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36239367 hrm-vvism


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36239367 hrm-vvism

  1. 1. Unit – I Human Resource Management Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  2. 2. Meaning and Definition HRM is a management function that helps managers recruit, select, train and develop members of an organisation. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  3. 3. HRM Definition…… A series of integrated decisions that form the employment relationship; their quality contributes to the ability of the organisations and the employee to achieve their objectives . Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  4. 4. HRM Definition…… Is concerned with people dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation are essential to achieving organisational objectives. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  5. 5. HRM Definition…… Management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organisational and social objectives are accomplished. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  6. 6. Scope of HRM <ul><li>HR Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Job analysis and Design </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment and Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation and Placement, </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal and Job Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Employee and Executive Remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare, Safety and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Relations (IR) </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  7. 7. Importance of HRM <ul><li>Social Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Significance for individual enterprise </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  8. 8. Importance of HRM <ul><li>Social Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Balance the jobs available and job seekers </li></ul><ul><li>Provide suitable and productive employment </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise utilisation of the resources effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste or improper use human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Help people make their own decisions </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  9. 9. Importance of HRM <ul><li>Professional Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain dignity of the employee as human </li></ul><ul><li>Provide maximum opportunities for personal development </li></ul><ul><li>Provide healthy relationship to different work groups </li></ul><ul><li>Improve skills and capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise wrong postings, allocate work properly </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  10. 10. Importance of HRM <ul><li>Significance for Individual Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Create right attitude among employees through effective motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise the available human resources effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Secure co-operation of the employees: achieve goals, psychological needs- love, affection, belongingness, esteem and self actualisation </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  11. 11. Difference between HRM & PM <ul><li>HRM views people as an important source or asset to be used for the benefit of organisation, employees and the society. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of mutuality: mutual goals, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting to SHRM </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  12. 12. Difference between HRM & PM <ul><li>PM has limited scope and an inverted orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed labour as a tool for benefits of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel Dept not respected, no productive employees </li></ul><ul><li>PM treated as routine activity meant to hire new employee and maintain personnel records </li></ul><ul><li>Never part of strategic management of business. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  13. 13. Difference between HRM & PM Prof Mamatha, VVISM Dimension Personnel Human Resource Employment Contract Written, delineated Aim to go beyond contract Rules Clear Outlook, Impatience Guide to Mgnt. Action Procedures Business Needs Behaviour referent Norms/ Customs and Practices Values/Missions
  14. 14. Difference between HRM & PM Prof Mamatha, VVISM Dimension Personnel Human Resource Managerial/ Labour task Monitoring Nurturing Key Relations Labour Management Customer Initiatives Piecemeal (slow) Integrated Management Role Transactional Transformational Leadership Speed of decision Slow Fast
  15. 15. Difference between HRM & PM Prof Mamatha, VVISM Dimension Personnel Human Resource Communication Indirect Direct Prized Management skill Negotiation Facilitation Selection Separate, Marginal task Integrated, key task Pay Job Evaluation (Fixed grades) Performance based Conditions Separately negotiated Harmonisation
  16. 16. Difference between HRM & PM Prof Mamatha, VVISM Dimension Personnel Human Resource Labour Management Collective barg- aining contracts Individual contracts Job categories and grades Many Few Job design Division of labour Team work Conflict handling Reach temporary truce Manage climate and culture Training & Development Controlled access to courses Learning companies
  17. 17. Difference between HRM & PM Prof Mamatha, VVISM Dimension Personnel Human Resource Intervention focus Personnel procedures Wide ranging- cultural, structural and personnel strategies Respect for employees Labour treated as tool: expendable and replaceable People are treated as assets to benefit organisation/ employees/society
  18. 18. Difference between HRM & PM Prof Mamatha, VVISM Dimension Personnel Human Resource Shared interests Organisational interests are uppermost Mutuality of interests Evolution Precedes HRM Latest in the evolution of the subject
  19. 19. Objectives of HRM - 4 <ul><li>1. Societal: </li></ul><ul><li>To be ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimising the negative impact of such demands upon the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Organisational: </li></ul><ul><li>To recognise the role of HRM in bringing about organisational effectiveness. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  20. 20. Objectives of HRM <ul><li>3. Functional: </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organisation’s needs. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Personal: </li></ul><ul><li>To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organisation. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  21. 21. HRM Objectives and Functions <ul><li>HRM Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Societal </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1.Legal Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>2.Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>3.Union management relationship </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  22. 22. HRM Objectives and Functions <ul><li>HRM Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2. Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1.Human Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>2.Employee Relations </li></ul><ul><li>3.Selection </li></ul><ul><li>4.Training & Development </li></ul><ul><li>5.Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>6.Placement </li></ul><ul><li>7.Assessment </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  23. 23. HRM Objectives and Functions <ul><li>HRM Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>3. Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1.Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>2.Placement </li></ul><ul><li>3.Assessment </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  24. 24. HRM Objectives and Functions <ul><li>HRM Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>4. Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Functions </li></ul><ul><li>1.Training & Development </li></ul><ul><li>2.Placement </li></ul><ul><li>3.Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>4.Compensation </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  25. 25. Image & Qualities of HR Manager <ul><li>Fairness & Firmness </li></ul><ul><li>Tact and resourcefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathy and consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of labour other terms </li></ul><ul><li>Broad Social outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  26. 26. HR Policies <ul><li>A policy is plan of action. Is a statement of intention committing the management to general course of action. Policy contains HR programmes, expression of philosophy and principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Policy are required for…… </li></ul><ul><li>basic needs, consistency in treatment & continuity </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  27. 27. Evolution of HRM <ul><li>HRM emerged in 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Kautilya’s Arthashastra in 4 th BC </li></ul><ul><li>Babylonian Code of Hammurabi 1800 BC </li></ul><ul><li>‘ minimum wage rate’ & ‘incentive wage plan’ </li></ul><ul><li>In India since 1920: First world war, emergence of trade union </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Commission (1931): Labour Welfare Officers : Selection of workers and settle grievances. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  28. 28. Evolution of HRM <ul><li>Factories Act (1948) Welfare officers compulsory in industries employing 500 employees </li></ul><ul><li>IIPM – Kolkata, NILM in Mumbai : (Jute and textiles) </li></ul><ul><li>Second World War : increased expectations of the workers: IR and Personnel admn integrated as PM </li></ul><ul><li>1970: Shift from welfare to efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>1980: HRM and HRD Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>1990: Human value and productivity through people. </li></ul><ul><li>2000: Shifting to SHRM </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  29. 29. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  30. 30. Forecasting Personnel Needs <ul><li>Trend Analysis – studying variations in firm’s employment levels over the last few years. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio Analysis – making forecasts based on historical ratio between Causal factor (like sales volume) and the number of employees required </li></ul><ul><li>The Scatter Plot – two variables are related </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Forecasts – more variables taken into consideration </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  31. 31. Determining the relationship between hospital size and number of nurses Prof Mamatha, VVISM Size of hospital (no. of beds) Number of Nurses 200 240 300 260 400 470 500 500 600 620 700 660 800 820 900 860
