8. 주차별 강의계획주    날짜                     주제                      내용               교재 1   09/05   Introduction         Ice Br...
History ofInteraction
1   Operate the    Machine
operate the machine
operate the machine
| pre-computer             Before computers, there wasn’t “interaction design.”                 – useful                 –...
goal of “operating the machine.”operate the machine
| back in the day                •   design was engineering design:                    make faster, bigger machines, expos...
| characteristic statement of the timepeople are seenas components        The Five Elements of System Designin a system of...
| a current statement of the goal of “human factors”“minimize the damage and          Good Designs: inconvenience”    • de...
| input and output: people adapt to the machinespunch card,80 columns, to hold 80characters or numberspaper tape, also enc...
| wiring the ENIAC with a new programENIAC1946Mauchly and Eckert                     Great description here: www.computing...
| front panel switchesDEC PDP-8TI 9801960’s
| configure switches, run batch, output to tape
| preparing punch cards
| online processing                      first fully interactive video game.SpacewarSteve Russel1962                  http...
| operator consoleIBM System 3601960’s
| remote terminals attached to the S/360IBM 32701970’s80 columns x 24 linesa.k.a., “80 cards”                        Don’t...
| at home, it’s still the switches – but what to do with it?MITS Altair 88001975One of the firstcommercially availablehome...
| command line interfacesVery efficient once youlearned them.Still, the emphasis is“operate the machine.”
| “user friendliness”providing clear help andeasy to remember commandnames.Paul Heckel’s Elements ofFriendly Software Desi...
| in the meantime, a few people were thinking differentlymouseDoug Englebart1964Doug Englebart’s 1968 demoat SRI. He demon...
“you can actually talk to the computer”sketchpadIvan Sutherland1963Englebart, Sutherland andothers were shifting from“oper...
2   Use the    Software
use the softwareoperate the machine
•   shift in focus from controlling the computer to using                       applications and tools                   •...
use a spreadsheet                                   use a word processoruse the software                                  ...
| a tool for home and small business calculationsvisicalcDan Bricklin1979Finally people had a reasonto buy a home computer...
|Interface and interaction ideas that survived 25 years (so far)VisiCalc’s design has lived long: “It was interactive in a...
a tool for writingwordstarSeymour Rubenstein &John Barnaby1979WordStar had a verycomplicated interface, butonce you invest...
wordstarquick reference card   A few WordStar commands   (^ indicates one should hold   down the Ctrl key)
| the future could usually be seen before it arrivedXerox STAR, 1981                      Microsoft Windows 1.01, 1985    ...
3   Perform a    Task
perform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
•   wordstar was so complex yet so popular, it invited both                       complaint and competition               ...
draw a picture                                       create a brochureperform a task                                   cre...
| the mac taps into pent-up desire for ease and pleasure of useThink of a world full of command-line interfaces…http://www...
All 39 pages of advertising that Apple bought in a 1984 issue of newsweek are available here:http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichar...
| the software design manifestoMitch Kapor      “The Roman architecture critic Vetrivius advanced the notion1990          ...
4   Experience    live, learn, work, play
experiencelive, learn, work, playperform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
•   after twenty years of trying to help people perform                              tasks, we realized success depended o...
manage a                          household   compose music                                                      run a bus...
| design to support a person doing an activity in contextTo do a good job of interaction design, we have tounderstand as m...
design a vaseSuppose I asked you to design avase. You would sketch ormodel any number of forms,most of them probably looki...
| design a way to enjoy flowersBut suppose I asked youto design a way for people toincorporate plants into their life,or a...
| the cycle of experience                                        Social                                        Reputation ...
| interaction design’s many layers of concern                  strategy                  does the product connect with bus...
