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Open Budget Format: Issues on Development of Specification and Converter Implementation


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This presentation describes our work in development of the open budget format. It was presented on ICEGOV2016 conference

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Open Budget Format: Issues on Development of Specification and Converter Implementation

  1. 1. ICEGOV2016, Montevideo, Uruguay Open Budget Format: Issues on Development of Specification and Converter Implementation Olga Parkhimovich, Vitaly Vlasov 1
  2. 2. Outline • Open Finance Data in Russia • Reasons • Budget process in Russia • Project scope • Approach 1. Using OpenSpending • Approach 2. Open Budget Format • Converter and Budget Data Validator • Use case: Other countries • Use case: Municipal budgets of St.Petersburg, Russia • Future work 2
  3. 3. What is Open Finance Data in Russia? 3 Budgets datasets Contracts Financial Reports 3 budget levels 4 budget stages > than 23 000 local authorities at least 4 versions > 92 000 datasets per year > 17 000 000 from 2011 year 2 budget levels Monthly, Quarterly, Annually > 1 100 datasets per year
  4. 4. What is Wrong with Budget Data? 4 St. Petersburg (Russia) Milton Keynes (UK) meta-data without data data without meta-data not machine-readable format complex and frequently changing classifiers no codes errors and misspelling
  5. 5. What is Wrong with Budget Data? 5
  6. 6. Name Target costs Type of costs Section, subsection Amount 1 Total 76 591 596,0 2 State Program «Public Health» 51 0 0000 13 388 576,1 3 Subprogram «Primary health care» 51 1 0000 601 242,0 4 Costs for the operation of state-owned public institutions 51 1 0016 169 453,3 5 Wage fund of state-owned institutions and contributions for compulsory social insurance 51 1 0016 111 135 922,3 6 Ambulatory care 51 1 0016 111 0902 135 922,3 budgetitem Current Structure of Budget File 6 Code of the chief administrator of budget funds Section code Subsecti on code Code of the target article Type of costs code Government Operations code Program code Sub prog ram code Spending priorities code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Budget classification code
  7. 7. Reasons • High interest among authorities in making budget more transparent and reusable • Current budget process is inefficient • Problems of using current format • Citizens need to know how their taxes are spent • Civil society should engage in all stage in the budget process 7
  8. 8. Project Scope 8 •Goal: to make budget data simple and useful for developers and citizens •Tasks: •analyse existing approaches •implementation of international methods for the Russian data •develop initial standard and specification of Open Budget Format (OBF) version 1.0 •measure budget data quality and check on loca level
  9. 9. Approach 1. Using OpenSpending 9 • Popular platform for publication of financial information: https:// • Budget items are presented as rows with values of different «dimensions». Dimensions could be organized in groups and facets for better visualization • Open Refine tool has been used to prepare data for OpenSpending. Dimensions Using of Open Refine
  10. 10. Problems with OpenSpending: • Current budget format could not be imported directly (without preparation) • Specific requirements for Open Spending Solution: • Automation of preparing budget file with Open Refine tool. Implementation Pros: • System is ready to use • Visualization tool • Budget items are interlinked Cons: • This is proprietary format. Open Spending is just one of systems and like «Microsoft» in the world of financial data (like XLS vs. CVS). • Government is not ready to put data into third- party services. • This data format could not be used for interoperability for government needs. We suggest another way: • Our approach is not software but proposal of Data Format which could be applicable for different systems. • Government can use this format as they want and integrate in their own systems. • Easy to use for exchange information and building new services (official government services or citizen apps) Budget item page Program Name Code SubProgram Code Name … … See example of "budget item" page in Open Spending Budget Code beta version of Leningrad’s budget for citizens website:
  11. 11. • Include best practices of the existing standards (e.g. SDDS 1 of IMF 2 , Open Contracting 3 , Open Spending) • Compatible with Data Packages 4 . • Based on text formats (JSON, CSV, XML) Approach 2. Open Budget Format 11 JSON CSV XML Data package 4 SDDS 1 OCDS 3 XLS 5 Compatibility Versioning Versality Scalable Current budget formats Text formats Key characteristics 1 SDDS - Special Data Dissemination Standard ( 2 IMF - International Monetary Fund 3 OCDS - Open contracting Data Standards by Web Foundation ( standard/r/0__3__2/.html) 4 5 XLS - current Russian standard of budget
  12. 12. Versality Simple, general and universal, represent the budgets on different levels. Good for automation Convenient for automatic processing and clear, if necessary for editing (converting) it by user. Scalable Ability to use to represent any budgets in other countries too. Versions support It is necessary to be able to specify different versions of the budget. Integrated. Compatible with other budget formats Easy for integrating with other existing formats such as Open Spending, Open Contracting Data Standard and Budget Data Package. Friendly and intuitive In connection with trend of publishing «budgets for citizens» and «open budget» by governments it is necessary to have such version of OBF (readable both for machines and people). Approach 2. Open Budget Format. 
