SELECTED RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE STRENGTHENING FAMILIES (SF) PROTECTIVE FACTORS Charlyn Harper Browne, PhD Center for t...
Protective Factors Characteristics or conditions in individuals, families, and communities that decrease the likelihood of...
Prevention and Protective Factors <ul><li>Risk-reduction approaches to prevention  alone  are not  </li></ul><ul><li>effec...
The Study of Protective Factors and  Child Maltreatment Prevention <ul><li>Protective factors  have NOT been studied  </li...
Child Protective Factors Under Study <ul><li>Good peer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Positive disposition </li></ul><ul>...
Parent and Family  Protective Factors Under Study <ul><li>Supportive family environment * </li></ul><ul><li>Secure attachm...
Social and Environmental Protective Factors Under Study <ul><li>Access to health care and social services </li></ul><ul><l...
The SF Protective Factors:  A Two-Generational Approach  Parental Resilience Social Connections Knowledge of Parenting and...
Rationale for Building the SF Protective Factors: Impact of Child Maltreatment Immediate impact  on the child includes phy...
Enduring Impact:  Adverse Childhood Experiences Study  (Vincent Felitti & Robert Anda)  <ul><li>Adverse Childhood Experien...
Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, cont’d <ul><li>ACE Score  </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s ACE score equals the tota...
Parental / Child Resilience Research <ul><li>Parental Resilience :  the ability to manage both crisis and the everyday cha...
Parental / Child Resilience Research, cont’d <ul><li>Childhood Resilience :  the capacity to adapt successfully and to con...
Full Report to be Completed October 2009 Charlyn Harper Browne, PhD QIC-EC Project Director [email_address]
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Research Supporting Sf Protective Factors 02 19 09

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Research Supporting Sf Protective Factors 02 19 09

  1. 1. SELECTED RESEARCH IN SUPPORT OF THE STRENGTHENING FAMILIES (SF) PROTECTIVE FACTORS Charlyn Harper Browne, PhD Center for the Study of Social Policy Senior Associate and Project Director, Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood
  2. 2. Protective Factors Characteristics or conditions in individuals, families, and communities that decrease the likelihood of a person becoming a victim or perpetrator of abuse or neglect because it provides a buffer against risk. (Centers for Disease Control) Characteristics or conditions in individuals, families, and communities that increase well-being, build family capacity, and foster resilience. (National Adoption Information Clearinghouse) Buffers to help individuals find resources, supports, and strategies that help them to function effectively, even under stress. Building protective factors is based in the idea that individuals, families, and communities have strengths.
  3. 3. Prevention and Protective Factors <ul><li>Risk-reduction approaches to prevention alone are not </li></ul><ul><li>effective (Blum,1998). </li></ul><ul><li>More than 20 years of prevention research has shown that </li></ul><ul><li>building protective factors and reducing risk factors are key </li></ul><ul><li>to effective prevention, whether the issue is the prevention </li></ul><ul><li>of drug abuse, intimate partner violence, adolescent </li></ul><ul><li>pregnancy, or child maltreatment. (National Institute on Drug Abuse) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Study of Protective Factors and Child Maltreatment Prevention <ul><li>Protective factors have NOT been studied </li></ul><ul><li>as extensively or as rigorously as risk </li></ul><ul><li>factors . (Center for Disease Control) </li></ul><ul><li>Protective factors under study include: </li></ul><ul><li>Child Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Parent and Family Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Social and environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>(National Adoption Information Clearinghouse) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Child Protective Factors Under Study <ul><li>Good peer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Positive disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Active coping style </li></ul><ul><li>Positive self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Good social skills </li></ul><ul><li>Wholesome relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between seeking help and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies or interests </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parent and Family Protective Factors Under Study <ul><li>Supportive family environment * </li></ul><ul><li>Secure attachment with children </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing family skills </li></ul><ul><li>Parental reconciliation with own childhood history </li></ul><ul><li>Household rules and child monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Family expectations of pro-social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived caring by and connectedness to others </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmation of ethnic / cultural identity </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to model pro-social behavior </li></ul>
  7. 7. Social and Environmental Protective Factors Under Study <ul><li>Access to health care and social services </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent parental employment </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive adults outside the family </li></ul><ul><li>Safe and stable communities </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and positive connection with community </li></ul>
  8. 8. The SF Protective Factors: A Two-Generational Approach Parental Resilience Social Connections Knowledge of Parenting and Child Development Concrete Support in Times of Need Social and Emotional Competence in Children
  9. 9. Rationale for Building the SF Protective Factors: Impact of Child Maltreatment Immediate impact on the child includes physical injury, sensory impairment, emotional trauma, and death. Long-term impact on the child includes impairment of brain circuitry, low threshold for stress, damage to the area of the brain responsible for learning and memory, intellectual and social deficiencies, increased risk for depression, delinquency, and violent behavior. Reverberating impact across social systems including medical, mental health, law enforcement, judicial system, social services, and other helping agencies as they respond to child abuse and neglect and provide support to the child. Enduring impact on the child refers to the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent and adult behavioral, psychological, and health status.
  10. 10. Enduring Impact: Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (Vincent Felitti & Robert Anda) <ul><li>Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study </li></ul><ul><li>An examination of the relationship between current adult health status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of Adverse Childhood Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Physical neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Household substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Household mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Incarcerated household member </li></ul><ul><li>Mother treated violently </li></ul><ul><li>Parental separation or divorce </li></ul>
  11. 11. Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, cont’d <ul><li>ACE Score </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s ACE score equals the total number of ACEs reported. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the score, the greater the amount of trauma experienced in childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Study Findings </li></ul><ul><li>As the number of adverse childhood experiences increase, the risk for health and </li></ul><ul><li>behavioral problems in adolescence and adulthood increases, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and other substance abuse, dependence, or addiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression; anxiety disorders; suicidality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease; pulmonary disease; liver disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetrating or experiencing intimate family violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual promiscuity and unintended pregnancies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Parental / Child Resilience Research <ul><li>Parental Resilience : the ability to manage both crisis and the everyday challenges of family life, and to address the physical, emotional and cognitive impacts of stress. (FRIENDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Building parental resilience helps parents to find </li></ul><ul><li>ways of responding to their children during </li></ul><ul><li>stressful times other than feeling helpless, </li></ul><ul><li>withdrawn, and distant (neglectful) or becoming </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive, critical, or sarcastic (abusive). (Howe, 2005) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Parental / Child Resilience Research, cont’d <ul><li>Childhood Resilience : the capacity to adapt successfully and to continue to function competently under stress and adversity . (Garmezy, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences of sensitive, mind-engaging, and secure </li></ul><ul><li>attachments promote childhood resilience. (Howe, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>The pathways to resilient adaptation may differ for non- </li></ul><ul><li>maltreated and maltreated children. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-maltreated children seem to find their resilience from their perceived emotional availability of others during stressful times, as well as from the opportunity to develop positive relationships with available others. (Cicchetti & Rogosch, 1997) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Full Report to be Completed October 2009 Charlyn Harper Browne, PhD QIC-EC Project Director [email_address]

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