1 1 General Rule: General Rule: behavior be concretewrite-out/review term 1 1 Concept: Concept: behavior analysis reinforcerwrite-out/review term (positive reinforcer) write-out/review term 1 1 Concept: General Rule: repertoire dead-man test 1 2 General Rule: Concept:check the presumed baseline reinforcer first write-out/review term
• Always pinpoint specific • A muscle, glandular, or behaviors neuro-electrical activity.• when you deal with a behavioral (psychological) problem.• A stimulus • The study of the• that increases the frequency • principles of behavior. of a response it follows.• If a dead man can do it, it • A set of skills. probably isn’t behavior.• The phase of an experiment • Before spending much time or intervention trying to reinforce behavior,• where the behavior is • make sure you have a true measured reinforcer.• in the absence of an intervention.
2 2 Concept: Concept: medical model myth behavioral contingency 2 2 Concept: General Rule:reinforcement contingency the dont say rule write-out/review term 2 2 Concept: General Rule: the error of reification reinforce behavior 3 3 Concept: Concept: escape contingency aversive stimulus write-out/review term (negative reinforcer) write-out/review term
• The occasion for a response, • An erroneous view of• the response, and human behavior• the outcome of the response. • that behavior is always a mere symptom of • an underlying psychological condition.• With nonverbal organisms, dont say, • expects, • The response-contingent • knows, • presentation • thinks, • figures out, • of a reinforcer • in order to (or so that he, she, or it could ...), • trying to, • resulting in an increased • makes the connection, • associates, frequency of that response. • learns that, • imagines, • or understands.• With any organisms. dont say, • wants.• Reinforce behavior, • To call a behavior or• not people. process a thing.• A stimulus • The response-contingent• that increases the future • removal of frequency of a response • an aversive stimulus• its removal (termination) • resulting in an increased follows. frequency of that response.
3 3 Concept: False General Rule: differential reinforcement the toothpaste theoryof alternative behavior (DRA) of abnormal behavior write-out/review term 3 3 Concept: Principle: functional assessment parsimony write-out/review term 3 4 General Rule: General Rule: the sick social cycle the sick social cycle (victim’s escape model) (victim’s punishment model) 4 4 Concept: Concept: punishment contingency overcorrection write-out/review term
• Abnormal behavior flows out • The replacement of an of sick people inappropriate response• like toothpaste squeezed • with a specific appropriate from a tube. response• The abnormal behavior • that produces the same results from inner pressure. reinforcing outcome.• The use of no unnecessary • An assessment concepts, principles, or • of the contingencies assumptions. • responsible for • behavioral problems.• The perpetrator’s aversive • In escaping behavior punishes • the perpetrator’s aversive• the victim’s appropriate behavior, behavior. • the victim unintentionally• And the victim’s stopping the reinforces appropriate behavior • that aversive behavior.• unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.• A contingency • Response-contingent• on inappropriate behavior • presentation of• requiring the person • an aversive condition• to engage in an effortful (negative reinforcer) response • resulting in a decreased• that more than corrects frequency of that response.• the effects of inappropriate behavior.
4 4 Concept: Concept: dependent variable informed consent write-out/review term 4 4 Concept: Concept: independent variable social validity write-out/review term write-out/review term 4 4 Concept: Concept:multiple baseline design reliability measurement 5 5 Concept: Concept: penalty contingency response-cost contingency write-out/review term write-out/review term
• Consent to intervene in a • A measure of the subjects way behavior.• that is experimental or• risky.• The participant or guardian• is informed of the risks and benefits• and of the right to stop the intervention.• The goals, • The variable the• procedures, and experimenter systematically• results of an intervention manipulates• are socially acceptable to • to influence the dependent• the client, variable.• the behavior analyst, and• society.• The comparison of • An experimental design measurements • in which the replications• of dependent variables and involve• independent variables • baselines of differing• obtained by independent durations observers. • and interventions of differing starting times.• The response-contingent • The• removal of • response-contingent• a tangible reinforcer. • removal of • a reinforcer (positive reinforcer) • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response.
