Eliminating smell of urine An Environment friendly method
Introduction <ul><li>Urine decomposes naturally producing a strong, repulsive, pungent smell. </li></ul><ul><li>The smell ...
Analysing the problem <ul><li>According to Wikipedia an adult produces 1 – 2 litres of urine per day.the urine is sterile ...
The problem.. <ul><li>Ammonia is produced by decomposition of urea as follows: </li></ul>Attempts to precipitate and remov...
Solutions <ul><li>The urease enzyme comes from ubiquitous bacteria like  Helicobacter pylori  and   most other microorgani...
Alternatives to calcium sulphate Chemical Cost Reaction Remarks Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3  + Ca(NO 3 ) 2   CaCO 3   + 2NH...
Implementation <ul><li>Calcium sulphate  has a low solubility in water. One liter of urine requires 26.66g of calcium sulp...
Gypsum <ul><li>Gypsum is a common mineral found in association with sedimentary rocks. Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea...
 
Disposal <ul><li>The collected liquid along with the precipitate can be used for fertigation for crops such as sugar beet ...
Quantity <ul><li>Calculations show that India can produce 15.3 lakh t of fertilizers N in a year by converting 50% of all ...
Acknowlegements <ul><li>Zero Waste Society of India </li></ul><ul><li>  Indian Institute of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Camp...
<ul><li>Thanks for your patience </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Eliminating smell of urine

1,431 views

Published on

Science in the service of society. Eliminating the smell of urine and converting it into fertilizers.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,431
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Eliminating smell of urine

  1. 1. Eliminating smell of urine An Environment friendly method
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Urine decomposes naturally producing a strong, repulsive, pungent smell. </li></ul><ul><li>The smell is mainly due to ammonia. Ammonia is also harmful if inhaled continuously for a long time. It reduces RBC counts in blood (Causes anemia) and paves way for other diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>The smell is a nuisance in public urinals, schools, colleges, offices etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The methods available to counter this problem includes application of chemicals such as bleaching powder, boric acid, phenol and masking the smell with less unpleasant smell. </li></ul><ul><li>None of theses are fully satisfactory as they lead to other environmental problems. For example, they interfere In sewage treatment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Analysing the problem <ul><li>According to Wikipedia an adult produces 1 – 2 litres of urine per day.the urine is sterile when fresh. The average composition of human urine is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Urea: 9.3g / l </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine:1.87g / l </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium: 1.17g / l </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium: 0.75g / l </li></ul><ul><li>Creatinin: 0.67 g / l </li></ul><ul><li>pH: Close to 7.0 but can normally vary between 4.4 and 8 </li></ul>
  4. 4. The problem.. <ul><li>Ammonia is produced by decomposition of urea as follows: </li></ul>Attempts to precipitate and remove urea as urea nitrate or urea oxalate adducts failed because these precipitation reactions work only in concentrated solutions.
  5. 5. Solutions <ul><li>The urease enzyme comes from ubiquitous bacteria like Helicobacter pylori and most other microorganims and rootlets of plants </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that we can eliminate the smell by using (i) antibacterials (bacteriostats or bactericides) (ii) reactions of urea (iii) urease inhibitors or (iv) simply convert the ammonium carbonate to some other odourless compound. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth option appears to be the cheapest and best. For example, urine treated with gypsum, a cheap chemical converts ammonium carbonate into ammonium sulphate, an odourless compound. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Alternatives to calcium sulphate Chemical Cost Reaction Remarks Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 CaCO 3 + 2NH 4 NO 3 More soluble than gypsum CaCl 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + Ca Cl 2 CaCO 3 + 2 NH 4 Cl 2 More soluble than gypsum MgSO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + Mg SO 4 MgCO 3 + (NH 4)2 SO 4 More soluble than gypsum Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 MgCO 3 + (NH 4)2 SO 4 More soluble than gypsum MgCl 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + MgCl 2 MgCO 3 + 2NH 4 Cl More soluble than gypsum
  7. 7. Implementation <ul><li>Calcium sulphate has a low solubility in water. One liter of urine requires 26.66g of calcium sulphate which requires 14 litres of water to dissolve. Therefore, it is best added as a suspension of the finely divided powder. It may be kept in the cistern. After every use a quantity of the suspension is used to flush the urine. The urine and the flushings are collected in a tank. There will not be any smell in the place or in the collected material. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosan type toilets can be made to separate the solids from urine. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gypsum <ul><li>Gypsum is a common mineral found in association with sedimentary rocks. Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. Gypsum is also formed as a by-product of sulfide oxidation, amongst others by pyrite oxidation. It costs about Rs. 650 per tonne. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Disposal <ul><li>The collected liquid along with the precipitate can be used for fertigation for crops such as sugar beet and in coconut gardens. The calcium carbonate counters the effect of sodium on soil and also prevents acidification of soil. However, excessive use of nitrogen containing fertilizers should not be encouraged as it may lead to nitrate pollution. It is best to remove most of the water by reverse osmosis and use the water in any suitable way. The concentrated fertilizer can be stored (preferably after sterilization) and used where it is needed. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Quantity <ul><li>Calculations show that India can produce 15.3 lakh t of fertilizers N in a year by converting 50% of all human urine. This is about 5% of the country’s requirement (289 lakh t) and equals34369313 GJ for manufacture alone (not counting transport). </li></ul><ul><li>Animal urine can collected be treated in the same way. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Acknowlegements <ul><li>Zero Waste Society of India </li></ul><ul><li>  Indian Institute of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Campus, Bengaluru – 560 012  </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: 23600977 22932613   22933107 </li></ul><ul><li>  Fax: 2360083 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: zwsiisc@gmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>www. zerowastesociety of india .com </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Thanks for your patience </li></ul>

×