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  1. 1. Ethiopian Region <br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Africa South of Atlas Mts. and Sahara
  3. 3. Southern corner of Arabia
  4. 4. Land connection with Northern Neighbour
  5. 5. Otherwise isolated by sea
  6. 6. Has big rivers, Tropical evergreen forests, mountains and grassy plains like neotropical region but does not reach far into the southern temperate zone.
  7. 7. Large Madagascar island with its small neighbours is often included.</li></li></ul><li>Climate<br />Mainly tropical<br />Large block of rain forests- equatorial west Africa<br />Many small patches of rainforests elsewhere<br />Rest of Africa covered by dry or seasonal thorn scrub or grassland grading into desert northward and southwest ward.<br />Southern tip- warm temperate with complexly mixed vegetations<br />
  8. 8. Ethiopian region<br />Mammals<br />
  9. 9. Mammals<br />Most varied with 38 fam. excluding bats<br />In no. of unique fam. it rank second to Neotropical<br />Apart from Twelve exclusive fam. , rest of families shared with either palearctic or oriental region<br />
  10. 10. Mammals- widely distributed<br />Shrews<br />With a wide distribution:-<br />Shrews <br />Cricetid mice<br />Murid mice<br />Dogs<br />Mustelids<br />Badgers, Otters etc.<br />Cats <br />Bovids(hollow-horned ruminants)<br />Mostly antelopes, Cape buffaloes etc.<br />Badger (Mustelid)<br />Cape Buffaloes<br />
  11. 11. Mammals- Palearctic & Oriental Fam.<br />Fam. Shared with both palearctic and Oriental Regions<br />Hedgehogs<br />Porcupines<br />Civets<br />Hyenas<br />Pigs<br />Hyenas<br />Hedgehog<br />Porcupines<br />African Civet<br />
  12. 12. Mammals-Palearctic fam. <br />Fam. Shared with Palearctic<br />Dormice<br />Jerboas (Dipodidae)<br />Coneys<br />(e.g. Hyrax called asDassie in S. Africa)<br />Wild Horses<br />Jerboas<br />Dormice<br />Rock Hyrax<br />
  13. 13. Mammals- Difference with Palearctic<br />Palearctic fam. not represented in Ethiopian region<br />Moles<br />Beavers<br />Bears<br />Camels (camels seen in Africa are domesticated) <br />Eurasian Mole<br />Eurasian Beaver<br />
  14. 14. Mammals- Oriental Fam. <br />8 families- 3 primates and two large ungulates<br />Pangolins or scaly anteaters, only genus shared by both regions, but all other shared fam. are different at generic level in the two regions.<br />Scaly Anteater<br />
  15. 15. Mammals- Oriental Fam. <br />Loxodonta, the African Elephant<br />Huge ears and long tusks<br />Elephas, the Indian Elephant, a smaller animal<br />
  16. 16. Mammals- Oriental Fam. <br />African Black Rhino<br />Sumatran Rhino<br />African White Rhino<br />Two oriental genera, one of which two-horned<br />Indian Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis1<br />Javan Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus1<br />Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinussumatrensis2<br />White and black African Rhinoceros each with two nasal horns (2)<br />
  17. 17. Lorisidae- Slender lorises in Oriental<br />Mammals- Oriental Fam. <br />Pottos<br />Galagos<br />Slender lorises<br />Primate-Pottos (Tailless ape)<br />Galagos (Bush babies, Nagapies, Little night monkeys)<br /> lives in Africa<br />
  18. 18. Mammals- Oriental Fam. <br />Drill<br />Baboons<br />Hanuman Langur<br />Mangabeys<br />Geladas<br />Guenons<br />Golden Langur<br />Old World Monkeys- More diverse and varied<br />Macaques, drills, baboons, mangabeys, guenons and geladas<br />Less divers- small no. of oriental langurs<br />
  19. 19. Mammals- Oriental Fam. <br />Gorilla<br />Orangutan<br />Gibbon<br />Chimpanzee<br />Apes- Gorilla, Chimpanzee in Western and Central Africa<br />Apes- Orangutan and Gibbon in Oriental region<br />
  20. 20. Mammals<br />No mammal fam. exclusively in common with either nearctic or neotropical<br />Herds of large herbivorous animals on open plains, zebras, loping giraffes, leaping and springing antelopes, rhinoceros, elephants along with lions and other members of the cat family are commonly seen<br />