  32. 32. <ul><li>Forecasting supply of inside candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Manual systems and Replacement charts </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized information systems </li></ul><ul><li>The matter of privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting the supply of outside candidates </li></ul><ul><li>From magazines </li></ul><ul><li>From web portals </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  33. 33. Any Queries??? Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  34. 34. Summing up <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between HRM & PM </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>HR policies </li></ul><ul><li>Demand & Supply forecasting techniques </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  35. 35. Unit II Employment of Human Resources Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  36. 36. Managing Human Resources <ul><li>Human Resource (HR) Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process by which managers ensure that they have the right number and kinds of people in the right places, and at the right times, who are capable of effectively and efficiently performing their tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps avoid sudden talent shortages and surpluses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in HR planning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing current human resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing future needs for human resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a program to meet those future needs </li></ul></ul></ul>12– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  37. 37. Current Assessment <ul><li>Human Resource Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A review of the current make-up of the organization’s current resource status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An assessment that defines a job and the behaviors necessary to perform the job. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires conducting interviews, engaging in direct observation, and collecting the self-reports of employees and their managers. </li></ul></ul></ul>12– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  38. 38. Job Analysis & Design Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  39. 39. Objectives <ul><li>Establish and document the job relatedness of employment </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a basic job description of the job to facilitate the selection of appropriate personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Determine training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Form work groups and teams </li></ul><ul><li>Determine compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Improve quality and productivity </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  40. 40. Various aspects of a job to be analyzed <ul><li>Duties and tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  41. 41. Job Description <ul><li>JD is a written statement of the duties, responsibilities, required qualification, and reporting relationships of a particular job. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes the information about working conditions, equipment used, knowledge, and skills needed, and relationships with other positions. </li></ul>Produce an outline of the broad responsibilities (rather than detailed tasks) involved in the job. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  42. 42. Job Specification <ul><li>Specifies the minimum acceptable qualifications required by the individual to perform the task efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>It also specifies not only educational qualifications but also certain personality characteristics that may be required specifically for a job. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone will need to do the job as defined in the task analysis and job description. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  43. 43. Job Evaluation <ul><li>The relative value of each job in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>It basically serves the purpose of compensation procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful to tool for making decisions about the compensation to be attached with a particular position. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  44. 44. Job Design <ul><li>Job design has emerged as an important area of job analysis. It is based on growing conceptual and empirical base and has command research attention and is being widely applied to actual practice of management </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  45. 45. Job Rotation <ul><li>An alternation to boredom in work place is job rotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation implies moving of employees from one job to another without any fundamental change in the nature of job. </li></ul><ul><li>The employee may be performing different jobs that are of similar nature. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  46. 46. Job Enlargement <ul><li>It involves adding more tasks to a job. It is horizontal expansion and increase jobs scope and gives a variety of tasks to the jobholder. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essentially adding more tasks to a single job. </li></ul><ul><li>It definitely reduces boredom and monotony by providing the employee more variety of tasks in the job. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  47. 47. Job Enrichment <ul><li>Another approach to designing jobs is job enrichment. </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment involves vertical expansion of job by adding more responsibilities and freedom to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment is the type of expansion of a job that gives employees more challenge, more responsibility, and more opportunity to grow and contribute his or her ideas to the organization's success. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  48. 48. Recruitment Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  49. 49. Definition & Meaning <ul><li>“ How to Attract a Pool of Candidates Who are Qualified, Diverse, and Interested in the Job You Have Open” </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment is the process of acquiring applications for specific positions to be filled in the organization. In other words it a process of searching for and pooling of applications for jobs, so, that the right people may get selected. </li></ul><ul><li>A process for searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in the organization. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  50. 50. Sources of Recruitment <ul><li>Internal Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotions from within </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee referral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous applicants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk-in/write-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campus Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Recruitment </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  51. 51. <ul><li>What is the job / Position ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do you want to fulfill this requirement ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will you find the person/people to do it .? </li></ul><ul><li>What will you do to make them volunteer for your organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Why will they volunteer for you ? </li></ul><ul><li>( i.e what will motivate them to come on board with you . ?) </li></ul>The “5 W’s” of Recruitment Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  52. 52. Recruitment Procedure Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  53. 53. <ul><li>The secret to employee attraction is employee retention. </li></ul><ul><li>If a compnay has what it takes to keep its existing employees satisfied and productive, it similarly has what it takes to bring in new talent. </li></ul>Retain your employee to create the difference Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  54. 54. Selection Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  55. 55. Selection <ul><li>Selection involves a series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of selection leads to employment of persons who possess the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs, which have fallen vacant in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic purpose of the selection process is to choose right type of candidates to man various positions in the organization. In order to achieve this purpose, a well-organized selection procedure involves many steps and at each step, unsuitable candidates are rejected . </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  56. 56. The Challenge <ul><li>Selection is a critical process </li></ul><ul><li>Locating The Right Person </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a huge investment of money to get right types of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Selection Process that helps companies to test for fit </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Tests to rightly judge the capabilities of candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting people who possess the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  57. 