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Advanced Study Objective Flash Cards

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Advanced Study Objective Flash Cards

  1. 1. Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5   Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5      Complete  the  table   Diagram  a  performance  management  example  of:     Present   Remove   -­‐Reinforcement   Reinforcer       -­‐Escape     -­‐Punishment   Aversive       -­‐Penalty   condition             Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5   Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5      Complete  the  table   What’s  the  common  confusion  between  positive   Traditional   POB   and  negative  reinforcement?   Positive  reinforcer       Positive     reinforcement   Negative  reinforcer     Negative     reinforcement       Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5   Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5      Diagram  a  Skinner  box  example  of:   According  to  the  toothpaste  theory,  what  is  wrong  -­‐Reinforcement   with  talking  about  expressing  things?  -­‐Escape  -­‐Punishment  -­‐Penalty             Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5      Diagram  an  everyday  example  of:  -­‐Reinforcement  -­‐Escape  -­‐Punishment  -­‐Penalty                
  2. 2. Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5   Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5      Diagram  a  performance  management  example  of:   Complete  the  table  Reinforcement     Present   Remove  No  approval  à  say  “please”  à  approval     Reinforcer   Reinforcement   Penalty  Escape    Aversive  look  à  say  “please”  à  no  aversive  look   Aversive   Punishment   Escape  Punishment   condition  No  scolding  à  say  “gimme”  à  scolding    Penalty    Toy  à  say  “gimme”  à  no  toy       Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5   Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5      Confusion:  negative  reinforcement  will  decrease   Complete  the  table  behavior  and  positive  reinforcement  will  increase   Traditional   POB  behavior.     Positive  reinforcer   Reinforcer     Positive   Reinforcement  Actual:  positive  and  negative  refer  to  the  addition   reinforcement  (presentation)  or  subtraction  (removal)  of  the   Negative  reinforcer   Aversive  condition  outcome  stimulus.     Negative   Escape     reinforcement  It  does  NOT  refer  to  the  effect  that  the  outcome  has         Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5   Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5       • Beware  of  the  verb  to  express.       Skinner  box  example  of:   • Expressing  implies  that  there  is  bottled  up   Reinforcement   emotion  waiting  to  ooze  out  in  the  form  of   No  water  à  press  lever  à  water   behavior.       Escape   • It  will  lead  you  away  from  the  contingencies   Shock  à  press  lever  à  no  shock   controlling  the  behavior  of  concern.   Punishment   No  shock  à  press  lever  à  shock   Penalty   Food  à  press  lever  à  no  food       Ch  2,  3,  4,  &  5     Everyday  example  of:   Reinforcement   No  friend’s  voice  à  answer  phone  à  friend’s  voice   Escape   Aversive  alarm  à  hit  snooze  à  No  aversive  alarm   Punishment   No  telemarketer  à  answer  phone  à  telemarketer   Penalty   Juice  à  spill  juice  à  no  juice        
  3. 3. Ch  6   Ch  6       Penalty  versus  extinction.   Penalty  versus  extinction.       Diagram  an  example  from  the  Skinner  box.   Compare  &  contrast.                                 Ch  6   Ch  6       Penalty  versus  extinction.   Extinction  of  escape  vs.  not  presenting  the  aversive     before  condition.     Diagram  an  example  from  everyday  life.         What’s  the  common  confusion?                             Ch  6   Ch  6       Penalty  versus  extinction.   Extinction  of  escape  vs.  not  presenting  the  aversive     before  condition.     Diagram  a  performance  management  example.       What’s  the  difference?                           Ch  6   Ch  6       Procedure   Process/Results   Penalty  versus  extinction.   Extinction             What’s  the  common  confusion?         Response         cost               Time-­‐out                    
