Training n dev

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  • Training can be defined as any procedure initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members. The primary purpose of a training program is to help the organization to achieve its overall objectives. U.S. businesses spend over $52 billion a year on training. To make sure that such an investment in training and development fulfill their maximum potential, a systems approach to training should be used. The systems approach involves four phases: Needs Assessment . Managers and HR staffs must identify the kinds of training that are needed to develop the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) their employees need to succeed. Note: Components of needs assessment are covered in greater detail on the following slide. Program Design . Program design involves conceptualizing and creating the type of learning environment necessary to enhance learning. Training programs need to address four related issues: (1) Instructional Objectives; (2) Trainee Readiness and Motivation; (3) Principles of Learning; (4) Characteristics of Instructors. Note: These topics are covered in greater detail on subsequent slides. Implementation . Implementation issues address how and where to deliver training (on-site versus off-site) and the special needs of management development. Evaluation . Determining the success of training typically involves four basic criteria: (1) Reactions, (2) Learning, (3) Behavior, and, (4) Results. Note: The discussion below briefly outlines the components of the systems model of training. Elements of each component are discussed in greater detail on subsequent slides.
  • To make certain that training is timely and focused, managers should approach needs assessment systematical in three key areas: Organization Analysis . Organization analysis is an examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed. Task Analysis . Task analysis involves reviewing the job description and specification to identify the activities performed in a particular job and the KSAs needed to perform them in order to determine the exact content of the training program. Task analysis lists all the duties included in the job and the type of performance required. As with job analysis, the trend in HRM on task analysis is toward a more flexible approach to allow contingencies for responding to the needs of how tasks fit together to meet the needs of the organization over a traditional emphasis on a fixed sequence of tasks always done the same way. This competency assessment focuses on the sets of skills and knowledge employees need to be successful, particularly for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs. Person Analysis . Person analysis involves determining which employees require training -- and which do not. This is particularly important so that the organization can focus resources where they are needed and not pull employees off line who are not in need of training. Teaching Tip: Remind students of the two-sided costs to training. First, the cost of designing and administering the training program itself. Second, the opportunity costs and overhead associated with the time the employee is not doing her or his regular job. Because of this “double cost” time on a given employee, training must be “spent” carefully and training should address value-added improvements in employee performance.
  • The success of training programs depends on more than the organization’s ability to identify training needs. Accordingly, training design should focus on four related issues: Instructional Objectives . Instructional objectives describe the skills or knowledge to be acquired or the attitudes that will be changed as a result of the training. Performance-centered objectives are popular because they tend to lead to an unbiased evaluation of results. Trainee Readiness and Motivation . Two preconditions for learning affect the success of the training experience: Trainee Readiness. This refers to both maturity and experience factors in the trainee’s background. Motivation. The individual needs of the participants in the training program should be incorporated into the design as well. For example, new hires may seek advancement whereas older employees may be more motivated by job-enrichment training. Principles of Learning . A thorough knowledge of the psychological principles that affect learning is needed by those who design training programs. The following slide discusses principles of learning in more detail. Characteristics of Successful Trainers . Similarly, the person or persons who actually implement the training design -- the trainers themselves -- should demonstrate important characteristics that can enhance the learning environment. These characteristics are covered in more detail on a subsequent slide. Teaching Tip: You may want to distinguish between characteristics and style. It is important to realize that there are many different ways a person can demonstrate the same characteristic. To take advantage of the diversity of styles among individual trainers, program designers should recognize more than one way of demonstrating desired characteristics.
  • Training Methods for Nonmanagement Employees. It is useful to break down training methods by primary groups: On-the-Job Training (OTJ) . This provides experience under normal working conditions but lacks structured training, quality instructors, and well-defined training goals. Apprenticeship Training . This pairs new employees with a master craftsman. Cooperative, Internships, and Governmental Training . This combines OTJ experience with formal classes. Government sponsorship of such programs is now being used to recruit new employers to targeted areas. Classroom Instruction . This allows a maximum number of trainees per instructor and is useful when content can be presented via lectures or mass media. Programmed Instruction . This uses books, manuals, or computers to break down the subject matter in highly organized, logical sequences that demand continuous responses on the part of trainees. Audiovisual Methods . These provide multimedia sensory input. Computer-Based Training . This uses a computer to mediate instructor-trainee interaction. Forms include computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI). Simulation Method . These machines create artificial or virtual work experiences where highly technical and expensive equipment prohibits actual hands-on learning. Examples include aircraft simulators and space craft simulators.