5 5 Concept: Concept:time-out contingency reversal designwrite-out/review term 5 6 Principle: Principle: the law of effect recovery from punishmentwrite-out/review term write-out/review term 6 6 Principle: Concept:spontaneous recovery forgetting procedure write-out/review term 6 6 Principle: General Rule: extinction Forget Forgettingwrite-out/review term
• An experimental design • The response-contingent• in which we reverse • removal of• between intervention and • access to a reinforcer. baseline conditions• to assess the effects of those conditions.• Stopping the punishment or • The effects of our actions penalty contingency • determine whether we will• for a previously punished repeat them. response• may cause the response frequency to increase• to its frequency before the punishment or penalty contingency.• Preventing the opportunity • A temporary recovery of the (or occasion) for a response. extinguished behavior • during the first part of each of the extinction sessions • that follow the first extinction session.• There’s no such thing. • Stopping the reinforcement or escape contingency • for a previously reinforced response • causes the response frequency to decrease.
6 6 Concept: Concept:to confound variables control conditionwrite-out/review term 7 7 Concept: Concept:response topography Latencywrite-out/review term write-out/review term 7 7 Concept: Concept: task analysis durationwrite-out/review term 7 7 General Rule: Concept:process vs. product response dimensions
• A condition not containing • To change or allow to the presumed crucial value change two or more of the independent variable. independent variables at the same time, • so you cannot determine what variables are responsible for the change in the dependent variable.• The time between • The sequence (path of• the signal or opportunity for movement), a response • form,• and the beginning of the • or location response. • of components of a response • relative to the rest of the body • An analysis of complex• The time from behavior• the beginning • and sequences of behavior• to the end • into their component• of a response. responses. • Sometimes you need to• The physical properties of a response. • make reinforcers and feedback contingent on • the component responses of the process, • not just the product (outcome).
7 7 Concept: Concept: response class single-subject write-out/review term research design write-out/review term 7 7 Procedure: Concept: the differential- group research design reinforcement procedure write-out/review term 7 7 Concept: Concept:the differential punishment control group procedure 7 8 Concept: Concept: experimental group fixed-outcome shaping
• The entire experiment is • A set of responses that conducted with a single either subject, • a) are similar on at least one• though it may be replicated response dimension, or with several other subjects. • b) share the effects of reinforcement and punishment, or • c) serve the same function (produce the same• The experiment is conducted with • outcome). one set of Reinforcing at least two groups of subjects. responses and• And the data are usually • withholding reinforcement presented in terms of the mean (average) for another set of• of the performance of all subjects responses.• combined for each group.• A group of subjects • Punishing one set of• not exposed to the presumed responses crucial value of the • and withholding punishment independent variable. of another set of responses. • Shaping that involves • A group of subjects • no change in the value of • exposed to the presumed • the reinforcer crucial value • or aversive condition, • of the independent variable. • as the performance criterion more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior.
8 8 Concept: Concept: terminal behavior shapingwrite-out/review term with reinforcement write-out/review term 8 8 Concept: Concept: operant level shaping with punishment 8 8 Concept: Concept: initial behavior variable-outcome shaping write-out/review term 8 9 Concept: Concept:intermediate behavior unlearned aversive condition
• The differential • Behavior not in the reinforcement of only that repertoire behavior • or not occurring at the • that more and more closely desired frequency; resembles the terminal • the goal of the intervention behavior. • The differential punishment • The frequency of of all behavior responding • except that which more and • before reinforcement more closely resembles the terminal behavior. • Shaping that involves • Behavior that resembles • a change in the value of • the terminal behavior • the reinforcer • along some meaningful • or aversive condition, dimension • as performance more and • and occurs with at least a more closely resembles the minimal frequency. • terminal behavior.• A stimulus that is aversive, • Behavior that more closely• though not as a result of approximates the terminal pairing with other aversive behavior. stimuli.