  21. 21. Mammals- Exclusive Fam.<br />12 unique fam.<br />Giraffe<br />Hippopotamuses and aardvarks<br />3 fam. of insectivores<br />6 fam. Of rodents (interesting comparison with neotropical whose rodents are also diverse and restricted).<br />
  22. 22. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Giraffe fam. two genera <br />Okapi<br />Giraffe<br />
  23. 23. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Amphibious hippopotamus fam. 2 genera<br />Choeropsisliberiensis or Hexaprotodonliberiensis(Pygmy Hippopotamus)<br />Hippopotamus amphibius<br />
  24. 24. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Aardvarks- *Order Tubulidentata – only 1 genus<br />(Cape anteater- size of a small pig with a highly curved back, long snout and long tongue, on the four digits of its front feet and the five of its hind there are sharp hoofs for digging through termites nests) <br />*Exclusive Order<br />Aardvark<br />
  25. 25. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Endemic insectivores<br />Otter shrews<br />Golden moles<br />Elephant shrews<br />Elephant shrews<br />Golden Mole<br />Otter Shrews<br />
  26. 26. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Endemic rodents<br />Anomaluridae (anomalures or scaly-tailed flying squirrels) Three genera: Anomalurus(Scaly-tailed Flying Squirrels), Idiurus(Flying Mice), Zenkerella(Cameroon Scaly-tail or Flightless Scaly-tailed Squirrel)<br />some are squirrel like but others are more like mice<br />some are gliders like, the gliding Idiurusand the african flying squirrel, Anomalurusbut some are not.<br />Idiurus<br />Anomalurus<br />Zenkerella<br />
  27. 27. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Endemic rodents<br />Fam. Pedetidae<br />Pedetescapensis <Spring Haas /Spring Hare (the sole representative)><br />Pedestes(Spring Haas)<br />
  28. 28. Mammals- Exclusive fam.<br />Cave Rat<br />Other Endemic rodents<br />Cave rats and Rock rats (affinities with old world procupines)<br />Gundis and Blesmols(Mole Rats)<br />Rock Rat<br />Gundis<br />Blesmol Naked Mole Rat<br />Blesmol (Mole Rat)<br />
  29. 29. Mammals- Overview<br />Diverse mixture of widely distributed fam.<br />Fam. shared with oriental regions <br />Exclusive fam. <br />A few fam. with other relationships<br />Oriental Relationships are relatively stronger than shown for many Ethiopian genera and even some species of mammals also occur in Oriental Region or have some close relatives there<br />
  30. 30. Ethiopian Region<br />Birds<br />
  31. 31. Birds<br />Numerous having strong affinities with Oriental Region<br />67 fam., 53 occur all or much of the world<br />Six exclusive fam.<br />Three – honey guides, broad bills and bulbuls shared only or mainly with oriental region<br />Five –crab plover, sand grouse, hoopoes, a doubtful bombycillid and a doubtful honey eaters have special or doubtful relationship<br />
  32. 32. Birds- common<br />Cuckoos<br />Woodpeckers<br />Hornbills<br />Sunbirds<br />Orioles<br />Many birds of prey<br />Few pigeons, parrots <br /> and pheasants<br />Wood pecker<br />Hornbill<br />Red crested sun bird<br />Oriole<br />
  33. 33. Birds- widely distributed fam.<br />Hawks<br />Owls<br />Herons<br />Storks<br />Kingfisher<br />Larks<br />Swallow<br />Thrushes<br />Thrushes<br />Heron<br />Storks<br />Lark<br />Swallow<br />Kingfisher<br />
  34. 34. Birds- Old world fam.<br />Bustards<br />Rollers<br />Bee eaters<br /> flycatchers<br />Warblers<br />Weaver birds<br />Starlings<br />Kori Bustard<br />Roller<br />Starlings<br />Warblers<br />Weaver Bird<br />Bee eater<br />Blue Fly catcher<br />
  35. 35. Birds- Tropical/ Old world tropical fam.<br />Trogons<br />Hornbills<br />Barbets<br />Honey guides<br />Pittas<br />Bulbuls<br />Sunbirds<br />Barbet<br />Trogon<br />Honeyguide<br />Pitta<br />
  36. 36. Birds- Exclusive<br />Ostriches<br />Secretary birds<br />Ostrich is the only member of a unique order, doubtfully related to other large flightless birds in other parts of the southern hemisphere <br />Secretary Birds<br />Ostriches<br />
  37. 37. Birds- Exclusive<br />Hammer-heads<br />Crested touracos<br />Crested Touracos<br />Hammer-head<br />