5    Connect
connectexperience:live, learn, work, playaccomplish a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
we are used todesigning for individuals
we’re learning to account    for differences in        individuals. But the machines often  stay most prominent
now, more often, the  machines fade to the     background –   we design for whathappens between people through the machines
or we make it possible for  people to build things   together through the      machines – the  construction is in the   fo...
and now we are learningto account for variations  in groups, genres of      connections
MACHINES SHAPE USWE SHAPE THE MACHINES
Who’s the user?What is the interface?How is it used?Who can afford it?
| before 1945 : new invention
| 1945-1955 : the calculator
| 1955-1965 : the giant brain
| 1965-1980 : the white collar labor
| 1980-1995 : productivity tool
| 1995- : networked ubiquity
NEXT
Voice recognition
DISPLAY EVERYWHERE
DISPLAY EVERYWHERE
NEW WAY OF INPUT
FOR NEXT WEEKFind Future Interaction/Interactivity fromMovie/game/on your dream/….
[I3 d]04 interactivity
[I3 d]04 interactivity
[I3 d]04 interactivity
[I3 d]04 interactivity
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[I3 d]04 interactivity

  1. 1. 8. 주차별 강의계획주 날짜 주제 내용 교재 1 09/05 Introduction Ice Braking | Orientation 2 09/12 인터랙티브 입체영상 트렌드 인터랙티브한 입체영상 시장 및 이슈 소개 3 09/19 다양한 사용자 인터랙션 소개 인터랙티브 홀로그램 4 09/26 상호작용성 소개 인터랙티비티에 대한 동향 및 방법 소개 5 10/11 Open Framework 전체 프레임워크 소개 및 기획 최유주 6 10/18 Open Framework Open Framework을 통한 제작(1) 교수님 진행 7 10/25 Open Framework Open Framework을 통한 제작(2) 8 11/01 중간고사 - Open Framework를 통한 Contents기획 - 인터랙티브한 환경에서의 입체영상 9 11/08 인터랙티브 입체영상 기획 - 사용자와 인터랙티브 입체영상10 11/15 인터랙티브 입체영상 디자인(1) - 전체 기획에 따른 전략 및 전술11 11/22 인터랙티브 입체영상 디자인(2) - 인터페이스 및 인포메이션 디자인12 11/29 인터랙티브 입체영상 디자인(3) - 인터랙션 프로그래밍13 12/7 인터랙티브 입체영상 후반작업(1) - 기기 포팅14 12/14 인터랙티브 입체영상 후반작업(2) Refine & Presentation Skill15 12/21 기말고사 인터랙티브 입체영상 기획 및 제작 프레젠테이션
  2. 2. History ofInteraction
  3. 3. 1 Operate the Machine
  4. 4. operate the machine
  5. 5. operate the machine
  6. 6. | pre-computer Before computers, there wasn’t “interaction design.” – useful – usable – desirable – affordable for the right people – appropriately complex – appropriately styled – appropriately transparent in function and use – overall, having “good fit” with people, context, activity, result
  7. 7. goal of “operating the machine.”operate the machine
  8. 8. | back in the day • design was engineering design: make faster, bigger machines, expose their guts through controls • people adapt to the machines • people speak the language of the machines • no designers involved, but lots of clever engineers – emergence of a new set of skills, new disciplinesoperate the machine
  9. 9. | characteristic statement of the timepeople are seenas components The Five Elements of System Designin a system ofproduction personnel selection personnel training machine design job design environmental design
  10. 10. | a current statement of the goal of “human factors”“minimize the damage and Good Designs: inconvenience” • design against misuse, unintended uses, and abuses • design for all sizes, shapes, attitudes and personalities people
  11. 11. | input and output: people adapt to the machinespunch card,80 columns, to hold 80characters or numberspaper tape, also encodingcharacters with holes. For fun, go make images of punch cards that say anything you want: http://www.facade.com/legacy/punchcard
  12. 12. | wiring the ENIAC with a new programENIAC1946Mauchly and Eckert Great description here: www.computinghistorymuseum.org/teaching/lectures/pptlectures/7b-eniac.ppt
  13. 13. | front panel switchesDEC PDP-8TI 9801960’s
  14. 14. | configure switches, run batch, output to tape
  15. 15. | preparing punch cards
  16. 16. | online processing first fully interactive video game.SpacewarSteve Russel1962 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rmvb4Hktv7U
  17. 17. | operator consoleIBM System 3601960’s
  18. 18. | remote terminals attached to the S/360IBM 32701970’s80 columns x 24 linesa.k.a., “80 cards” Don’t laugh. These are very hip boys.