57. Selection Procedure <ul><li>Preliminary Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Application Blank/ Receiving Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Screening of Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aptitude tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection Interview (Structured/Unstructured/Stress) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Examination </li></ul><ul><li>Checking References </li></ul><ul><li>Final Selection </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  58. 58. Placement Procedures Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  59. 59. Objectives <ul><li>Remove fears </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The job, its content, policies, rules and regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people with whom he is supposed to interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The terms and conditions of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates a good impression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust and adapt to new demands of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get along with people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get off a good start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of the Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names and titles of key executives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probationary period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee hand book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  60. 60. Objectives (Contd) <ul><li>Employee benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacation, holidays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest pauses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training avenues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance, medical and retirement benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To co-workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To trainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To employee counselors </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  61. 61. Objectives (Contd) <ul><li>Job duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job safety needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships with other jobs </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  62. 62. INDUCTION Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  63. 63. Orientation / Induction <ul><li>Transitioning a new employee into the organization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-unit orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarizes new employee with work-unit goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifies how his or her job contributes to unit goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces he or she to his or her coworkers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informs new employee about the organization’s objectives, history, philosophy, procedures, and rules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes a tour of the entire facility </li></ul></ul></ul>12– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  64. 64. Promotions, Demotions, and Transfers <ul><li>Promotion s refer to upward movement of an employee from the present position to another one with increased responsibilities, pay, status, and prestige. </li></ul><ul><li>A transfer is a change of job assignment. It may be linked with promotion or there may not be any change at all in a status of responsibilities. Transfer is horizontal move. </li></ul><ul><li>Demotion is the downward movement of an employee in the organizational hierarchy with lower status and pay. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  65. 65. Separations, Downsizing, Layoff & Retrenchment <ul><li>Separations : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long leave of absence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resignations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downsizing, Layoff & Retrenchment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension of an employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissal of an employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit interviews </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  66. 66. QUERIES!!! Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  67. 67. Summingup <ul><li>HRP </li></ul><ul><li>Job </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Induction/Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions, Transfers, Separation, VRS, etc </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  68. 68. Unit III Development of Human Resources Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  69. 69. <ul><li>Training & Development </li></ul><ul><li>VVISM, PGDM II SEM, HRM </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  70. 70. Definition of Training and Development Training is an individual means to help him to learn how to carry out his present job satisfactorily. Development can be defined as preparing the individual for a future job -John P. Jkenny Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  71. 71. Purpose of Training 2400 years ago, Confucius declared: &quot;What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand.” “ The purpose of training is to provide information and skills that participants will use in the real world. Participants must be actively involved during the session if they're going to integrate and remember the information” Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  72. 72. Development Development isn't restricted to training - it's anything that helps a person to grow, in ability, skills, confidence, tolerance, commitment, initiative, inter-personal skills, understanding, self-control, motivation, and more. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  73. 73. Why Training … a bird with wings INFOSYS Next Generation Excellerators Excellent Communication Skills Adaptive, Adept Consistent, Flexible Informed, Inspired, Imaginative Efficient, Human, Honest Respect for Competition Empowered to scale new domains People committed to enhancing quality ventures every day Simple solutions to complex problems World Changer, Value creator Powered by intellect and driven by values Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  74. 74. Training & Development Distinctions Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  75. 75. Goal of Training & Development Microsoft The goal of Training & Development at Microsoft is to achieve an optimal match between each employee's professional growth and Microsoft's business objective Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  76. 76. TRAINING CYCLE Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  77. 77. Exercise What topics will you decide for Senior Managers, Middle, Staff and workers -Reasons <ul><li>Communication Skills . Effective Decision Making Skills . Building High Performance Teams to complete projects . Proactive steps to overcome Organizational negativity . Developing Creative Strategies for complex problems . Building effective Inter & Intra-personal relationships to get results . Time Management skills . Emotional Intelligence at work . Leadership without Authority . Professional Assertive Communication . Stress Management skills . Conflict Resolution Techniques </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  78. 78. Assignments Groups Articles Games Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  79. 79. Learning Theory “ A relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a practice or experience” Bernard Bass Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  80. 80. Learning Curves 1.Standard learning curve ( assumption that all learners are alike in their acquisition of knowledge and the task to be learned or information to be acquired is fairly straight forward) 2. Differing rates of learning (Those who have difficulty in relating the task to their past experience and knowledge, who are not suitably motivated or or are affected by other psychological constraints have a slower start e.g.:APDISCOM) 3. Learning Plateau (Learners reach a of standstill-wrong assumption of limit of capacity-learner absorbing/un learning Solution-Analyse, reinforce, incentive, bridge ) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  81. 81. On-the-Job Training <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>No specific facilities needed </li></ul><ul><li>Real life situation/not simulated </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Trainee establishes relations from start </li></ul><ul><li>No ‘off-the-job’ cost </li></ul><ul><li>Learning can be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Risk to machines and increase in scrap </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time instructor may lack skill in training </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time due to pressure of production </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological pressure before experienced workers </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  82. 82. Off -the- Job Training <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed atmosphere,away from home and work, no distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Specific difficulties are easier to explore </li></ul><ul><li>Test hypotheses and ideas in low risk environment </li></ul><ul><li>Improves morale and motivation for self-development </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of external facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of simulating work problems </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance of trainees being away from home(lengthy training) </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  83. 83. The Three Classifications of Information 1.Must know (Essential for success/TNA/e.g.:safety rules, hygiene requirements) 2.Should know (Relates directly to ‘must know’, and elaborates e.g.:other practices/not statutory)) 3.Could know (Useful background /not directly assist in its effective execution, e.g.:historical details, future areas of interest, general information) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  84. 