ul><li>Room set up </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient space </li></ul><ul><li>Air circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Plugs for computers </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Flat structure </li></ul><ul><li>(Not lecture theatre) </li></ul><ul><li>Tables for group work </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated space (a home base for students) </li></ul><ul><li>Attending to learning styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aural/Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulating content </li></ul><ul><li>VARK approach to assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate support and scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>One on one tutorial support </li></ul><ul><li>Computer labs </li></ul><ul><li>Fish & Chip nights </li></ul><ul><li>Peers support </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity about expectations, structure, roles and boundaries responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Powhiri/ mihi whakatau/mihi haere </li></ul><ul><li>Mihimihi </li></ul><ul><li>Karakia and blessings </li></ul><ul><li>Opening and closing rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging ancestors/ Whakapapa </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging ancestors presence </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Carving, weaving or painting </li></ul><ul><li>Mihimihi </li></ul><ul><li>Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Signature search </li></ul><ul><li>Name games </li></ul><ul><li>Icebreakers </li></ul><ul><li>Group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Singing waiata </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated space </li></ul><ul><li>Eating together </li></ul><ul><li>Group assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Learning communities </li></ul>
    14. 14. Whakapapa <ul><li>Refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>Genealogy: incorporates ancestors as well as immediate whānau.   </li></ul>Included in our framework to indicate importance of creating space for ancestors and whānau in the classroom….
    15. 15. Whakapapa <ul><li>Appreciating that students belong to whanau and that this has implications for who they are and what they bring </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging potential students to bring whanau members to initial pre-course meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Including a ‘meet the family’ session during orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Including whanau in official welcoming ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>A whanau orientated signature search </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing children to come to class as required and making it comfortable for parents to feel okay about children being present </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering a family tolerant environment among class members </li></ul><ul><li>Asking class members to invite whanau with relevant expertise to come to class and share their stories and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Inviting whanau to assessment presentations and end of term/semester/year celebrations – establishing a class culture around this </li></ul><ul><li>Being flexible about due dates in recognition of family/community responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Creating opportunities to talk about whanau/whakapapa and share photo’s histories, and family stories </li></ul><ul><li>Using mihi whakatau and mihi harere ceremonies within your class </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of yourself appropriately to indicate that it is okay to talk about family </li></ul><ul><li>Using the term whakapapa and talking about ancestry and the way that it impacts on values, beliefs, customs and so on </li></ul>
    16. 16. Whanaungatanga <ul><li>Refers to: </li></ul><ul><li>The building and maintenance of whānau connections and relationships through shared experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Extends to non-kinship relations where there is mutual need, support and reciprocity. </li></ul>Included in our framework to indicate the importance establishing relationship, belonging and a sense of community
    17. 17. Whanaungatanga <ul><li>Modelling warm, trusting and reciprocal relationships between staff involved on a programme including support, teaching, tutoring and management </li></ul><ul><li>Ice breakers and name games are essential. Plan orientation activities so that students go for breaks in groups or in pairs with tasks to discuss. This helps to form relationships and ensures that students aren’t left out or alone in these initial days. </li></ul><ul><li>Making time to see students one on one </li></ul><ul><li>Having an open door policy or an open door policy one day per week </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for students to share their stories and experiences during class time or as part of assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of group activities during class time provides an excellent opportunity to move among the groups and build relationships with group members </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion based activities in the classroom allow students to get to know each other </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate activities involving self-awareness and awareness of others into orientation sessions: temperament, personality and learning styles tests work well with class discussion regarding individual and group characteristics and needs i </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of characteristics and needs in the creation of a class kawa </li></ul><ul><li>Group work activities that include developing and revisiting a group kawa. </li></ul><ul><li>Group activities that encourage students meeting outside of class time </li></ul><ul><li>Planned social events as part of the academic year </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion forums/ Facebook </li></ul>
    18. 18. Tūmanako & Pūmanawa <ul><li>Tūmanako refers to desires or aspirations while Pūmanawa refers to natural talents. </li></ul>Included in our framework to indicate the importance of a Strengths approach when seeking to engage Māori students.
    19. 19. Tūmanako & Pūmanawa <ul><li>Focusing on talents, aspirations, resources and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Have students carry out a strengths analysis to identify their own strengths and support needs </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students to develop and share aspiration based goal plans </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching reflective practice and including a reflective journal as an assessment task </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students to identify their own strengths and point out the strengths they see in others </li></ul><ul><li>Utilising a peer marking model </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting your approach to accommodate the student rather than expecting the student to accommodate you </li></ul><ul><li>Proactively seeking to counteract students negative self-image and consistently reinforcing students achievements, abilities, talents, courage and resilience </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations – expect that your students are capable, expect that they are here to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for each student to be successful </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing up assessments – catering to different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Giving options: Write an essay… or a song or paint a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising, allowing for and integrating the expertise and talents that each student brings </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating academic and literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding assessments ie: an annotated bibliography, followed by a structured essay and then an essay </li></ul><ul><li>Focused tutorial support, peer support </li></ul><ul><li>Never assume that you have explained yourself sufficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed written feedback on every assessment – explain where the student has gone wrong – tell them what they need to do to improve </li></ul><ul><li>Support them before due dates so they can submit on time and pass </li></ul><ul><li>Praise and celebrate achievements </li></ul>
    20. 20. Tautoko Included in our model because supporting Māori students in a way that works for them is crucial in effective engagement. Refers to support . Bishop and Berryman (2006) drew attention to the deficit support model – whereby Māori students have been perceived as academically limited and provided with remedial support.  