9 9 Concept: Procedure:unlearned reinforcer motivating operationwrite-out/review term write-out/review term 9 9 Principle: Principle: Satiation Premack principlewrite-out/review term write-out/review term 9 10 Principle: Concept: Deprivation addictive reinforcerwrite-out/review term 10 10 Concept: Principle:aggression reinforcer the aggression principle
• A stimulus that is a • A procedure or condition reinforcer, • that affects learning and • though not as a result of performance pairing with another • with respect to a particular reinforcer. reinforcer or aversive condition. • If one activity occurs more • Consuming a substantial often than another, amount of a reinforcer • the opportunity to do the • temporarily decreases more frequent activity relevant learning and • will reinforce the less performance. frequent activity.• A reinforcer for which • Withholding a reinforcer• repeated exposure • increases relevant learning• is an motivating operation. and performance. • Aversive stimuli and • Stimuli resulting from acts of extinction are motivating aggression. operations • for aggression reinforcers.
11 11 Concept: Concept: generalized learned reinforcer conditional stimulus (generalized secondary/conditioned reinforcer) write-out/review term 11 11 Concept: Concept: learned reinforcer token economy(secondary or conditioned write-out/review term reinforcer) write-out/review term 11 11 Procedure: Concept: pairing procedure learned aversive stimulus 11 12 Principle: Concept: value-altering principle verbal behavior write-out/review term
• A learned reinforcer that is a • Elements of a stimulus reinforcer • have their value or function• because it has been paired • only when they are with a variety of other combined; reinforcers. • otherwise, the individual elements may be relatively neutral.• A system of generalized • A stimulus that is a learned reinforcers reinforcer• in which the organism that • because it has been paired receives those generalized with another reinforcer. reinforcers can save them• and exchange them for a variety of backup reinforcers later.• A stimulus • The pairing of a neutral• that is aversive stimulus with• because it has been paired • a reinforcer or aversive with another aversive stimulus. stimulus.• The behavioral term for • The pairing procedure language • converts a neutral stimulus into • a learned reinforcer • or learned aversive stimulus.
12 12 Concept: Concept:discriminative stimulus (SD) stimulus discrimination write-out/review term (stimulus control) 12 12 Concept: Concept: S-delta (S∆) incidental teaching write-out/review term 12 12 Criteria for diagraming Concept:Discriminated Contingencies: Prompt S∆ contingency test write-out/review term 12 12 Concept: Concept: discrimination training operandum (manipulandum) procedure write-out/review term write-out/review term
• The occurrence of a response • A stimulus in the presence more frequently in the of which presence of one stimulus • a particular response will be• than in the presence of reinforced or punished. another,• usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure.• The planned use of • A stimulus in the presence• behavioral contingencies, of which• differential reinforcement, • a particular response will not and be reinforced or punished.• discrimination training• in the student’s everyday environment.• A supplemental stimulus • Is there also an S∆?• that raises the probability of • (If not, then you also don’t a correct response. have an SD).• That part of the environment • Reinforcing or punishing a• the organism operates response (manipulates). • in the presence of one stimulus • and extinguishing it • or allowing it to recover • in the presence of another stimulus.
12 12 Criteria for diagramming Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies: discriminated contingencies: same before condition test different before condition test 12 12 Criteria for diagramming Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies discriminated contingencies: response test operandum test 12 13 Criteria for diagramming Concept:discriminated contingencies: stimulus generalization extinction/recovery test write-out/review term 13 13 Concept: Concept: stimulus class concept training write-out/review term write-out/review term
• Does the SD differ from the • Is the before condition the before condition? same for both the SD and the S∆?• Does the SD differ from the • Is the response the same for operandum? both the SD and the S∆?• The behavioral contingencies • Is the S∆ contingency• in the presence of one stimulus always extinction or• affect the frequency of the recovery? response• in the presence of another stimulus.• Reinforcing or punishing a response • A set of stimuli,• in the presence of one stimulus • all of which have some class common physical property.• and extinguishing it• or allowing it to recover• in the presence of another stimulus class.