84. How Adults Learn? 1.Learning is a voluntary process ( Benefit,T-interesting) 2 . Responsibility increases learning (increase, learning/retaining) 3. Learning builds on existing knowledge (learning capacity-range of experiences,T-background) 4. Learning moves from simple to complicated (step-by-step,bridging new knowledge to old, verify) 5. Each person learns at his own pace (let the flower blossom on its own) 6. Adults learn best by doing (provide opportunities to do use the learning, case, game, role play) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  85. 85. “ It is vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by overburdening him too much and with too varied subjects. Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality. Teaching should be such that what is offered is perceived as a valuable gift and not as a hard duty” -Albert Einstein Thank you.. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  86. 86. Setting Objectives Why set objectives? 1. Provide direction(what is to be achieved) 2. Emphasize standards(e.g..20 min,5 mistakes) 3. Provide consistency (e.g..overall dev.section) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  87. 87. Difference between Aims and Objectives Aims: General purpose which provides a direction or statement of intent-desired outcome e.g.: aiming at a target Objective:spells out how and when this is attained-fairly explicit e.g.:hitting the bulls eye Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  88. 88. Who decides the Course Objectives? Senior Management (Without the backing of senior management there can be little hope of acceptance of any training program-integral part of the companies philosophy) Line Management (must feel direct benefit-involve line management in developing content and course objectives) Delegates ( win the hearts and minds of delegates-tell the benefits of the course) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  89. 89. Points to consider in Setting Objectives 1. Realistic 2. Relevant 3. Positive 4.Certain 5.Justifiable Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  90. 90. Performance Appraisal - Definition <ul><li>Performance Appraisal is a process of evaluating an employee’s performance of a job in terms of requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal is a process of estimating or judging the value, excellence, qualities or status of an object, person or a thing </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal is a process of evaluating the performance and qualifications of the employees in terms of the requirements of the job for which he is employed for purposes of administration including placement, selection for promotions, providing financial rewards and other other actions which require different treatment among the members of a group as distinguished from actions affecting all members equally” </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  91. 91. Importance and Purpose of PA <ul><li>PA provides useful in making decisions regarding various personal aspects such as promotions, merit increases etc. </li></ul><ul><li>PA forms a basis for judging the effectiveness of personnel sub-divisions such as recruiting, selection, training & Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>PA helps easier for managers to see which employees need training and counseling. </li></ul><ul><li>PA seeks to provide adequate feedback to each individual for his or her performance </li></ul><ul><li>PA purports to serve as a basis for improving data to managers with which they may judge future job assignments and compensation </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  92. 92. Objectives of Performance Appraisal <ul><li>To enable an organisation to maintain an inventory of the number and quality of all managers and to identify and meet their training needs and aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>To determine increment rewards, and provide a reliable index for promotions and transfers to positions of greater responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain individual and group development by informing the employee of his performance standard </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  93. 93. <ul><li>To suggest ways of improving the employee’s performance when he is not found to be upto the mark during the review period </li></ul><ul><li>To identify training and development needs and to evaluate effectiveness of training and development programs </li></ul><ul><li>To plan career development, human resources planning based on their potential. </li></ul>Objectives of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  94. 94. Criteria’s for assessing performance <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal impact </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  95. 95. Approaches to Performance Appraisal <ul><li>A Casual, unsystematic and often haphazard approach – This method was used in the past, main basis being seniority or quantitative measures of quality and quantity of output for the personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional and highly systematic measurement – Employee characteristics, employee contributions. The ratings obtained of separate personnel are comparable. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral approach, emphasing mutual goal setting – Supervisor judges and at times critizes the personal. Emphasis has been laid both by the appraiser and the appraisee. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  96. 96. Methods, Techniques or Tools for appraising performance <ul><li>Methods include Traditional and Modern Methods </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  97. 97. Methods of Performance Appraisal <ul><li>Traditional Method </li></ul>Modern Method Straight Ranking Method Man-Man Comparison Method Graphic Rating Scales Forced Choice Description Method Forced Distribution Method Check Lists Free Form Essay Method Critical Incidents Group Appraisal Field Review Method Assessment Centre Appraisal by Results or Management by Objectives Human Asset Accounting Method Behaviourly Anchored Rating Scales Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  98. 98. <ul><li>Straight Ranking Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the oldest and simplest method of Performance appraisal, by which man and his performance are considered as an entity by the rater. Employees are appraised in order of merit and placed in a simple grouping. This is the simplest method of separating the most efficient from the least efficient. </li></ul></ul>Traditional methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  99. 99. <ul><li>Man-Man Comparison Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This technique was used by the USA army during the I World War. By this method, certain traits are selected for the purpose of analysis such as Leadership, dependence and initiative. A scale is designed by the rater for each factor. Each man to be rated is compared with the man in the scale and certain scores are awarded to him. This method is used in job evaluation, and also known as Factor comparison method. </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  100. 100. <ul><li>Grading method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under this system, the rater considers certain features and marks them accordingly to a scale. Selected features may be analytical ability, co-operativeness, dependability, job knowledge, judgement etc </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  101. 101. <ul><li>Graphic or linear Rating Scale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly used method of Performance appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person to be rated in this type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee characteristics such as initiative, leadership, dependability, attitude, creativity, decisiveness etc will be considered for rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee contribution includes quantity of work, quality of work, responsibilities, target achievers, attitude towards superiors etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These traits are evaluated on a continuous scale and the rating is generally subjective. </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  102. 102. <ul><li>Forced Choice Description Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This method was evolved with a great deal of research conducted for the military services during World War II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This attempts to correct a rater’s tendency to give consistently high or low ratings to all the employees. In this the rating elements are sets of pair phrases relating to job proficiency or personal qualifications. </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  103. 103. <ul><li>Forced distribution Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This method evolved by Joseph Tiffin after statistical work. This is used to eliminate or minimise rater’s bias, so that all personnel may not be placed at the higher end or lower end. </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  104. 104. <ul><li>Checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under this method, the rater does not evaluate employee performance. He supplies reports about the employees to the HR department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklist points include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the employee really interested in his job? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is he regular on his job? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is he respected by his subordinates? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does he show uniform behaviour to all? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does he give recognition and praise to employees for work done well? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does he ever make mistakes? </li></ul></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  105. 