  19. 19. | at home, it’s still the switches – but what to do with it?MITS Altair 88001975One of the firstcommercially availablehome computers. Youordered it. You built it. Youoperated it through frontpanel switches.
  20. 20. | command line interfacesVery efficient once youlearned them.Still, the emphasis is“operate the machine.”
  21. 21. | “user friendliness”providing clear help andeasy to remember commandnames.Paul Heckel’s Elements ofFriendly Software Design.
  22. 22. | in the meantime, a few people were thinking differentlymouseDoug Englebart1964Doug Englebart’s 1968 demoat SRI. He demonstratedmost of the ideas weassociate with modern desk-top computing:-the mouse hypertext,-objects in the interface,-dynamic file linking,-two people at differentlocations communicatingover network audio andvideo.This work was done from ahuman-centered point ofview, and the demo isrequired viewing. Watch it,remember it’s 40 years ago,and think about howprogress is made in this field. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1MPJZ6M52dI
  23. 23. “you can actually talk to the computer”sketchpadIvan Sutherland1963Englebart, Sutherland andothers were shifting from“operating the machine” toproviding people with usefultools. Englebart sought to“augment the humanintellect.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKM3CmRqK2o&feature=related
  24. 24. 2 Use the Software
  25. 25. use the softwareoperate the machine
  26. 26. • shift in focus from controlling the computer to using applications and tools • trying to make it so people have to adapt less to use the machines’ capability • design is still done mostly by engineers, few specialists • still mostly thought of as “computer human factors”use the softwareoperate the machine
  27. 27. use a spreadsheet use a word processoruse the software play a gameoperate the machine
  28. 28. | a tool for home and small business calculationsvisicalcDan Bricklin1979Finally people had a reasonto buy a home computer(specifically, an Apple II): sothey could use VisiCalc, thefirst spreadsheet. THE place to learn about Visicalc: www.bricklin.com/visicalc.htm Download a working version!
  29. 29. |Interface and interaction ideas that survived 25 years (so far)VisiCalc’s design has lived long: “It was interactive in a WYSIWYG way:• Point to change a value• Instant automatic recalculation based on formulas stored in the cells referencing other cells• Scroll left/right/up/down• The input, definition, formatting and output were all merged into a natural, program-by-example interface …• Labels and formulas distinguished by first character typed• A1, B1, SUM(A1..A7)• Realtime scrolling• Numeric and text formatting• Status and formula lines”
  30. 30. a tool for writingwordstarSeymour Rubenstein &John Barnaby1979WordStar had a verycomplicated interface, butonce you invested the timeto learn it, it was verypowerful. Now there wasanother reason to buy ahome computer: to create,format, store, and edit textdocuments. Find WordStar history here: http://www.wordstar.org/wordstar/history/history.htm
  31. 31. wordstarquick reference card A few WordStar commands (^ indicates one should hold down the Ctrl key)
  32. 32. | the future could usually be seen before it arrivedXerox STAR, 1981 Microsoft Windows 1.01, 1985 Xerox Alto, 1972
  33. 33. 3 Perform a Task
  34. 34. perform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  35. 35. • wordstar was so complex yet so popular, it invited both complaint and competition • the success of Lotus 1-2-3 over Visicalc was partly due to ease of use and appropriate power • its use in large companies led to an emphasis on ease of learning, ease of use, reduced errors, saved time • this eventually led to a professional emphasis on people doing a task rather than “a tool with good controls”perform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  36. 36. draw a picture create a brochureperform a task create a budget compose musicuse the software troubleshoot the aircraftoperate the machine
  37. 37. | the mac taps into pent-up desire for ease and pleasure of useThink of a world full of command-line interfaces…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HhsWzJo2sN4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pTHlG8USUg&feature=related hello.