  38. 38. Birds- Exclusive<br />Mouse birds<br />Helmet shrikes<br />Mouse Birds<br />Helmet Shrikes<br />
  39. 39. Birds- exclusive subfam. Or nearly so<br />Guinea fowls<br />Tree hoopoes<br />Bush shrikes<br />Buffalo weavers<br />Widow birds<br />Tick bird<br />Tick bird<br />Guinea Fowl<br />Widow bird<br />Buffalo weavers<br />Tree hoopoes<br />Bush shrike<br />
  40. 40. Birds- overview<br />Less distinctive<br />Strongly oriental in their main relationships<br />Few exclusive groups<br />
  41. 41. Ethiopian Region<br />Reptiles<br />
  42. 42. Reptiles-Snakes<br />Many snakes<br />Constricting pythons<br />Biting poisonous vipers<br />Viper<br />Python<br />
  43. 43. Reptiles - Lizards<br />Exclusive fam.- Cordylidae or spinytailed lizards or girdle-tailed lizards<br />Spiny-tailed Lizard<br />
  44. 44. Reptiles - Lizards<br />Chameleon fam – nearly exclusive, only 4 of 50 sp. found outside Africa and only one lizard lives as far as India.<br />A few agamid (Agama sp.) and lacertid (wall lizard/ True Lizard) lizards<br />No Iguanids<br />Agama<br />Chameleon<br />
  45. 45. Reptiles<br />Crocodiles and turtles abound<br />Pelmedusid turtle- side necks (Neotropical) (Pelomedusaand Pelusios)<br />Trionychids<br />Testudinine land tortoises<br />An emydine in northwestern Africa<br />Pelomedusa<br />Pelusios<br />
  46. 46. Ethiopian Region<br />Amphibians<br />
  47. 47. Amphibians<br />Less distinctive<br />Widespread frogs and toads<br />Pipid fam. represented by Xenopus, the African clawed toad or Platanna (like neotrop relative aquatic)<br />Hylid tree frogs absent <br />Polypedatids tree frog present <br />No tailed amphibians<br />Xenopus<br />
  48. 48. Ethiopian Region<br />Fish<br />
  49. 49. Fishes- common<br />Diverse <br />Carps<br />Old world cat fishes<br />Characins<br />Lung fishes<br />
  50. 50. Fishes - Endemic<br />Mormyrids<br />Characin <br />From their electric organs in their tails, the mormyrids generate an electric field and they are made aware of prey in their muddy pools when this field is distorted. Not related to electric eels of Amazon<br />A fam. Shared by Ethiopian and Neotropical <br />Mormyrids<br />Characins<br />
  51. 51. Fishes - Endemic<br />Lung fish Protopterus<br />Related to Neotropical Lung fish Lepidosiren<br />Protopterus<br />
  52. 52. Ethiopian Region<br />Overview<br />
  53. 53. Overview<br />Most varied fauna of all region<br />In no of endemic fam. Second to neotropical region<br />In fish, amphibia, reptiles it resembles both neotropical and oriental region<br />In mammals and birds has strong affinity with oriental region.<br />Similarities with both neotropical and oriental regions because all three have a tropical climate<br />Stronger similarities with oriental because its similarities are much more stronger with the tropics of the old world than those of the new world<br />
  54. 54. Overview<br />As a whole, vertebrate fauna is most like the Oriental one<br />the two are roughly similar in size and in composition<br /> they share many fam., v. many genera and some sp.<br />Parts of the fauna have close relationships with Palearctic<br />principally by northward extension of tropical groups including many migratory birds and certain fam., genera and species of other vertebrates<br />
  55. 55. Overview<br />Some parts of fuana more distantly related to Neotropical region<br />Include several imp grps of fishes, certain amphibians and reptiles but v few birds and mammals<br />Hardly any direct relationships <br />b/w Ethiopian and Australian region <br />b/w Ethiopian and Nearctic region.<br />
  56. 56. Overview<br />Fauna is richest and most varied in more tropical areas.<br />A strong general reduction of fauna northward into Sahara and less strong reduction and some differentiation southward into South Africa.<br />Some differentiation of a west African wet forest and an east African open forest and steppe fauna, although the two overlap and mix complexly.<br />These general differences led Wallace to divide the region into 3 subregions: West Africa, East Africa and South Africa <br />