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African independence movements


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African independence movements

  1. 1. African IndependenceMovements
  2. 2. Africa• Dominated by Europe sincethe 1400s• Slave trade and economicexploitation• By 1950 – only 4 independentAfrican countries• By 1970 – almost entirecontinent was free ofEuropean rule
  3. 3. Roots of Independence• Formation of the UnitedNations• All countries have rightto self-determination• Britain, France,Belgium, and Portugalwould all lose territoryin Africa• Growth of nationalism The UN Charter indicated amove away fromimperialism
  4. 4. Influence of the Cold War• Rivalry impacted African independencemovements• New countries would choose which side – theAmericans or the Soviets – to have as an ally• In return, the new countries would receive aid
  5. 5. West Africa• Few Europeans settled inWest Africa• Gained independencethrough peaceful means• Kwame Nkhrumah ledGhana to itsindependence fromBritain
  6. 6. Algeria• French colony• Algerians not protected byFrench Law• Bloody war forindependence 1955-1962• Algeria is independent in1962Algeria fought a bloody war togain Independence
  7. 7. Kenya• British colony since 1890• Jomo Kenyatta – Leaderof Independencemovement• Kenya gains itsindependence in 1963after a violent struggle
  8. 8. South Africa• Lots of resources• Dominated by Dutch andEnglish• Apartheid– Denied opportunities– Homelands PolicyS. Africa became verywealthy from gold anddiamond Mines
  9. 9. Resistance and an Outcast• African National Congressformed in 1912• Nelson Mandela was leaderof the ANC who wassentenced to life in prison• South Africa becomes anoutcast to the rest of theworld• Expelled from UN• Pressure from other countriesto end apartheidMandela in the 1960s
  10. 10. South Africa Changes• Ban on African NationalCongress lifted• Mandela is released fromprison• Repeal of apartheid• Mandela becomes the firstblack president of the Republicof South AfricaMandela’s inauguration signified a drasticchange in S. African politics
  11. 11. Let’s Review• What right promoted by the UNcontributed to African colonies pushing forindependence?• Name the four European countries wholost colonies in Africa.• Who started Kenya’s independencemovement?• What policy in South Africa made it anoutcast to the rest of the world?