13 13 Concept: Concept: matching to sample Subjective measure write-out/review term 13 13 Concept: Concept: conceptual stimulus control Objective measure (conceptual control) write-out/review term 13 13 Concept: Concept:stimulus-generalization stimulus dimensions gradient 13 13 Concept: Concept: fading procedure errorless write-out/review term discrimination procedure
• The criteria for • Selecting a comparison measurement are not stimulus completely specified in • corresponding to a sample physical terms stimulus.• or the event being measured is a private, inner experience.• Responding occurs more • The criteria for measurement often in the presence of one are completely specified in stimulus class physical terms• and less often in the • and the event being measured presence of another stimulus is public and therefore class observable by more than one• because of concept training. person.• The physical properties of • A gradient of responding a stimulus. showing • a decrease in responding • as the test stimulus • becomes less similar to the training stimulus.• The use of a fading • At first, the S∆ and the SD procedure differ along at least two• to establish a stimulus dimensions. discrimination, • Then the difference between• with no errors during the the S∆ and the SD is reduced training. along all but one dimension, D ∆ • until the S and S differ along only the relevant dimension.
14 14 Concept: Concept: Imitation physical promptwrite-out/review term (physical guidance) 14 14 Concept: Concept:generalized imitation verbal promptwrite-out/review term 14 14 Concept: Theory:imitative reinforcers the theory ofwrite-out/review term generalized imitation 15 15 Concept: Concept:avoidance contingency avoidance-of-loss contingency write-out/review term write-out/review term
• The form of the behavior of• The trainer physically moves the imitator the trainees body • is controlled by• in an approximation of the • similar behavior of the desired response. model.• A supplemental verbal • Imitation of the response stimulus • of a model• that raises the probability of • without previous a correct response. reinforcement of • imitation of that specific response.• Generalized imitative • Stimuli arising from the responses occur match between• because they automatically • the behavior of the imitator produce imitative reinforcers. • and the behavior of the model.• Response-contingent • Response-contingent• prevention of • prevention of• loss of a reinforcer • an aversive condition• resulting in an increased • resulting in an increased frequency of that response. frequency of that response.
15 16 Concept: Concept: warning stimulus Differential reinforcement of write-out/review term other behavior (DRO) write-out/review term 16 16 Concept: Concept:punishment-by-prevention- punishment-by-prevention-of- of-a-reinforcer removal contingency contingency write-out/review term 17 17 Concept: Concept:Intermittent Reinforcement fixed-ratio responding write-out/review term write-out/review term 17 17 Concept: Concept:continuous reinforcement variable-ratio (VR) (CRF) schedule of reinforcement write-out/review term
• A reinforcer is presented • A stimulus that precedes• after a fixed interval of time • an aversive condition• if the response of interest and thus becomes a learned has not occurred during that aversive stimulus. interval• Response-contingent • Response-contingent• prevention of removal of • prevention of• an aversive condition • a reinforcer• resulting in a decreased • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response frequency of that response.• After a response is reinforced, § A reinforcer follows the• no responding occurs for a response period of time, § only once in a while.• then responding occurs at a high, steady rate• until the next reinforcer is delivered.• A reinforcer follows • A reinforcer follows each• after a variable number of response. responses.
17 17 Concept: Concept:schedule of reinforcement variable-ratio responding 17 18 Concept: Concept: fixed-ratio (FR) fixed-interval (FI)schedule of reinforcement schedule of write-out/review term reinforcement write-out/review term 18 18 Concept: Principle: fixed-interval scallop variable-interval write-out/review term responding write-out/review term 18 18 Concept: Concept: fixed-time schedule resistnce to extinction of reinforcer delivery write-out/review term write-out/review term
• Variable-ratio schedules • The way reinforcement occurs produce • because of the number of• a high rate of responding, responses,• with almost no • time between responses, and postreinforcement pausing. • stimulus conditions.• A reinforcer is contingent on • A reinforcer follows• the first response, • a fixed number of• after a fixed interval of time, responses.• since the last opportunity for reinforcement. • A fixed-interval schedule often produces a scallop:• Variable-interval schedules • a gradual increase in the rate of produce responding,• a moderate rate of • with responding occurring at a high responding, rate, • just before reinforcement is• with almost no available. postreinforcement pausing. • No responding occurs for some time after reinforcement.• The number of responses or • A reinforcer is delivered,• the amount of time • after the passage of a fixed• before a response period of time, extinguishes. • independently of the response.
