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[I3 d]03 interactivity


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[I3 d]03 interactivity

  1. 1. 8. 주차별 강의계획주 날짜 주제 내용 교재 1 09/07 Introduction Ice Braking | Orientation 2 09/14 인터랙티브 입체영상 트렌드 인터랙티브한 입체영상 시장 소개 3 09/21 다양한 사용자 인터랙션 소개 인터랙션 디자인 히스토리 4 09/28 상호작용성 소개 인터랙티비티에 대한 동향 및 방법 소개 5 10/05 서비스 디자인 세미나 학교 주관 서비스 디자인 컨퍼런스 6 10/12 인터랙티브 월(1) 전체 프레임워크 소개 및 기획 최유주 7 10/19 인터랙티브 월(2) Open Framework을 통한 제작(1) 교수님 진행 8 10/26 인터랙티브 월(3) Open Framework을 통한 제작(2) 9 11/02 중간고사 - 인터랙티브 월 기획 및 제작 프레젠테이션 - 인터랙티브한 환경에서의 입체영상10 11/09 인터랙티브 입체영상 기획 - 사용자와 인터랙티브 입체영상11 11/16 인터랙티브 입체영상 디자인(1) - 전체 네비게이션 및 정보 설계12 11/23 인터랙티브 입체영상 디자인(2) - 인터페이스 및 인포메이션 디자인13 11/30 인터랙티브 입체영상 후반작업 - 인터페이스 디자인 후반작업14 12/7 인터랙티브 입체영상 포팅 - 기기 포팅15 12/14 기말고사 인터랙티브 입체영상 기획 및 제작 프레젠테이션
  2. 2. history
  3. 3. operate the machine
  4. 4. operate the machine
  5. 5. | pre-computer Before computers, there wasn’t “interaction design.” – useful – usable – desirable – affordable for the right people – appropriately complex – appropriately styled – appropriately transparent in function and use – overall, having “good fit” with people, context, activity, result
  6. 6. goal of “operating the machine.”operate the machine
  7. 7. | back in the day • design was engineering design: make faster, bigger machines, expose their guts through controls • people adapt to the machines • people speak the language of the machines • no designers involved, but lots of clever engineers – emergence of a new set of skills, new disciplinesoperate the machine
  8. 8. | characteristic statement of the timepeople are seenas components The Five Elements of System Designin a system ofproduction personnel selection personnel training machine design job design environmental design
  9. 9. | a current statement of the goal of “human factors”“minimize the damage and Good Designs: inconvenience” • design against misuse, unintended uses, and abuses • design for all sizes, shapes, attitudes and personalities people
  10. 10. | input and output: people adapt to the machinespunch card,80 columns, to hold 80characters or numberspaper tape, also encodingcharacters with holes. For fun, go make images of punch cards that say anything you want:
  11. 11. | wiring the ENIAC with a new programENIAC1946Mauchly and Eckert Great description here:
  12. 12. | front panel switchesDEC PDP-8TI 9801960’s
  13. 13. | configure switches, run batch, output to tape
  14. 14. | preparing punch cards
  15. 15. | online processingSpacewarSteve Russel1962
  16. 16. | operator consoleIBM System 3601960’s
  17. 17. | remote terminals attached to the S/360IBM 32701970’s80 columns x 24 linesa.k.a., “80 cards” Don’t laugh. These are very hip boys.
  18. 18. | at home, it’s still the switches – but what to do with it?MITS Altair 88001975One of the firstcommercially availablehome computers. Youordered it. You built it. Youoperated it through frontpanel switches.
  19. 19. | command line interfacesVery efficient once youlearned them.Still, the emphasis is“operate the machine.”
  20. 20. | “user friendliness”providing clear help andeasy to remember commandnames.Paul Heckel’s Elements ofFriendly Software Design.
  21. 21. | in the meantime, a few people were thinking differentlymouseDoug Englebart1964Doug Englebart’s 1968 demoat SRI. He demonstratedmost of the ideas weassociate with modern desk-top computing:-the mouse hypertext,-objects in the interface,-dynamic file linking,-two people at differentlocations communicatingover network audio andvideo.This work was done from ahuman-centered point ofview, and the demo isrequired viewing. Watch it,remember it’s 40 years ago,and think about howprogress is made in this field.
  22. 22. “you can actually talk to the computer”sketchpadIvan Sutherland1963Englebart, Sutherland andothers were shifting from“operating the machine” toproviding people with usefultools. Englebart sought to“augment the humanintellect.”
  23. 23. use the softwareoperate the machine
  24. 24. • shift in focus from controlling the computer to using applications and tools • trying to make it so people have to adapt less to use the machines’ capability • design is still done mostly by engineers, few specialists • still mostly thought of as “computer human factors”use the softwareoperate the machine
  25. 25. use a spreadsheet use a word processoruse the software play a gameoperate the machine
  26. 26. | a tool for home and small business calculationsvisicalcDan Bricklin1979Finally people had a reasonto buy a home computer(specifically, an Apple II): sothey could use VisiCalc, thefirst spreadsheet. THE place to learn about Visicalc: Download a working version!