  4. 4. Ch  6   PENALTY  Similarities:     Maintaining  reinforcement  contingency  -­‐Both  result  in  no  reinforcer   No  water  à  press  lever  à  water  -­‐Both  decrease  behavior   Penalty  contingency     Food  à  press  lever  à  no  food  Differences:   __________________________________________________________  -­‐In  penalty,  a  separate  reinforcer  from  the  one   EXTINCTION  maintaining  the  behavior  is  removed.     Maintaining  reinforcement  contingency  -­‐In  extinction,  the  SAME  reinforcer  that  is   No  water  à  press  lever  à  water  maintaining  the  behavior  is  WITHHELD  (response   Extinction  contingency  has  no  effect)     No  waterà  press  lever  à  no  water     Ch  6   PENALTY     Maintaining  reinforcement  contingency   Confusion:   No  attention  à  tell  dirty  joke  à  attention   People  think  not  presenting  the  aversive  before   Penalty  contingency   condition  is  extinction  of  escape.     Cute  girl  à  tell  dirty  joke  à  no  cute  girl     _________________________________________________________     EXTINCTION     Maintaining  reinforcement  contingency     No  attention  à  tell  dirty  joke  à  attention   Extinction  contingency   No  attention  à  tell  dirty  joke  à  no  attention     Ch  6   PENALTY  -­‐In  extinction,  the  response  still  occurs,  but  no   Maintaining  reinforcement  contingency  longer  produces  the  same  outcome  (has  no  effect).   No  attention  à  walk  in  office  à  attention   -­‐Extinction  of  escape  involves  KEEPING  the   Penalty  contingency   aversive  stimulus  in  place  after  the   Tokens  à  walk  in  office  à  fewer  tokens   response.   _________________________________________________________  -­‐The  aversive  before  condition  is  the  motivating   EXTINCTION  condition.  Without  that,  the  response  will  not  occur   Maintaining  reinforcement  contingency  and  therefore  cannot  be  extinguished.   No  attention  à  walk  in  office  à  attention   Extinction  contingency   No  attention  à  walk  in  office  à  no  attention     Ch  6   Ch  6     Procedure   Process/Results     Extinction   Stop  giving   Response   Confusion:     reinforcer   frequency   People  often  offer  a  penalty  contingency  as  an   decreases   example  of  extinction.     Response   Loss  of  a   Rate  may     cost   reinforcer   decrease   currently   rapidly   possessed   Time-­‐out   Removal  of   Rate  may   access  to  a   decrease     reinforcer   rapidly      
  5. 5. Ch  7   Ch  7       Differential  reinforcement  vs.  plain-­‐vanilla   Differential  reinforcement  procedure  vs.   reinforcement.   differential  punishment  procedure.         Compare  &  contrast.   Illustrate  the  differences  using  examples  from  the     Skinner  box.                 Ch  7   Ch  7       Differential  reinforcement  vs.  plain-­‐vanilla   Differential  reinforcement  procedure  vs.   reinforcement.   differential  punishment  procedure.         Illustrate  the  differences  using  examples  from  the   What’s  the  common  confusion?     Skinner  box.                 Ch  7       Differential  escape  vs.  plain-­‐vanilla  escape.     Compare  &  contrast.                 Ch  7       Differential  escape  vs.  plain-­‐vanilla  escape.       Illustrate  the  differences  using  examples  from  the   Skinner  box.                    
  6. 6. Differential  rfmt:     Reinforcement   Ch  7     LP  >20g    Water   Similarities:     No  water       -­‐Both  result  in  an  increase  in  responding     LP  <  20g    No  water       Extinction   Differences:  Differential  penalty:     -­‐Differential  reinforcement  includes  a   (Maintaining  rfmt  contingency:  no  water  à  press  lever  à  water)   Penalty   reinforcement  AND  extinction  procedure,  thus     dividing  the  response  class  into  2  sets  of  responses.    LP  <  20g     No  food     -­‐Plain-­‐vanilla  reinforcement  does  not  divide  the   Food       response  class,  but  reinforces  all  responses  that  fall   LP  >  20g   Food       into  that  specific  response  class.     Recovery     Ch  7   Differential  reinforcement:   Confusion:     Reinforcement        Lever    -­‐People  forget  that  there  needs  to  be  a  separate       presses   >20g   Water    reinforcement  contingency  maintaining  the     No  water  response  if  a  penalty  contingency  is  going  to         Lever    suppress  that  bx  above  or  below  a  specific  value.       presses   No  water         <20g  -­‐The  usual  error  is  to  flip  the  outcomes  of  the  diff.    rfmt  procedure  and  believe  that  they  have   Extinction  demonstrated  an  example  of  diff.  penalty.   Plain-­‐vanilla  reinforcement:     No  water  à  press  lever  (any  force)  à  water       Ch  7   Similarities:     -­‐Both  result  in  an  increase  in  responding     Differences:   -­‐Differential  escape  includes  an  escape  AND   extinction  procedure,  thus  dividing  the  response   class  into  2  sets  of  responses.   -­‐Plain-­‐vanilla  escape  does  not  divide  the  response   class,  but  reinforces  all  responses  that  fall  into  that   specific  response  class.       Differential  escape:   Escape        Lever       presses   No  shock     >20g       Shock         Lever       presses   Shock     <20g       Extinction   Plain-­‐vanilla  escape:   Shock  à  press  lever  (any  force)  à  no  shock      