105. <ul><li>Free Essay Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under this method, the supervisor makes a free form, open-ended appraisal of an employee in his own words and puts down his impressions about the employee. No attempt is made to evaluate an employee in a quantitative manner. </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  106. 106. <ul><li>Critical Incident Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This method was developed following research conducted by the armed forces in the US during World War II. The basis of this method is the principle that “ there were certain significant acts in each employee’s behaviour and performance which make all the difference between success and failure on the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supervisor keeps a written record of the events that can be easily be recalled and used in the course of a formal appraisal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback is provided about the incidents during performance review session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The collected incidents are then ranked in order of frequency and importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This method provides an objective basis for conducting a discussion of an individual’s performance </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  107. 107. <ul><li>Group Appraisal Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under this method, employee are rated by an appraisal group consisting of their supervisor or three to four other supervisors who have some knowledge of their performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supervisor explains to the group the nature of his duties and the group then discusses the standards of performance for that job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage of this method is simple and no bias but this is time-consuming. </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  108. 108. <ul><li>Field Review method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under this method, a trainer employee from the personnel department interviews line supervisors to evaluate their respective subordinates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supervisor is required to give his opinion about strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The appraiser takes complete details and the supervisor maintains record of this for each personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system is useful for a large organisation, </li></ul></ul>Methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  109. 109. Modern methods of Performance Appraisal Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  110. 110. <ul><li>This method has been evolved by Peter Drucker. </li></ul><ul><li>MBO is potentially a powerful philosophy of managing and an effective way of operationalising the evaluation process. </li></ul><ul><li>MBO seeks to minimise external controls and maximise internal motivation through goal setting between the manager and the subordinate and increasing the subordinate’s own control of his work. </li></ul><ul><li>This strongly reinforces the importance of allowing the subordinate to participate actively in the decisions that affect him directly </li></ul>Management by Objectives (MBO) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  111. 111. <ul><li>MBO has defined as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system approach to managing the organisation, where those accountable for directing the organisation first determine where they want to take the organisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A process requiring and encouraging all key management personnel to contribute their maximum by achieving the overall objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An effort to blend and balance all the goals of all key personnel and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An evaluation mechanism </li></ul></ul>Management by Objectives (MBO) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  112. 112. <ul><li>The objectives is to change the behaviour and attitude towards getting the job done. </li></ul><ul><li>It is management system and philosophy that stress goals rather than methods </li></ul><ul><li>It provides responsibility and accountability and recognised that employees have needs for achievement and self –fulfilment. </li></ul>Objectives of MBO Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  113. 113. <ul><li>MBO has five steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set organisation goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint goal setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set checkposts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul>Management by Objectives - Process Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  114. 114. <ul><li>MBO helps and increases employee motivation because it relates overall goals to the individual’s goals and helps to increase an employee’s understanding of where the organisation is and where it is heading </li></ul><ul><li>Managers are more likely to compete with themselves than with other managers. This will reduce internal conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>MBO reduces role conflict and ambiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>MBO provides more objective appraisal criteria. </li></ul>Benefits of MBO Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  115. 115. Benefits of MBO <ul><li>MBO forces and aids in planning </li></ul><ul><li>MBO identifies performance deficiences and enables the management and the employees to set indivisualised self improvement goals and thus proves effective in training and development of people. </li></ul><ul><li>MBO helps the individual manager to develop personal leadership, especially skills of listening, planning, counselling, motivating and evaluating </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  116. 116. <ul><li>The assessment centre concept was initially applied to military situations by Simoniet in the German Army in 1930’s and the War selection board of the British Army in the 1960’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this is to test the candidates in a social situation using number of assessors and variety of procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>In this process, many evaluators join together to judge employee performance in several situations with the use of variety of criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments are made to determine employee potential for purpose of promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is generally done with the help of couple of employees and involves a paper and pencil test, interviews and situational exercises. </li></ul>Assessment Centre Method Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  117. 117. <ul><li>To measure potential for first level supervision, sales and upper management positions and also for higher levels of management </li></ul><ul><li>To determine individual training and development needs of employees </li></ul><ul><li>To select recent college students for entry level positions </li></ul><ul><li>To make an early determination of potential </li></ul><ul><li>To assist in implementing affirmative action goals </li></ul>Purpose of Assessment Centres Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  118. 118. <ul><li>This refers to activity devoted to attaching money estimates to the value of a firm’s internal human organisation and its external customer goodwill. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not very popular because two types of variable measures must be made over several years to provide the needed data for the computation of the human asset accounting. </li></ul>Human Asset Accounting Method Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  119. 119. <ul><li>This is a new appraisal technique which has recently developed. </li></ul><ul><li>This provides better , more equitable appraisals as compared to other techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The procedure of BARS is usually five stepped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General critical incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop performance dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reallocate incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale of incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop final instrument </li></ul></ul>Behaviourly Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  120. 120. <ul><li>A very accurate gauge, since BARS is done by experts in the technique </li></ul><ul><li>Clear standards </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Independent dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Rater – independence </li></ul>Advantages of Behaviourly Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  121. 121. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Compare employers’ traditional and career planning-oriented HR focuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the employee’s, manager’s, and employer’s career development roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the issues to consider when making promotion decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the methods for enhancing diversity through career management. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the question: How can career development foster employee commitment? </li></ul>10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  122. 122. The Basics Of Career Management 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  123. 123. The Employer’s Role in Career Development 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Realistic Job Previews Challenging First Jobs Networking and Interactions Mentoring Career-Oriented Appraisals Job Rotation Employer’s Role
  124. 124. Managing Promotions and Transfers 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Decision 1: Is Seniority or Competence the Rule? Decision 4: Vertical, Horizontal, or Other? Decision 2: How Should We Measure Competence? Decision 3: Is the Process Formal or Informal? Making Promotion Decisions