  • The success of any training effort depends in large part on the teaching skills and personal characteristics of those responsible for conducting the training. Key characteristics of successful trainers include: Knowledge of Subject . Trainers must know their subject matter thoroughly and be able to draw on and demonstrate that knowledge in real time. Adaptability . Because of individual differences in learning, excellent trainers are capable of adapting instruction to the needs of the trainee. Sincerity . Sincerity is demonstrated by patience, a willingness to demonstrate, showing of tact in addressing trainee's concerns. Sense of Humor . Learning can be fun. Teaching Tip: A sense of humor is also more than making jokes. It is an appreciation for the fact that all of us are always learning -- and always need to. Even the trainer. Interest . Good trainers have a keen interest in the subject they are teaching. Clear Instructions . Clear instructions come from avoiding using intuitive leaps. Good trainers remember what it is to not know any shortcuts and provide instructions that don’t leave out steps or assume a higher level of knowledge. Individual Assistance . Successful trainers always provide individual assistance. Enthusiasm . A dynamic presentation and a vibrant personality show trainees that the trainer enjoys training. Those characteristics are contagious. Teaching Tip: Enthusiasm more subtly emphasizes and suggests the importance of the content.
  • Training n dev

    1. 1. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Managing Human Resources Bohlander  Snell  Sherman <ul><li>Chapter 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul>
    2. 2. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Chapter 6 Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the systems approach to training and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the components of training‑needs assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the principles of learning and describe how they facilitate training. </li></ul>
    3. 3. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Learning Objectives, cont. <ul><li> Identify the types of training methods used for managers and nonmanagers. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various evaluation criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the special training programs that are currently popular. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Presentation Slide 6-1 Training and Development and other HRM Functions
    5. 5. Presentation Slide 6-2 Systems Model of Training Needs Assess-ment Design Implemen-tation Evaluation Phase One: Phase Two: Phase Three: Phase Four:
    6. 6. <ul><li>Phase 4: </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior (transfer) </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job methods </li></ul><ul><li>Off-the-job methods </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Trainee readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Learning principles </li></ul>Presentation Slide 6-2 Systems Model of Training <ul><li>Phase 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Organization Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Person Analysis </li></ul>Note: US organizations spend over $60 billion annually on training (1.7 billion training hours). Much of that investment is wasted because it is not done in a systematic way.
    7. 7. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Organization Analysis <ul><li>Examination of the environment, </li></ul><ul><li>strategies, and resources of the </li></ul><ul><li>organization to determine where </li></ul><ul><li>training emphasis should be placed </li></ul>
    8. 8. Presentation Slide 6-3 Needs Assessment Organizational Analysis Task Analysis Person Analysis
    9. 9. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Task Analysis <ul><li>Process of determining what the content </li></ul><ul><li>of a training program should be </li></ul><ul><li>on the basis of a study of the tasks </li></ul><ul><li>and duties involved in the job </li></ul>
    10. 10. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Competency Assessment <ul><li>Analysis of the sets of skills </li></ul><ul><li>and knowledge needed </li></ul><ul><li>for decision-oriented and </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge-intensive jobs </li></ul>
    11. 11. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Person Analysis <ul><li>Determination of the specific </li></ul><ul><li>individuals who need training </li></ul>
    12. 12. Designing Training Programs Issues in Training Design Instructional Objectives Trainee Readiness and Motivation Characteristics of Successful Trainers Principles of Learning
    13. 13. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Instructional Objectives <ul><li>Desired outcomes of a training program </li></ul>
    14. 14. Goal setting Modeling Individual differences Active practice Whole vs. part learning Distributed learning Feedback Meaning- fulness Principles of Learning Presentation Slide 6-4 Principles of Learning
    15. 15. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Distributed Learning <ul><li>In most cases, spacing out training </li></ul><ul><li>periods will result in faster learning </li></ul><ul><li>and longer retention </li></ul>
    16. 16. PERFORMANCE TIME (weeks) Low High Presentation Slide 6-5 A Typical Learning Curve Plateau
    17. 17. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Behavior Modification <ul><li>Technique that operates on the </li></ul><ul><li>principle that behavior that is rewarded, </li></ul><ul><li>or positively reinforced, will be exhibited </li></ul><ul><li>more frequently in the future, </li></ul><ul><li>whereas behavior that is penalized or </li></ul><ul><li>unrewarded will decrease in frequency </li></ul>
    18. 18. Training for Nonmanagers Simulation Apprentice Audiovisual Materials Classroom Programmed On-the-Job Computer-Based Cooperative, Internship, and Government
    19. 19. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning On-the-Job Training (OJT) <ul><li>Method by which employees are </li></ul><ul><li>given hands-on experience </li></ul><ul><li>with instructions from their supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>or other trainer </li></ul>