  7. 7. Ch  8   Ch  8       The  differential  reinforcement  procedure  vs.  the   Variable  outcome  shaping  vs.  fixed  outcome   procedure  of  shaping  with  reinforcement.   shaping.         Compare  and  contrast.     Illustrate  the  differences  between  these  2     procedures  using  a  pair  of  examples  from  the     Skinner  box.             Ch  8   Ch  8     Complete  this  table   The  differential  reinforcement  procedure  vs.  the     Fixed-­‐ Variable-­‐ procedure  of  shaping  with  reinforcement.   outcome   outcome     #  of  outcome       Illustrate  this  relationship  using  a  pair  of  examples   sizes   from  the  Skinner  box.     Regression  to         earlier  levels     Usual  source         of  shaping         Ch  8       Shaping  with  reinforcement  vs.  shaping  with   punishment.       Give  contrasting  Skinner  box  examples  using  force   as  the  response  dimension.               Ch  8         Shaping  with  reinforcement  vs.  shaping  with     punishment.           Compare  &  contrast.                              
  8. 8. Fixed    Reinforcement                                                                 Variable Reinforcement   Similarities:     outcome     outcome     -­‐Both  include  concurrent  rfmt  &  extinction  contingencies.   shaping   10g  LP    1   shaping   10g  LP   2  drops     drop         -­‐The  results  of  both  are  that  a  response  will  increase  at   15g  LP   of     15g  LP   3  drops     some  value(s)  along  one  dimension  and  decrease  at  some     water     No   20g  LP   No   20g  LP   4  drops   value(s)  along  another  dimension.   water   water   Differences:       -­‐In  diff.  rfmt,  there  is  only  one  distinction  made  along   relevant  response  dimension.     5g  LP    No   5g  LP   1  drop     water       -­‐In  shaping,  there  are  several  distinctions  made.   10g  LP   10g  LP   2  drops     -­‐In  diff.  rfmt,  both  responses  must  occur  regularly  at  the         3  drops   beginning  of  the  procedure.     15g  LP   15g  LP           -­‐In  shaping,  only  the  initial  response  must  occur  regularly     at  the  beginning  of  the  procedure.     Extinction   Extinction   Ch  8   Diff.  rfmt     Shaping  Complete  this  table   Reinforcement     w/rfmt   Reinforcement     Fixed-­‐ Variable-­‐   LP     10g  LP     >20g     outcome   outcome   Water   15g  LP   Water     #  of  outcome   One   Many   No   No   20g  LP   water   sizes     water     Regression  to   No  reinforcers   Weaker   LP    No   5g  LP    No   earlier  levels   reinforcers   <20g     water     water   Usual  source   Performance   Nature     10g  LP     of  shaping   manager     15g  LP     Extinction     Extinction       Shaping   Reinforcement     Shaping  w/   Punishment   w/rfmt   punishment       10g  LP       5g  LP             Water     Shock   15g  LP   10g  LP         20g  LP   15g  LP     No   water     No       shock         5g  LP       No   10g  LP       No     15g  LP     water   15g  LP     shock       20g  LP     20g  LP           Extinction   Recovery     Ch  8     Similarities:       -­‐Both  have  same  terminal  response  (e.g.,  20g  LP)         Differences:     -­‐Shaping  w/reinforcement  reinforces  ONLY  those     responses  that  more  closely  approximate  the     terminal  response.       -­‐Shaping  w/punishment  punishes  ALL  responses   EXCEPT  those  that  more  closely  approximate  the   terminal  response.        
  9. 9. Ch  9   Ch  9       Define  learning  &  performance.   Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s     effect  on  learning.         What  were  the  independent  and  dependent     variables?                         Ch  9   Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   effect  on  learning.   effect  on  learning.       How  were  the  2  groups  of  rats  divided?     What  were  the  results  of  the  experiment?                           Ch  9   Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   effect  on  learning.   effect  on  learning.       Describe  the  procedure  used  in  the  experiment.     What  is  the  significance  of  the  results  of  this     experiment  with  respect  to  MOs?                         Ch  9   Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   effect  on  learning.   effect  on  performance.       Why  was  only  one  lever  press  used?     How  were  the  2  groups  of  rats  divided?                              