  125. 125. Career Management and Employee Commitment 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Old Contract: “Do your best and be loyal to us, and we’ll take care of your career.” New Contract: “Do your best for us and be loyal to us for as long as you’re here, and we’ll provide you with the developmental opportunities you’ll need to move on and have a successful career.” Comparing Yesterday’s and Today’s Employee-Employer Contract
  126. 126. Career Management and Employee Commitment (cont’d) 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Career Development Programs Career-Oriented Appraisals Commitment-oriented career development efforts
  127. 127. Career Management and Employee Commitment (cont’d) 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Career Development Programs Career-Oriented Appraisals Commitment-Oriented Career Development Efforts
  128. 128. Attracting and Retaining Older Workers 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Create a Culture that Honors Experience Offer Flexible Work Offer Part-Time Work HR Practices for Older Workers
  129. 129. Taking Steps to Enhance Diversity: Women’s and Minorities’ Prospects 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Take Their Career Interests Seriously Eliminate Institutional Barriers Eliminate the Glass Ceiling Improve Networking and Mentoring Institute Flexible Schedules and Career Tracks
  130. 130. Identify Your Career Anchors 10– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Technical/ Functional Competence Managerial Competence Autonomy and Independence Creativity Security
  131. 131. Coaching & Mentoring Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  132. 132. Personal Coaching Personal Coaching is a distributed training and development method where individuals regularly interact with and are accountable to a personal coach for an extended period of time, to achieve agreed learning outcomes Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  133. 133. Mentoring <ul><li>Mentoring is a tool that organizations can use to nurture and grow their people. It can be an informal practice or a formal program. Protégés observe, question, and explore. Mentors demonstrate, explain and model. The following assumptions form the foundation for a solid mentoring program. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate learning is the cornerstone. </li></ul><ul><li>Both failure and success are powerful teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders need to tell their stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Development matures over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring is a joint venture. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  134. 134. Mentoring is distinct from coaching <ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Broad </li></ul><ul><li>long-term </li></ul><ul><li>level-distant </li></ul><ul><li>cross-functional </li></ul><ul><li>providing guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Job specific </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term </li></ul><ul><li>Level-close </li></ul><ul><li>Same-function </li></ul><ul><li>Giving advice </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  135. 135. Mentoring is distinct from coaching <ul><li>Mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture whole person </li></ul><ul><li>Draw forth untapped talent </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage & Inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Guide from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerate learning & empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Provide job coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on job skills </li></ul><ul><li>Groom for a particular position </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Reward job learning </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  136. 136. Evolution <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on career advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor as protector </li></ul><ul><li>Single mentor </li></ul><ul><li>Clone look-alike, think alike, act-alike </li></ul><ul><li>Elitist </li></ul><ul><li>Process centred </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors are older, wiser, more experienced </li></ul><ul><li>New Age </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Mentee (protégé) driven </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic, potentially helpful to every member of workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge needs </li></ul><ul><li>Mentees’ are often better educated & technically competent </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  137. 137. Why Mentoring <ul><li>Encourages knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Both parties Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses specific issues or skills </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements on-the-job training </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes leadership development </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  138. 138. -Global Findings- <ul><li>75% executives said mentoring played a key role in their career …………… ASTD </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of CEO’s states that one of the top three factors in their career was mentoring ….. Account Temps survey </li></ul><ul><li>96% executives said that mentoring is an important developmental tool……… Account Temps survey </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring programs have been proven to improve retention by 20-30% ……… ASTD </li></ul><ul><li>71% of Fortune 500 companies use mentoring to make learning occur in their organizations ……… (1996) </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  139. 139. Zone of Impact Habits Behavior Mindset What? Why? Knowledge Want To How To? Skills Attitude & Desire Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  140. 140. Mentor- Mentee Relationship A dynamic association or pairing between an individual who needs to learn and another who is willing to help and guide the learner. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  141. 141. Stages in the Development of Mentoring Relationships Stage 1: The mentor and recipient become acquainted and informally clarify their common interests, shared values and professional goals. Stage 2: The mentor and recipient communicate initial expectations and agree upon some common procedures and expectations as a starting point. Stage 3: Gradually, needs are fulfilled. Objectives are met. Professional growth takes place. New challenges are presented and achieved. This stage may last for months or years. Stage 4: The mentor and recipient redefine their relationship as colleagues, peers, partners and/or friends. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  142. 142. Mentoring Environment <ul><li>Interpersonal chemistry is important </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of mutual comfort and equality </li></ul><ul><li>With self-confident people - differences may in fact provide learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Need for ground rules & shared expectations </li></ul><ul><li>how, when, where to meet and specific terms for review and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship can get in way of objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>- Can be ended by either party for any reason </li></ul><ul><li>- no explanations/justifications required </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  143. 143. Types Of Mentoring <ul><li>Situational Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Short, isolated episodes </li></ul><ul><li>Often casual, one-time events </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive to current needs of mentee and/or present situation </li></ul><ul><li>A mentor-initiated intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Loosely structured, flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Mentee revealed needs </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor may have more than one role in relationship with mentee (supervision, parent, friend) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Mentoring Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by organizational needs </li></ul><ul><li>A method for matching mentors with (or assigned to) mentees </li></ul><ul><li>Of fixed duration and based on goal achievement </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  144. 144. Methods of Mentoring The Standard/ Traditional method The Peer Mentoring Method The Team Mentoring Method Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  145. 145. 4 Types of Coaching <ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging & Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>4. Confrontation </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  146. 146. What Mentoring is not <ul><li>a guarantee of advancement </li></ul><ul><li>an unlimited resource on tap </li></ul><ul><li>a job locating service </li></ul><ul><li>a means of bypassing supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>a mechanism for providing favouritism or unfair advantage </li></ul><ul><li>a way of working outside the system </li></ul><ul><li>A fix for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seniority/age disparity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personality clashes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different ‘wavelengths’ </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  147. 147. When mentoring Deliberate learning is the cornerstone Success and failure are powerful teachers Leaders need to tell their stories Development matures over time Mentoring is a joint venture Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  148. 148. &quot;The best mentors are the people in your life who push you just a little bit outside your 'comfort zone.' &quot; -- Leigh Curl Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  149. 149. Mentor Competencies <ul><li>Trustworthy and open </li></ul><ul><li>High Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Active listener </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment builder </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm to share </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  150. 