  27. 27. |Interface and interaction ideas that survived 25 years (so far)VisiCalc’s design has lived long: “It was interactive in a WYSIWYG way:• Point to change a value• Instant automatic recalculation based on formulas stored in the cells referencing other cells• Scroll left/right/up/down• The input, definition, formatting and output were all merged into a natural, program-by-example interface …• Labels and formulas distinguished by first character typed• A1, B1, SUM(A1..A7)• Realtime scrolling• Numeric and text formatting• Status and formula lines”
  28. 28. a tool for writingwordstarSeymour Rubenstein &John Barnaby1979WordStar had a verycomplicated interface, butonce you invested the timeto learn it, it was verypowerful. Now there wasanother reason to buy ahome computer: to create,format, store, and edit textdocuments. Find WordStar history here:
  29. 29. wordstarquick reference card A few WordStar commands (^ indicates one should hold down the Ctrl key)
  30. 30. | the future could usually be seen before it arrivedXerox STAR, 1981 Microsoft Windows 1.01, 1985 Xerox Alto, 1972
  31. 31. perform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  32. 32. • wordstar was so complex yet so popular, it invited both complaint and competition • the success of Lotus 1-2-3 over Visicalc was partly due to ease of use and appropriate power • its use in large companies led to an emphasis on ease of learning, ease of use, reduced errors, saved time • this eventually led to a professional emphasis on people doing a task rather than “a tool with good controls”perform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  33. 33. draw a picture create a brochureperform a task create a budget compose musicuse the software troubleshoot the aircraftoperate the machine
  34. 34. | the mac taps into pent-up desire for ease and pleasure of useThink of a world full of command-line interfaces… hello.
  35. 35. All 39 pages of advertising that Apple bought in a 1984 issue of newsweek are available here:
  36. 36. | the software design manifestoMitch Kapor “The Roman architecture critic Vetrivius advanced the notion1990 that well-designed buildings were those which exhibited firmness, commodity and delight. The same might be said of good software. Firmness: a program should not have any bugs which inhibit its function. Commodity: a program should be suitable for the purposes for which it was intended. Delight: the experience of using the program should be a pleasurable one. Here we have the beginnings of a theory of design for software.”
  37. 37. present
  38. 38. experiencelive, learn, work, playperform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  39. 39. • after twenty years of trying to help people perform tasks, we realized success depended on expanding the scope of view • most good work now involves an effort to fit context ofexperience use, characteristics of individuals, patterns of lifelive, learn, work, play • most good work now attempts to go beyond expressed need to latent or masked needsperform a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  40. 40. manage a household compose music run a businessexperiencelive, learn, work, play learn mathperform a task buy, use, & maintain a caruse the software immerse in a fantasyoperate the machine
  41. 41. | art and engineeringIf your primaryconcern is to makesomething cool orinteresting happenon the screen, youare probably in thecamp of artists orengineers. Asopposed to…
  42. 42. | interface…interface design,which is concernedwith the person infront of the screen,with understandingand communication.But interface designoften takes a fairlystatic view of things…
  43. 43. | interactionWhen we add time,we see theconversation backand forth betweenpeople andmachines
  44. 44. | design to support a person doing an activity in contextTo do a good job of interaction design, we have tounderstand as much as we can about the context, theactivity, what else is going on, where people’s attentionis focused, what happens before and after, what theirgoals are, and so on.
  45. 45. design a vaseShelley Evenson by way ofChris Pacione contributes thisexercise to help usunderstand how interactiondesign these days differs fromthe days of “making tools.”Suppose I asked you todesign a vase. You wouldsketch or model any numberof forms, most of themprobably looking like a cousinof the vase shown here.
  46. 46. | design a way to enjoy flowersBut suppose I asked youto design a way for people toincorporate plants into their life,or a way for people to enjoyflowers.Contemporary design haschanged the questions.
  47. 47. | the cycle of experience Social Reputation Awareness Retention Extension Attraction Compelling Interaction Orientation tip of the hat to john rheinfrank and shelley evenson
  48. 48. | interaction design’s many layers of concern strategy does the product connect with business goals? experience repeated interaction, activities in context interaction interface in use through time by different people interface presentation of information and controls information & functionality categories, types, attributes, relationships
  49. 49. connectexperience:live, learn, work, playaccomplish a taskuse the softwareoperate the machine
  50. 50. we are used todesigning for individuals
  51. 51. we’re learning to account for differences in individuals. But the machines often stay most prominent
  52. 52. now, more often, the machines fade to the background – we design for whathappens between people through the machines
  53. 53. or we make it possible for people to build things together through the machines – the construction is in the foreground, not the technology
  54. 54. and now we are learningto account for variations in groups, genres of connections
  56. 56. Who’s the user?What is the interface?How is it used?Who can afford it?
  57. 57. | before 1945 : new invention
  58. 58. | 1945-1955 : the calculator
  59. 59. | 1955-1965 : the giant brain
  60. 60. | 1965-1980 : the white collar labor
  61. 61. | 1980-1995 : productivity tool
  62. 62. | 1995- : networked ubiquity
  63. 63. NEXT
  64. 64. Voice recognition
  67. 67. NEW WAY OF INPUT
  68. 68. FOR NEXT WEEKFind Future Interaction/Interactivity fromMovie/game/on your dream/….