18 18 Concept: Principle: superstitious behavior resistance to extinction write-out/review term and intermittent reinforcement write-out/review term 18 19 Concept: Concept: variable-interval (VI) concurrent contingencies schedule of write-out/review term reinforcement write-out/review term 19 19 Concept: Erroneous Principle: differential reinforcement symptom substitutionof incompatible behavior (DRI) write-out/review term 19 19 Principle: Concept: matching law Intervention/treatment package
• Intermittent reinforcement • Behaving as if the response• makes the response causes• more resistant to extinction • some specific outcome,• than does continuous • when it really does not. reinforcement.• More than one contingency • A reinforcer is contingent on of reinforcement or • the first response, punishment • after a variable interval of• is available at the same time. time, • since the last opportunity for reinforcement.• Problem behaviors are • Reinforcement is contingent symptoms of an underlying on a behavior that is mental illness. • incompatible with another• So if you get rid of one problem behavior behavior (“symptom”),• another will take its place,• until you get rid of the underlying mental illness.• The addition or change of • When two different responses several independent are each reinforced with a different schedule of variables reinforcement,• at the same time • the relative frequency of the two• to achieve a desired result, responses• without testing the effect of • equals the relative value of each variable individually. reinforcement on the two schedules of reinforcement.
20 20 Concept: Concept: total-task forward chaining presentation 20 20 Principle: Concept: dual-functioning behavioral chained stimuli chain write-out/review term write-out/review term 20 20 Concept: Concept: backward chaining differential reinforcement write-out/review term of low rate (DRL) write-out/review term 21 21 Concept: Concept:unconditioned response conditioned stimulus (UR) (CS) write-out/review term write-out/review term
• The establishment of the • The simultaneous training of first link in a behavioral • all links in a behavioral chain, chain.• with the addition of successive links,• until the final link is acquired• A sequence of stimuli and • A stimulus in a behavioral responses. chain• Each response produces a • reinforces the response that stimulus that precedes it• reinforces the preceding • and is an SD or operandum response for the following response.• and is an SD or operandum• for the following response.• Reinforcement • The establishment of the• for each response following final link in a behavioral the preceding response chain,• by at least some minimum • with the addition of delay. preceding links, • until the first link is acquired.• A stimulus that has acquired • An unlearned response its eliciting properties • elicited by the presentation• through previous pairing with • of an unconditioned stimulus another stimulus.
21 21 Concept: Concept: unconditioned stimulus conditioned response (US) (CR) write-out/review term write-out/review term 21 21 Concept: Concept: operant conditioning respondent conditioning write-out/review term write-out/review term 21 21 Concept: General Rule:higher-order conditioning SD / CS test write-out/review term 21 21 Concept: Concept: respondent extinction systematic desensitization write-out/review term write-out/review term
• A learned response • A stimulus that produces the• elicited by the presentation unconditioned response• of a conditioned stimulus. • without previous pairing with another stimulus.• A neutral stimulus • Reinforcing consequences• acquires the eliciting • following the response properties • increase its future frequency;• of an unconditioned stimulus and• through pairing the • aversive consequences unconditioned stimulus • following the response• with a neutral stimulus. • decrease its future frequency.• To determine if a stimulus is an • Establishing a conditioned SD or CS, stimulus• look at its history of conditioning: • by pairing a neutral stimulus• look for a plausible US -- UR relation; • with an already established• and alternatively, look for a conditioned stimulus. plausible SD -- R -- SR contingency.• Combining relaxation with • Present the conditioned• a hierarchy of fear-producing stimulus • without pairing it stimuli, • with the unconditioned• arranged from the least to stimulus, the most frightening. • or with an already established conditioned stimulus, • and the conditioned stimulus will lose its eliciting power.
