Brown v. Board ofEducationBrown v. Board ofEducationBy interpreting its powersbroadly, the Supreme Courtcan reshape Americansociety.VUS.14a
What was thesignificance of Brown v.Board of Education, andwhat roles did ThurgoodMarshall and Oliver Hillplay in the demise ofsegregated schools?
Brown v. Board ofEducation: 1954• Supreme Court decision thatsegregated schools are unequal andmust desegregate• Court ruled that schools mustintegrate with all “reasonable speed”• By nature, SEPARATE IS NOTEQUAL• Included Virginia case
Key people• Thurgood Marshall —NAACPLegal Defense Team – Arguedthe case for Linda Brownthat the Topeka SchoolBoard was violating herrights.• Later, Marshall wasappointed to the SupremeCourt by Lyndon Johnson,becoming the first African-American to sit on thatbench!
Key people• Oliver Hill — NAACP LegalDefense Team in Virginia -Hill heard that the studentsat R.R. Moton High School inFarmville, Virginia, hadwalked out of their run downschool. The lawsuit, Davis v.County School Board ofPrince Edward County becameone of the five cases decidedunder Brown v. the Board ofEducation (1954).
Role of the NAACP:• The National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People providedthe legal teams to challenge these laws-which it had been doing for 45 years.• Dozens of lawyers across the countryworked to end laws that allowed fordiscrimination in public schools.
Virginia Response• Massive Resistance — Closing some schools –several schools even shut down for an entireyear!• Establishment of private academies which didnot fall under the Brown ruling.• White flight from urban school systems- manywhite families left the cities and moved intowhite communities in the suburbs.Virginia’s efforts to stop integrationslowed the process- it was not until the1970’s that Virginia schools were fullyintegrated!