150. “ Tell me, and I’ll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I’ll understand.” Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  151. 151. The four “C’s” of Coaching Confidence Control Concentration Commitment Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  152. 152. To be a good coach you need to: Motivate your staff – empower your employees Hone your communication skills Counsel your staff – stop problem situations before they get out of hand Exercise good judgment Utilize available talent – they will be motivators for other staff Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  153. 153. &quot;People will forget what you said. People will forget what you did. But people will never forget how you make them feel.&quot; Bonnie Jean Wasmund Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  154. 154. Dilemmas <ul><ul><li>Can Mentoring save us money or improve profitability? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shall we allow employees to spend time on mentoring others when we are thinly resourced? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What if the Mentoring framework becomes a session to talk personal problems ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What if the Mentor-Mentee engagement is “not bearing fruit” </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  155. 155. <ul><li>Mentoring is something a mentor does to a protégé </li></ul><ul><li>A good mentor can literally save a life </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors should be of the same ethnic background as their protégés </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring is a special, enhance type of management coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can benefit from being mentored </li></ul>Mentoring Myths Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  156. 156. Evaluation Of A Mentor Program <ul><li>Someone in the organization needs to be responsible for : </li></ul><ul><li>Moving the mentor program forward in a positive direction </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for mentors to share their experiences and their views about the effectiveness of the mentor program </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for recipients of mentoring to share their views about the effectiveness of the mentoring program </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing any problems or unmet needs that emerge during the course of the year . </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  157. 157. Continued… <ul><li>Some orgainsations might hold: </li></ul><ul><li>Hold informal but regular social get-togethers over lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Hold more formal quarterly or monthly meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Hold brief reports which are written or given orally </li></ul><ul><li>Using a timeline for the current year </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  158. 158. Mentor's role in experiential learning is like  that of birds guiding their young in leaving the nest; they support without rescuing, provide scaffolding, and have the courage to let learners fail!! Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  159. 159. Summing Up <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Career Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Mgt Development, Organization Development, Executive Development </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  160. 160. Unit IV Management of Human Resources & Industrial Relations Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  161. 161. COMPENSATION PACKAGE Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  162. 162. What is Compensation ? <ul><li>Compensation is the process of directly and indirectly rewarding employees on a current or deferred basis, for their performance of assigned tasks. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  163. 163. Objectives of Compensation <ul><li>Legal Compliance with all appropriate laws and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness for the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Internal, External and Individual equity for employees </li></ul><ul><li>Performance enhancement for the organization </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  164. 164. Compensation Types Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  165. 165. Division of Compensation -Responsibility Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  166. 166. COMPENSATION STRATEGIES <ul><li>Compensation Philosophies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Compensation Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation and Organizational Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Effectiveness and Labour Market Positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competency Based Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Broadbanding and Career Development </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  167. 167. Compensation Philosophy Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  168. 168. Changing Compensation Strategies Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  169. 169. Quartile Strategy <ul><li>Third Quartile </li></ul><ul><li>Above-Market Strategy  Maximum </li></ul><ul><li>(25% of firms pay above and 75% pay below) </li></ul><ul><li>Second Quartile </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-Market Strategy  Medium </li></ul><ul><li>(50% of firms pay above and 50% pay below) </li></ul><ul><li>First Quartile </li></ul><ul><li>Below-Market Strategy  Minimum </li></ul><ul><li>(75% of firms pay above and 25% pay below) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  170. 170. Outcomes from Competency Based Systems Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  171. 171. DESIGNING EFFECTIVE COMPENSATION PROGRAM Job Analysis (Job Descriptions, Job Specifications) Job Evaluation Pay Policies Pay Structures Performance Appraisal Individual Pay Implementation, Communication, Monitoring Pay Surveys Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  172. 172. Salary Structure Job Evaluation Results Pay Survey Data Develop Market Line Identify Different Pay Structures Establish Pay Grades Compute Pay Ranges Revise Pay Grades and Ranges as Needed Compare Current Pay to Pay Ranges Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  173. 173. COMPENSATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES <ul><li>Know what the competition is doing and benchmark your structure to reflect competitive practices for retention and recruitment purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Salaries should reflect level of responsibility employees may have in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a compensation committee (preferably represented by management and employees). </li></ul><ul><li>Contd... </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  174. 174. COMPENSATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES <ul><li>Create a structure where salaries and any increases reflect company performance as espoused by the compensation committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and document a general company policy and strategy for pay increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison with the compensation committee for review, adjustments and approval. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  175. 175. Team Based Compensation <ul><li>Types of Team Incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same size reward for each team member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different size rewards for each team member </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Best Team Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant interdependence exists among the work of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>several individuals, and team work and co-operation is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absolutely essential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contd.. </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  176. 176. Team Based Compensation <ul><ul><li>Difficulties exist in identifying exactly who is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for different levels of performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management wants to create or reinforce team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work and co-operation among employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards are seen as being allocated in a fair and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equitable manner. </li></ul></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  177. 177. Collective Bargaining Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  178. 178. The Collective Bargaining Process <ul><li>What Is Collective Bargaining? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both management and labor are required by law to negotiate wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment “in good faith.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Is Good Faith Bargaining? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both parties communicate and negotiate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They match proposals with counterproposals in a reasonable effort to arrive at an agreement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither party can compel the other to agree to a proposal or to make any specific concessions. </li></ul></ul>15– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  179. 179. Classes of Bargaining Items 15– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Mandatory Items Illegal Items Categories of Bargaining Items Voluntary Items
  180. 180. Impasses, Mediation, and Strikes <ul><li>An Impasse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs because one party is demanding more than the other will offer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes an impasse can be resolved through a third party—a disinterested person such as a mediator or arbitrator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the impasse is not resolved: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The union may call a work stoppage, or strike, to put pressure on management. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management may lock out employees. </li></ul></ul></ul>15– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  181. 181. Strikes 15– Prof Mamatha, VVISM Economic Strike Unfair Labor Practice Strike Wildcat Strike Sympathy Strike Types of Strikes