22 22 Concept: Concept: direct-acting rule contingency write-out/review term 22 22 Concept: Concept:rule-governed analog to rule controla behavioral contingency write-out/review term 22 22 Concept: Concept: ineffective contingency rule-governed behavior write-out/review term 22 22 Concept: Concept: contingency control indirect-acting write-out/review term contingency write-out/review term
• A description of a • A contingency in which behavioral contingency. • the outcome of the response • reinforces or punishes that response.• The statement of a rule • A change in the frequency• controls the response of a response• described by that rule. • because of a rule describing the contingency.• Behavior under the control • A contingency that does not of a rule. control behavior.• A contingency that controls • Direct control of behavior the response, • by a contingency,• though the outcome of that • without the involvement of response rules.• does not reinforce or punish that response.
22 22 Principle: Concept: (Optional-not on quiz) (Optional-not on quiz) Immediate reinforcement a contingency that is not direct acting 22 23(Optional-not on quiz) General Concept: Rule: feedback rule control write-out/review term 23 23 Concept: Review Concept: process vs. product Covert behavior write-out/review term 23 23 Concept Review: Principle: task analysis shifting from rule-control write-out/review term to contingency control
• Either an indirect-acting • The effect of the reinforcement contingency or procedure decreases • as the delay between the• an ineffective contingency. response and the outcome increases. • Reinforcers delayed more than 60 seconds • have little or no reinforcing effect.• Nonverbal stimuli • Start looking for rule• or verbal statements control,• contingent on past behavior • if behavior is controlled by• that can guide future an outcome behavior. • that follows the response by more than 60 seconds.• Private behavior (not visible • Sometimes you need to make to the outside observer). reinforcers and feedback • contingent on the component responses of the process, • not just the product (outcome).• With repetition of the • An analysis of complex response, behavior• control often shifts from • and sequences of behavior control by the rule describing • into their component a direct-acting contingency responses.• to control by the direct-acting contingency itself.
23 24 Concept: Concept: multiple baseline performance contract design (behavioral contract or contingency contract) 24 24 False Principle: Principle: the mythical cause of rules that are easy to follow poor self-management write-out/review term 24 24 Model: Principle:the three-contingency model the real cause ofof performance-management poor self-management write-out/review term 24 25 Principle: Principle:rules that are hard to follow the deadline principle write-out/review term
• A written rule statement • An experimental design describing • in which the replications• the desired or undesired involve baselines behavior,• the occasion when the behavior • of differing durations and should or should not occur, and • interventions of differing• the added outcome for that starting times. behavior.• Describe outcomes that are • Poor self-management• both sizable occurs• and probable. • because immediate• The delay isnt crucial. outcomes control our behavior • better than delayed outcomes do.• Poor self-management results • The three crucial contingencies from are:• poor control by rules describing • the ineffective natural• outcomes that are either contingency,• too small (though often of • the effective, indirect-acting cumulative significance) performance-management• or too improbable. contingency, and• The delay isnt crucial. • the effective, direct-acting contingency.• If an indirect-acting • Describe outcomes that are contingency either• is to increase or maintain • too small (though often of performance, cumulative significance)• it should involve a deadline. • or too improbable. • The delay isnt crucial.