    21. 21. Tautoko <ul><li>Meeting face to face prior to course commencement </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with Whanau </li></ul><ul><li>Talking with caregivers when a student starts getting behind </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining assessment tasks orally </li></ul><ul><li>Oral assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Open door office policy – students to feel welcome and at home </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of group work and collaborative tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of opportunity for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing my knowledge of tikanga </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing my use and confidence with Te Reo </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching and singing waiata as part of class processes </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Te Tiriti and Te Ao Maori through-out my curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Welcoming whanau into the classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and Chip Study nights – being prepared to stay until the work is done </li></ul><ul><li>Being Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership teaching model </li></ul>
    22. 22. Aroha Included in our framework because these are essential qualities in an educator who is committed to engaging Māori students.   Refers to compassion, empathy and love.
    23. 23. Aroha <ul><li>Completing your own education regarding Te Tiriti o Waitangi and doing so with an open heart </li></ul><ul><li>Having some insight and understanding into what it means/ has meant for a people to have so much taken away from them </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing that learning and the compassion that arises from it, to your classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding why Māori students might not always come to class </li></ul><ul><li>Considering what you can do to heal that damaged mauri </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding why Māori students might struggle trying to a function in a Western teaching and learning environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to understand the differences – what does a kaupapa Maori classroom look like/ feel like – how can you offer some of that in your own classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing that when you support Maori students – one on one and with oral explanations of an assessment you do so because you have failed to cater to their learning style in your classroom – not because they are less able than their counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Deeply, genuinely caring for your student’s well-being </li></ul>
    24. 24. Whakamana Included in our framework because it reminds us to bring social justice, human rights and a power analysis to our work as educators Is underpinned by the notion that some individuals and groups have more than fair share of power in society.
    25. 25. Whakamana <ul><li>Pro-actively working with students to reduce internalised stigma – removing the burden of individual blame. For Maori students this often involves teaching them about the Tiriti o Waitangi and Tiriti breaches. Freire (1996) calls this contextualising or consciousness raising. </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness raising to increase the students awareness and understanding of social structures that have prevented them from educational achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating opportunities for the student to experience solidarity: sharing with others who have had similar experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Providing the supports and resources that will enable students to successfully achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating students interest in knowledge and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining awareness of power issues in the classroom. Knowing that no matter how friendly you think you are, you hold a position of power over the students. Consciously acknowledging the power imbalance and seeking to counteract it where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining humility. Always remembering your limitations particular in relation to other cultures. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Paulo Freire (1996) <ul><li>Love, humility and faith establish trust </li></ul><ul><li>Trust enables dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue enables communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communication allows education </li></ul><ul><li>Education enables hope </li></ul><ul><li>Hope requires critical reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflection results in growth </li></ul>Kate can you embed this – if you want it – otherwise just an un http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwwEchnBs4U&feature=related – fern growing 2 mins
    27. 27. Waiata: Te Aroha <ul><li>Te Aroha </li></ul><ul><li>Te Whakapono </li></ul><ul><li>Te Rangimarie </li></ul><ul><li>Tātou tātou e </li></ul>
    28. 28. References <ul><li>Bishop, R., & Berryman, M. (2006). Culture speaks: cultural relationships and classroom learning . Wellington, New Zealand: Huia Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Friere, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed . London: Penguin Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapp, C., & Goscha, R. (2006). The strengths model: case management with people with psychiatric disabilities (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, L.T. (2010). Smith, L. (2010). Opening Address. Proceedings of the traditional knowledge conference 2008: Tetatau Pounamu: The Greenstone door. Traditional knowledge and gateways to balanced relationships. Auckland: Knowledge Exchange Programme. Retrieved from http://www.maramatanga.ac.nz/sites/default/files/TC-2008.pdf#page=196 </li></ul><ul><li>Tautoa, D. (2009). He koru ana ra tāku. The koru: the safe symbol in New Zealand design? Honours thesis. Whanganui, New Zealand: Whanganui School of Design. Accessed from http://issuu.com/muddog/docs/thesis-2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson, J.M. (2007-2011). Ta Moko. Accessed from http://awanderingminstreli.tripod.com/tamoko.htm </li></ul>

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