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  1. Qualitative Research Workshop Dr. Manisha Gore-Assistant Professor, SCOPE, SIU Data Collection Methods 6/2/2022 1 Journal Club-SIHS
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  6. Qualitative methods • Commonly used in health research: • Focus/ed Group Discussions (FGD) • Indepth Interviews (IDI) • Key Informant Interviews (KII) • Case Study • Observation 6 • Rarely used: • Participatory Maps • Walkabouts • Free listing • Pile Sorting 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  7. Focus/ed Group Discussion • Guided discussion on a specific topic with a small group of people • Information/ data collection from several people in a single session • Eight to ten participants, a neutral moderator and note taker • Provide quality controls because participants tend to provide checks and balances on one another that can serve to curb false or extreme views • The information is built upon each other’s views • The group need not reach consensus and can have a variety of opinions • Homogeneous group is ideal • Mutually convenient location • FGD guide is used as a data collection tool 6/2/2022 7 Journal Club-SIHS
  8. Downside of FGD • Inappropriate for exploring individual motivations/behavior. • Due to peer pressure misleading information may be provided. • Group consensus may shadow actual scenario like tensions, contradictions. • Recruitment is difficult, time consuming and not always successful. • Data difficult to analyze. • Dissemination of data as feedback to community is difficult. 6/2/2022 8 Journal Club-SIHS
  9. In-Depth Interviews • Guided conversation between two individuals • Important: Objective, interviewee, context • May be open-ended, closed-ended and combined • Not always formal and no standard way to do it • Range from unstructured conversational to rigid Q & A format • Structured: Aimed at standardizing responses across participants, time constraints, unforeseen topics not permitted • Semi-structured: Suggested themes. Although it is important to pre-plan the key questions, the interview should also be conversational, with questions flowing from previous responses when possible. • Unstructured: excellent for understanding key issues, the direction of interview can be decided by interviewer but driven by responses. • More conversational and may appear to be informal. 6/2/2022 9 Journal Club-SIHS
  10. Downside of In-Depth Interviews • Time-consuming, as must be transcribed, organized, analyzed in detail • If the interviewer is inexperienced, it affects the complete process and data quality • It is a costly research method compared to other methods • More reliance on respondents' accuracy • Intensity in terms of possible emotional strain • Interviewer bias and confidentiality are difficult to be assured 10 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  11. Key Informant Interviews • Tool used- usually an interview schedule with open ended questions. • Detailed and rich data could be collected with relatively easy and inexpensive way. • Provides opportunity to build relationship with informants as well as community under study in turn. • Helps raise awareness, interests around issues under study. • Possible to contact informants, if needed for clarifications. • Often snowball sampling is very helpful in identifying informants 11 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  12. Downside of Key Informant Interviews • Selecting right key informant is challenging especially in unknown communities • Difficult to schedule interviews with hard to reach key informants • Difficult to generalize results to larger community unless enough informants are included • May provide biased results as totally dependent on only the key informants • Personal relationships may influence outcome 12 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  13. Case Study • A case study is a research method common in social science. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. • Excellent methods for understanding community dynamics (both for individuals and community) • Very intensive, complex to conduct and • Useful in hypothesis Formulation and Comparisons. • Increase in Knowledge about individuals or community. • Comprehensive information in nature • Tools used for data collection include interview schedules, observation, records, case histories, diaries, questionnaires and photo documentation. • No specific sampling required. It studies a social unit in its entire perspectives. • Requires continuous analysis all through the process 13 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  14. Downside of Case Study • Very well trained researcher is needed • Expensive • Researcher bias is very difficult to be minimized as it is more subjective method • Ethical challenges may compel researchers to intervene which hampers the data • Costly and time consuming • Limited representativeness and generalization is impossible • Low validity and reliability 14 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  15. Observation • Easy method as needs no specific expertise • Unstructured or structured observations • Data captured in textual format • Aspects of interest and related processes, behaviors and structural details captured • Provides high accuracy as observer directly interacts with observed • Describes phenomenon exactly as it occurs in the natural environment • Minimum cooperation of observed is required 15 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
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  17. Downside of Observation • Though easy, lack of competence of observer may hamper validity and reliability of observation. • Little control over physical situation, environment. • Unmanageable data. • Possibility of distortion. • Everything is not observed: There are various personal behaviors the researcher cannot observe • Often feelings, emotions, opinions remain unobserved. • Past life remains unknown: method has no technique to study the past life of observed • Difficult to replicate if needed- cannot control extraneous variables 17 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  18. Participatory map Participatory Map is a participatory data collection method for geographically related information such as • water sources, • health centers, • markets, • homes of key persons, • settlement patterns, • landmarks, • fields, • grazing areas. It is also one of the first activities that a ethnographic study team carries out in a settlement to set the tone of participation and ‘break-the-ice.’ 18 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  19. Walkabouts • Walkabout is a type of direct observation that emphasizes recording actual events, situations and behaviors rather than reported or recalled events and situations. • The Walkabout can focus on people (activities of men or women), locations (water collection site), and/or events (family meal). • A checklist or guide is always developed by the study team before the exercise relating to specific issues of concern. • Observer records as much behavior as possible, including actions, conversations, and descriptions of the locale and persons observed. 19 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  20. Free listing • Free listing is a systematic data collection method where an informant is asked to list all the different components of some issue of interest (for example, all the different illnesses that children get; or, the main difficulties faced by persons living in the camp/community). • This method is used as a preliminary exploration of an issue of interest and is often carried out at the beginning of a study. 20 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  21. Pile sorting • Pile sorting is a systematic data collection technique used to understand how issues of interest (and/or their components) are inter-related in a culture by allowing informants to group together items (e.g., childhood illnesses, community problems) according to their own system of categorization. • This helps understand how important issues are perceived by the beneficiary population prior to developing ideas or solutions to address them. 21 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  22. Preparation for data collection • Careful team formation • Familiarity with methods and field • Review of existing literature • Use of focused rapport building exercises • Taking support from important community members • Having an account of required logistic arrangements 22 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  23. Efficiency in data collection •Use of instruments like - Logs - Matrices - Checklist - Maps •Thorough knowledge about the topic of research •Documenting the process in detail •Knowledgeable researcher •Timing and length of interview •Bracketing (Keeping aside researcher’s bias) •Understanding Cultural differences 23 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS
  24. Thankyou 24 6/2/2022 Journal Club-SIHS