25 25 Concept: General Rule: pay for performance The it-is-probably-rule-control write-out/review term rule 25 26 Principle: Concept: the analog to avoidance spiritualistic mentalism principle 26 26 Concept: Concept: the simplistic biological- the simplistic cognitivist error determinist error 26 26 Concept: Concept:the simplistic behaviorist error methodological behaviorism write-out/review term
• It is probably rule control, if • Pay is contingent on specific• the person knows the rule, achievements• the outcome is delayed, or• the performance changes as soon as the person hears the rule.• The doctrine that the mind • If an indirect-acting is contingency• spiritual (nonphysical). • is to increase or maintain performance, • it should be an analog to avoidance.• Rats think • Analogous behaviors are • homologous behaviors.• An approach that restricts the • People don’t think. science of psychology to• only those independent and dependent variables• that two independent people can directly observe.
• An entity or collection of • The doctrine that the mind entities causes behavior to occur.• assumed to cause behavior to occur.• It may be either material or nonmaterial,• but it is not the behavior itself.• The doctrine that the world is • The doctrine that physical divided into two parts, (material) world• material and spiritual. • is the only reality.• An entity • An approach that• assumed to cause action; addresses all psychology• the way the organism sees the • in terms of the principles of world, behavior.• including the organisms beliefs and expectations.• It is material, but not behavior.• The doctrine that the mind is • An approach that attempts• physical, not spiritual. to modify behavior • by modifying the cognitive structure.
26 26 Concept: Concept: Values goal-directed systems design 26 26 Concept: Concept: legal rule control moral (ethical) rule control 27 27 Concept: Principle:performance maintenance behavior trap write-out/review term write-out/review term 28 29 Concept: Review Principle: transfer of training the law of effect write-out/review term
• First you select the ultimate • Learned and unlearned goal of a system, reinforcers• then you select the various • and aversive conditions. levels of intermediate goals needed to accomplish that ultimate goal,• and finally, you select the initial goals needed to accomplish those intermediate goals.• Control by rules specifying • Control by rules specifying added analogs to added analogs to behavioral behavioral contingencies. contingencies• Such rules specify social, • and added direct-acting religious, or supernatural behavioral contingencies outcomes. • based on material outcomes.• Add a reinforcement • The continuing of contingency performance• to increase the rate of • after it was first established behavior.• Then the behavior will frequently contact• built-in reinforcement contingencies,• and those built-in• contingencies our actions The effects of • Performance established determine whether we will• will maintain that behavior. • at one time repeat them. • in one place • now occurs in a different time and place.
• The extent to which the • Experts’ evaluation conclusions of an experiment • of the significance of• apply to a wide variety of • the target behavior and the conditions. outcome.• The time from • Measuring performance• the beginning • when the clients or subjects• to the end are aware• of a response. • of the ongoing observation.• Intensity of a response. • Measuring performance • when the clients or subjects • are not aware • of the ongoing observation.• Agreement between • Record or evidence• observations of • that the behavior has• two or more independent occurred. observers.
• The phase of an • Two or more possible experiment or intervention independent variables have• in which the behavior is changed at the same time, measured • so it is not possible to• in the absence of an determine which of those intervention. variables caused the change in the dependent variable.• An experimental design • The evaluation of the results• in which the baseline data of are collected • an applied intervention or• before the intervention. • a naturally changing condition • that involves confounded variables.• An experimental design • The extent to which a• in which the intervention research design (experimental) and baseline • eliminates confounding conditions variables.• are reversed• to determine if the dependent variable changes as• those conditions (independent variable) change.• An experimental design • The arrangement of the• in which the replications various conditions of an involve experiment or intervention• baselines of differing • to reduce the confounding of durations independent variables.• and interventions of differing starting times.
• An analysis • An experimental design• of the contingencies • in which the replications responsible for involve• behavioral problems. • interventions with criteria of differing values.• The goals, • An experimental design• procedures, • in which the replications involve • presenting the different values of• and results of an the independent variable intervention • in an alternating sequence• are socially acceptable to • under the same general the conditions• client, • or in the same experimental• the behavior analyst, phase,• and society. • while measuring the same• The behavior being • dependent variables. One experimental condition measured, • affects the results of• the dependent variable. another. • A comparison of the performance of clients • exposed to the intervention • with an equivalent or "normal" group.