  10. 10. Ch  9   Ch  9      Independent  variable:  amount  of  time  that  the   Learning:  how  well  or  fast  a  response  is  performed  rats  were  deprived  on  MONDAY.   only  when  the  MO  is  in  place  before  the  first     contact  with  the  contingency  surrounding  that  Dependent  variable:  the  latency  of  their  response   response.    on  TUESDAY.         Performance:  how  well  or  fast  a  response  is     performed  when  the  MO  is  in  place  after  the  first     contact  with  the  contingency  surrounding  that     response.         Ch  9   Ch  9       The  rats  that  were  deprived  for  24  hours  on   One  group  was  24-­‐hour  water  deprived  on   Monday  demonstrated  a  shorter  latency  for  their   Monday.     lever  press  on  Tuesday  than  did  the  rats  that  were     deprived  for  6  hours.     The  other  group  was  6-­‐hour  water  deprived  on     Monday.                         Ch  9   Ch  9       These  results  illustrate  the  MO’s  effect  on  learning.     Monday:  the  2  groups  were  deprived  for  24  hours     and  6  hours,  respectively.  The  rats’  lever  press   Because  the  lever  press  had  never  been  reinforced   behavior  was  reinforced  only  once.   before  the  IV  (deprivation  level)  was  implemented,     we  can  be  confident  that  increasing  the  level  of   Tuesday:  Both  groups  were  deprived  for  24  hours,   deprivation  can  increase  the  amount  of  learning   and  the  rats’  lever  press  was  again  reinforced  only   obtained  during  a  single  exposure  to  the   once.  Latency  of  their  response  was  measured.     contingency.           Ch  9   Ch  9       One  group  was  24-­‐hour  water  deprived  on   Only  one  lever  press  was  used  in  order  to  eliminate   Tuesday.     and  confounding  variables  such  as  extra  learning     opportunities  and/or  extinction.     The  other  group  was  6-­‐hour  water  deprived  on     Tuesday.                              
  11. 11. Ch  9   Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   effect  on  performance.   effect  on  performance.       Describe  the  procedure  used  in  the  experiment.     What  is  the  significance  of  the  results  of  this     experiment  with  respect  to  MOs?                         Ch  9   Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s     effect  on  performance.   What  does  Michael  (1982)  say  is  the  MO’s  effects     on  learning?   Why  was  only  one  lever  press  used?                         Ch  9   Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s     effect  on  performance.   What  does  Michael  (1982)  say  is  the  MO’s  effects     on  performance?   What  were  the  independent  and  dependent     variables?               Ch  9       Explain  the  experiment  that  illustrates  the  MO’s   effect  on  performance.     What  were  the  results  of  the  experiment?                    
  12. 12. Ch  9   Ch  9       These  results  illustrate  the  MO’s  effect  on   Monday:  the  2  groups  were  deprived  for  24  hours.   performance.     The  rats’  lever  press  behavior  was  reinforced  only     once.   Because  the  IV  (deprivation  level)  was  modified     after  the  rats  had  been  exposed  to  the  contingency,   Tuesday:  the  2  groups  were  deprived  for  24  hours   we  can  be  confident  that  increasing  the  level  of   and  6  hours,  respectively,  and  the  rats’  lever  press   deprivation  will  increase  the  quality  of  that   was  again  reinforced  only  once.  Latency  of  their   performance.     response  was  measured.             Ch  9   Ch  9       Michael  (1982)  says:   Only  one  lever  press  was  used  in  order  to  eliminate     and  confounding  variables  such  as  extra  learning   MOs  serve  to  increase  the  reinforcing  effectiveness   opportunities  and/or  extinction.     of  a  stimulus,  event,  or  condition.                     Ch  9   Ch  9       Michael  (1982)  says:   Independent  variable:  amount  of  time  that  the     rats  were  deprived  on  TUESDAY.   MOs  serve  to  increase  the  frequency  of  the  type  of     behavior  consequated  by  a  stimulus,  event,  or   Dependent  variable:  the  latency  of  their  response   condition.     on  TUESDAY.                       Ch  9     The  rats  that  were  deprived  for  24  hours  on   Tuesday  demonstrated  a  shorter  latency  for  their   lever  press  than  did  the  rats  that  were  deprived  for   6  hours.                    

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