    20. 20. Source: The Training within Industry Report (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Training, Training with Industry Service, War Manpower Commission). <ul><li>STEP ONE: PREPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>Put the employee at ease </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what the employee already knows </li></ul><ul><li>Get the employee interested and desirous of learning the job </li></ul><ul><li>STEP TWO: PRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>T ell, show, illustrate, and question in order to put of the new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct slowly, clearly, completely, and patiently, one point at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Check, question, and repeat. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the employee really knows. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP THREE: PERFORMANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Test employee by having him/her perform the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions beginning with why, how, when, where. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe, correct errors & repeat instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until you know the employee knows. </li></ul><ul><li>STEP FOUR: FOLLOW-UP </li></ul><ul><li>Put employee on his/her own. </li></ul><ul><li>Check-up frequently that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>instructions are followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taper off extra supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>GET READY, GET SET… </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what the employee must be taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the right equipment and materials ready. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the workplace properly arranged. </li></ul>Job Instruction Training
    21. 21. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Apprenticeship Training <ul><li>System of training in which a worker </li></ul><ul><li>entering the skilled trades is given </li></ul><ul><li>thorough instruction and experience, </li></ul><ul><li>both on and off the job, in the practical </li></ul><ul><li>and theoretical aspects of the work </li></ul>
    22. 22. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Cooperative Training <ul><li>Training program that combines </li></ul><ul><li>practical on-the-job experience </li></ul><ul><li>with formal educational classes </li></ul>
    23. 23. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Internship Programs <ul><li>Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations </li></ul><ul><li>that offer students the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>to gain real-life experience while </li></ul><ul><li>allowing them to find out how they </li></ul><ul><li>will perform in work organizations </li></ul>
    24. 24. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) <ul><li>System that delivers instructional </li></ul><ul><li>material directly through a computer </li></ul><ul><li>terminal in an interactive format </li></ul>
    25. 25. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI) <ul><li>System normally employed in conjunction </li></ul><ul><li>with CAI that uses a computer to generate </li></ul><ul><li>and score tests and to determine the level </li></ul><ul><li>of training proficiency </li></ul>
    26. 26. Training for Management Development <ul><li>On-the-job Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars and conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Management Games </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior modeling </li></ul>
    27. 27. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Behavior Modeling <ul><li>Approach that demonstrates </li></ul><ul><li>desired behavior and gives trainees </li></ul><ul><li>the chance to practice and role play </li></ul><ul><li>those behaviors and receive feedback </li></ul>
    28. 28. Characteristics of Successful Trainers Interest Enthusiasm Clear Instructions Individual Assistance Knowledge of Subject Sense of Humor Adaptability Sincerity
    29. 29. REACTION LEARNING BEHAVIOR RESULTS Presentation Slide 6-6 Criteria for Evaluating Training
    30. 30. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Transfer of Training <ul><li>Effective application of principles </li></ul><ul><li>learned to what is required on the job </li></ul>
    31. 31. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Benchmarking <ul><li>Process of measuring one’s own services </li></ul><ul><li>and practices against the recognized leaders </li></ul><ul><li>in order to identify areas for improvement </li></ul>
    32. 32. Presentation Slide 6-7 Special Training Programs
    33. 33. 6- Managing Human Resources , 12e, by Bohlander/Snell/Sherman © 2001 South-Western/Thomson Learning Orientation <ul><li>Formal process of familiarizing </li></ul><ul><li>new employees with the organization, </li></ul><ul><li>their jobs, and their work units </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>BEHAVIOR DYNAMICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>member communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trusts building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>handling difficult members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diversity awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team development stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team issues/concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>features of good teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROCESS DYNAMICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meeting skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negotiation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goal setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>task evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customer/vendor analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creativity </li></ul></ul>Source: George Bohlander and Kathy McCarthy, “How to Get the Most from Team Training,” National Productivity Review , Autumn 1996 25-35. Team Training Skills Team Training

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