  182. 182. Grievances <ul><li>Grievance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any factor involving wages, hours, or conditions of employment that is used as a complaint against the employer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of Grievances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seniority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holiday pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem employees </li></ul></ul>15– Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  183. 183. Summing Up <ul><li>Compensation & Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  184. 184. Unit V Competitive Advantage Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  185. 185. People Capability Maturity Model - PCMM Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  186. 186. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  187. 187. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  188. 188. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  189. 189. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  190. 190. Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  192. 192. Employee Empowerment <ul><li>Participative management has become key word in empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>The most important concept of empowerment is to delegate responsibility to the lowest level in organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The management must trust & communicate with employees </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  193. 193. BASIC ASPECTS <ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  195. 195. Distinct Features <ul><li>Share various management and leadership functions </li></ul><ul><li>They plan control and improve their own work processes </li></ul><ul><li>Set their own goals, inspect their own work </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate with other teams </li></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for quality </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  196. 196. VVISM Knowledge Management Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  197. 197. Management Vs Knowledge <ul><li>Management is an art of getting things done through others. </li></ul><ul><li>An area as justified beliefs about relationships among concepts relevant to that particular area. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  198. 198. Knowledge Management??? <ul><li>Doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources. </li></ul><ul><li>KM is related to ‘Intellectual Capital’. </li></ul><ul><li>(IC = Human Capital + Structural Capital) </li></ul><ul><li>HC - Body of knowledge company possesses </li></ul><ul><li>SC - Everything remains when employees go home. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  199. 199. Forces Driving KM <ul><li>Increasing domain complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerating market volatility </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified speed of responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Diminishing individual experience </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  200. 200. Alternative views of knowledge Prof Mamatha, VVISM Perspectives on Knowledge Subjective View Objective View Knowledge as a state of mind Knowledge as practice Knowledge as an object Knowledge as access to information Knowledge as capability
  201. 201. Subjective View <ul><li>It is socially constructed through interactions with individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is viewed as an ongoing accomplishment, which continuously affects and is influenced by social practice. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  202. 202. Objective View of Knowledge <ul><li>It is independent of human perceptions and can be structured in terms of a priori categories and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, knowledge can be located in the form of an object or a capability that can be discovered or improved by human agents. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  203. 203. Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Procedural or Declarative Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit or Explicit Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>General or Specific Knowledge </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  204. 204. Procedural or Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>Procedural knowledge focuses on beliefs relating sequences of steps or actions to desired/undesired outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative knowledge is ‘know what’, where as procedural knowledge may be viewed as ‘know how’. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  205. 205. Tacit or Explicit Knowledge <ul><li>Explicit knowledge typically refers to knowledge that has been expressed into words and numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Such knowledge can be shared formally and systematically in the form of data, specifications, manuals, drawings, audio and video tapes, computer programmes, patents, and the like. </li></ul><ul><li>Cont… </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  206. 206. Tacit or Explicit Knowledge <ul><li>Tacit knowledge includes insights, intuitions and hunches. This knowledge is difficult to express and formalize, and therefore difficult to share. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  207. 207. Talent Management Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  208. 208. TALENT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Talent Management is a powerful tool that helps a Company stand out against the Competition. It is a key business process that focuses on how the Company manages and invests in their people to meet the business needs. With it, the Company can make the best use of their talent and support the associates’ development consistently worldwide. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  209. 209. BUILDING ON PEOPLE <ul><li>The future of the Company depends on clear and aligned business goals and the right people to successfully implement its strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Our Talent Management process ensures that we identify and match talent with Business requirements, so that we have the leaders ready and in place to achieve our goals. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  210. 210. ROLE OF MANAGERS IN TM <ul><li>A significant part of ensuring a successful future relies on the role that our current managers play in identifying and developing their future successors. </li></ul><ul><li>The TM Process supports Managers in addressing skill and ability gaps and provides action plans to close these gaps. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  211. 211. IDENTIFICATION OF TALENT <ul><li>Managers identify key positions and high potential people and review individual potential against position requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Talent Management is the process for identifying our leadership needs and assessing candidates worldwide. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  212. 212. TALENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS <ul><li>A concrete idea of the requirements of our key positions </li></ul><ul><li>Objective assessments of individual capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment of each candidate’s potential and possible professional development. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  213. 213. TALENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS <ul><li>Individual Development plans to strengthen the talent pool. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong pool of candidates for key positions </li></ul><ul><li>Plans to resolve succession gaps or blockages </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  214. 214. TALENT MANAGEMENT INTERFACES <ul><li>Talent Management, Performance Management, Leadership Development and Compensation Management work together to ensure that skilled leaders are in place to meet our business challenges. </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  215. 215. TALENT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Identifies talent requirements based on business challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Assesses individual and organizational potential </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews talent and identifies key associates for key positions- short and mid term </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  216. 216. TALENT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Defines coaching and development plans and developmental moves </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates filling of gaps through outside recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies Future Leaders (long term candidates for key positions ) </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  217. 217. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Grows our talent internally </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces a culture of continuous learning </li></ul><ul><li>Provides leadership education and on-the-job development </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  218. 218. TALENT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Talent Management provides a cross-functional, bottom-up leadership identification and development process owned by line management. </li></ul><ul><li>TM continually identifies leadership requirements, potential leaders and developmental and hiring needs </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  219. 219. Summing up <ul><li>PCMM </li></ul><ul><li>Levels </li></ul><ul><li>HR Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>Talent Management </li></ul>Prof Mamatha, VVISM
  220. 220. End of Syllabus Prof Mamatha, VVISM