 Key Characteristics 12
  13. 13. Basic Data model 13 Budget Item id amount Admin name code Classification name code code version period region date type stage level attribute object Budget item is a peace of budget information which must be identified by time (financial year or other period), one amount, government organization and purposed
  14. 14. Name Avaliable types Mandatory Description itemId string required Unique ID of item in current data set. May include numbers, etters, special symbols version string required Version of budget doc, see details below. Could be «final» or Number docVersion number required Last version of document level enum required "national" (N), "regional" (R), "municipal" (M) country string required Code of Country (RU, US, etc) subject string required Name of City, Region or Country, depends on level dateCreation date-time required Date when current budgetItem has been created dateChanged date-time required Date when current budgetItem has been changed tag enum required "expenditures", "income" stage enum required "Proposal", «approval", "adjustment", «execution", "amendment". Any additional comments could be included in comments section. lang string required Current language of document comment string optional For example reference to law Implementation. Meta Data Fields in OBF 14
  15. 15. Name Avaliable types Mandatory Description budgetItemCode string required National budget classification or code system (in Russia Code of Budget Classification) budgetItemName string required Name of budget item adminName string required Name of organization that carries out operations with current budget item adminCode string required Code of organization amount number required Amount of budget item currency string required Currency of country or operation Required Data Fields in OBF 15
  16. 16. Extended data model Country-specific data model (Russia) 16 Basic model Admin Classification attributes GRBS Program SubProgram Section GovOper SubSection SpendingType Article Any country can extend basic model and build own specific.
  17. 17. Versioning 17 •Mechanism of updating current file («U», update) •Each version has own file («F», files) •Info about stages of budget («S», stages) U-, US-, F-, FS- versions
  18. 18. CSV version of OBF v1.0 18 •All data is presented as rows •First rows should contain names of field •All areas of fields should be presented for each row •U, US, F, FS-versions could be implemented
  19. 19. { “budgetItem” : { “itemId” : “121299”, “version” : “final”, “docVersion” : “1”, “level” : “R”, “country” : “RU”, “subject” : “Leningrad Region”, “dateCreation” : “16-09-2014 13:14:13”, “dateChanged” : null, “tag” : “income”, “stage” : “execution”, “lang” : “ru” } } <metadata> <level>R<level> <country>RU</country> <subject>Leningrad Region</subject> <lang>ru</lang> </metadata> <items> <budgetItem> <itemId>121299</itemId> <version>final</version> <docVersion>1</docVersion> <dateCreation>16-09-2014 13:14:13
 </dateCreation> <tag>income</tag> <stage>execution<stage> </budgetItem> </items> { "type": "budgetItem", "properties": { "itemId": { "type": "string" }, "version": { "type": "string" }, "docVersion": { "type": "number" } "level": { "type": "string", "enum": ["N", "R", "M"] } ... }, JSON Schema A piece of data Example of XML data JSON view & XML view 19
  20. 20. Converter and Budget Data Validator 20 •We created algorithm that can clean and extract only valuable data from Russian budgets. •Validator can build data model and find mistakes in file. Just upload file (XLS / XLSX) See report about data and errors.
  21. 21. Use case: Other countries 21 • Based on BOOST World Bank project data for Armenia "BudgetItem" : { "NationalId":"4111-010101-1", "Period":"2006", "Amount":335071800.00, "Level":"N", "Admin_Name":"Staff of President of RA", "Admin_Code":"101001", "Classification_Econ1Name":"Running expenses", "Classification_Econ1Code":"4000", "Classification_Econ2Name":"Payment for labor", "Classification_Econ2Code":"4100", "Classification_Econ3Name":"Salaries and additional payments paid in drams", "Classification_Econ3Code":"4110", "Classification_Econ4Name":"Salaries and additional payments of employees", "Classification_Econ4Code":"4111", "Classification_Func1Name":"General public services", "Classification_Func1Code":"01", "Classification_Func2Name":"Legislative", "Classification_Func2Code":"0101", "Classification_Func3Name":"Legislative and executive bodies, public administration", "Classification_Func4Code":"010101", "Classification_ExpTypeName":"Personnel", "Classification_ExpTypeCode":"1", } Source data (XLS) Exported in OBF Structure of budget (BOOST) Admin Classifications
  22. 22. Use case: Municipal budgets of St.Petersburg, Russia 22 We collected data from 111 municipalities of St.Petersburg. Analyze them, structure and map by quality of data information. Only well-structured budgets are valuable. Rating of Openness and Quality of Budgets Rate 2014 2015 AAA OBF, CSV, RDF OBF, CSV, RDF AA xls xls A other/XLS XLS/other BBB doc doc BB other/doc doc/other B pdf/html pdf/html CCC -/pdf pdf/- CC image image C no no You can find more on poster exhibition.
  23. 23. Conclusions & Future Work 23 •We can convert and visualize the Russian budget for less than three hours, and explain this process to the ordinary citizen or official •We have the first version of Open Budget Format •With the Open University (UK) we are developing Open Finance Ontology to model finance linked data •Future work: •comparison of budgets and government contracts •more useful visualizations • Project web-site:
  24. 24. Contacts Olga Parkhimovich,, @OpenDataRu Vitaly Vlasov,, 
 @inxaoc 24 KEEP CALM AND TRY TO RESEARCH BUDGET DATA ICEGOV2016, Montevideo, Uruguay