After World War II ends and with the creation of the United Nations, independence movements challenge European imperialism in Africa.
Insert map similar to one above showing division of Africa in 1914. Africa had been dominated by Europe ever since Prince Henry of Portugal had sent explorers to Africa’s west coast in the 1400s. First because of the slave trade and then the economic exploitation of colonialism, Africa lagged behind the rest of the world. Even in 1950, there were only four independent African countries. By 1970, almost the entire continent would cut its ties to European leadership.
Insert map like one above showing dates of independence. http://www.empathosnationenterprises.com/Consulate/EN-Library/Black-Studies/afindep.html This map shows you the date of each country’s independence. Note during which decades most of these countries gain independence.
Insert UN flag or pic of the UN building. The formation of the United Nations after World War II helped the independence movements in Africa. In its charter, the United Nations declared that all colonial possessions should have the right to self determination or the ability to choose their own government. Collectively the world supported self determination, however, individually they often fought against independence movements. Britain, France, Belgium and Portugal would lose the territory that they had acquired and exploited for so many years. In addition, between WWI and WWII a number of African cities became westernized. A middle class developed, and many Africans studied in top universities in Europe and the USA. Upon returning to Africa, they became leaders of nationalist movements. They had great pride in African culture and resented the economic exploitation that had come from imperial rule.
Insert flags of Soviet Union and the United States. The rivalry between USA and the Soviet Union also had an impact on African independence. As African countries became independent for the first time, they were expected to ally with one side or the other. Both the US and USSR gave military aid to countries in Africa. Each side ended up supporting corrupt rulers in a number of cases simply to gain an ally.
Insert map of Ghana and picture of Kwame Nkhrumah. Very few Europeans had settled in West Africa even though Europe still dominated the region politically and economically. Because of this lack of European settlement, West African countries tended to gain their independence much more peacefully. Ghana was granted independence from Britain in 1957 under the leadership of Kwame Nkhrumah. It became the first African country since WWII to become independent and was a symbol of hope to the rest of Africa.
Insert images of Algeria’s war for independence. Algeria was a French colony in North Africa directly across the Mediterranean Sea. France gained control of the area in the mid 1800s. Many French and European settlers had moved to the area to farm. Some Algerians became French citizens, but most were not and were thus not protected by French Law. The French government resisted an Algerian independence movement that began in 1955. After a long bloody civil war Algeria finally won its independence in 1962.
Insert image of Jomo Kenyatta and map of location of Kenya in Africa. Kenya was an East African colony controlled by Britain since 1890. Under the leadership of a man named Jomo Kenyatta, Kenyan nationalism began to develop and a movement for independence began. Kenyatta was rumored to be part of a terrorist group in Kenya that attacked British establishments in the country. He was imprisoned and exiled. The long violent struggle for independence from Britain began in 1950. However, when Britain finally granted Kenya its independence in 1963, Kenyatta was elected as the first president of the country.
Insert map showing location of South Africa and symbol of apartheid. South Africa was the richest in terms of resources of all African countries. Its government was dominated by its white, Dutch and English, population which accounted for only 15% of the country’s total population. The remaining population was 75% African and 10% Asian or mixed. This 85% of the population faced discrimination and lacked full political rights. South Africa’s government sought to increase its control over its population and in 1948 started a program of complete segregation known as apartheid. Blacks were denied job opportunities, education opportunities, and access to public places. A Homelands policy was put in place that restricted blacks to 13% of the worst land in the country.
Insert data figure like one above. Note the major differences in the population ratio compared to wealth, income, mortality rate, etc.
Insert image of Nelson Mandela and symbol of the ANC The African National Congress had been formed in 1912 and resisted south Africa’s racist policies. Numerous accounts of brutality took place as the government tried to crack down on protests. The ANC’s effort was led by Nelson Mandela, and in 1960 the South African government banned the ANC and sentenced Mandela to life in prison. South Africa’s racist policies were looked down upon by the rest of the world. In 1974, South Africa was expelled from the United Nations. Many countries refused to trade with South Africa until they ended their policy of apartheid. South Africa also lost allies it had in the region when other white-controlled African countries experienced revolutions.
Insert picture of Nelson Mandela’s release from prison. Succumbing to outside pressure, by 1990 South Africa finally began to change. New President F.W. De Clerk lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela from prison. The policies of apartheid were gradually repealed. In 1994, free elections were held in South Africa, and Nelson Mandela was elected as the new president of South Africa.
Let’s review the information from this presentation. What right promoted by the UN contributed to African colonies pushing for independence? Good job! It was the right to self-determination. Name the four European countries who lost colonies in Africa. Excellent! Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal all lost colonies in Africa. Who started Kenya’s independence movement? Way to go! It was Jomo Kenyatta. What policy in South Africa made it an outcast to the rest of the world? You are fight! It was their apartheid policy.
African independence movements
Africa• Dominated by Europe sincethe 1400s• Slave trade and economicexploitation• By 1950 – only 4 independentAfrican countries• By 1970 – almost entirecontinent was free ofEuropean rule
Roots of Independence• Formation of the UnitedNations• All countries have rightto self-determination• Britain, France,Belgium, and Portugalwould all lose territoryin Africa• Growth of nationalism The UN Charter indicated amove away fromimperialism
Influence of the Cold War• Rivalry impacted African independencemovements• New countries would choose which side – theAmericans or the Soviets – to have as an ally• In return, the new countries would receive aid
West Africa• Few Europeans settled inWest Africa• Gained independencethrough peaceful means• Kwame Nkhrumah ledGhana to itsindependence fromBritain
Algeria• French colony• Algerians not protected byFrench Law• Bloody war forindependence 1955-1962• Algeria is independent in1962Algeria fought a bloody war togain Independence
Kenya• British colony since 1890• Jomo Kenyatta – Leaderof Independencemovement• Kenya gains itsindependence in 1963after a violent struggle
South Africa• Lots of resources• Dominated by Dutch andEnglish• Apartheid– Denied opportunities– Homelands PolicyS. Africa became verywealthy from gold anddiamond Mines
Resistance and an Outcast• African National Congressformed in 1912• Nelson Mandela was leaderof the ANC who wassentenced to life in prison• South Africa becomes anoutcast to the rest of theworld• Expelled from UN• Pressure from other countriesto end apartheidMandela in the 1960s
South Africa Changes• Ban on African NationalCongress lifted• Mandela is released fromprison• Repeal of apartheid• Mandela becomes the firstblack president of the Republicof South AfricaMandela’s inauguration signified a drasticchange in S. African politics
Let’s Review• What right promoted by the UNcontributed to African colonies pushing forindependence?• Name the four European countries wholost colonies in Africa.• Who started Kenya’s independencemovement?• What policy in South Africa made it anoutcast to the rest of the world?