  38. 38. All 39 pages of advertising that Apple bought in a 1984 issue of newsweek are available here:http://www.aci.com.pl/mwichary/computerhistory/ads/macnewsweek
  39. 39. | the software design manifestoMitch Kapor “The Roman architecture critic Vetrivius advanced the notion1990 that well-designed buildings were those which exhibited firmness, commodity and delight. The same might be said of good software. Firmness: a program should not have any bugs which inhibit its function. Commodity: a program should be suitable for the purposes for which it was intended. Delight: the experience of using the program should be a pleasurable one. Here we have the beginnings of a theory of design for software.” www.kapor.com/homepages/mkapor/Software_Design_Manifesto.html
  40. 40. 4 Experience live, learn, work, play
  41. 41. experiencelive, learn, work, playperform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  42. 42. • after twenty years of trying to help people perform tasks, we realized success depended on expanding the scope of view • most good work now involves an effort to fit context ofexperience use, characteristics of individuals, patterns of lifelive, learn, work, play • most good work now attempts to go beyond expressed need to latent or masked needsperform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  43. 43. manage a household compose music run a businessexperiencelive, learn, work, play learn mathperform a task buy, use, & maintain a caruse the software immerse in a fantasyoperate the machine
  44. 44. | design to support a person doing an activity in contextTo do a good job of interaction design, we have tounderstand as much as we can about the context, theactivity, what else is going on, where people’s attentionis focused, what happens before and after, what theirgoals are, and so on.
  45. 45. design a vaseSuppose I asked you to design avase. You would sketch ormodel any number of forms,most of them probably lookinglike a cousin of the vase shownhere.
  46. 46. | design a way to enjoy flowersBut suppose I asked youto design a way for people toincorporate plants into their life,or a way for people to enjoyflowers.Contemporary design haschanged the questions.
  47. 47. | the cycle of experience Social Reputation Awareness Retention Extension Attraction Compelling Interaction Orientation tip of the hat to john rheinfrank and shelley evenson
  48. 48. | interaction design’s many layers of concern strategy does the product connect with business goals? experience repeated interaction, activities in context interaction interface in use through time by different people interface presentation of information and controls information & functionality categories, types, attributes, relationships
  49. 49. 5 Connect
  50. 50. connectexperience:live, learn, work, playaccomplish a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  51. 51. we are used todesigning for individuals
  52. 52. we’re learning to account for differences in individuals. But the machines often stay most prominent
  53. 53. now, more often, the machines fade to the background – we design for whathappens between people through the machines
  54. 54. or we make it possible for people to build things together through the machines – the construction is in the foreground, not the technology
  55. 55. and now we are learningto account for variations in groups, genres of connections
  56. 56. MACHINES SHAPE USWE SHAPE THE MACHINES
  57. 57. Who’s the user?What is the interface?How is it used?Who can afford it?
  58. 58. | before 1945 : new invention
  59. 59. | 1945-1955 : the calculator
  60. 60. | 1955-1965 : the giant brain
  61. 61. | 1965-1980 : the white collar labor
  62. 62. | 1980-1995 : productivity tool
  63. 63. | 1995- : networked ubiquity
  64. 64. NEXT
  65. 65. Voice recognition
  66. 66. DISPLAY EVERYWHERE
  67. 67. DISPLAY EVERYWHERE
  68. 68. NEW WAY OF INPUT
  69. 69. FOR NEXT WEEKFind Future Interaction/Interactivity fromMovie/game/on your dream/….

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