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  1. 1. Narrative “I like a film to have a beginning, a middle and an end, but not necessarily in that order” Jean-Luc Godard
  2. 2. Narrative • This area of study is about stories and how the films tells them. • The narrative vision is inspired through story elements, and production elements • Film narrative relies on • • • • Setting being established. Characters being developed. An engaging plot A beginning, middle and end (equilibrium and disequilibrium) • Climaxes in the story
  3. 3. Narrative Structures: LINEAR • The Simplest narrative form is the linear narrative: Equilibrium Disequilibrium New Equilibrium • The linear narrative structure runs chronologically, with events happening in order in which the characters experience them.
  4. 4. Narrative Structure: CIRCULAR • In a circular narrative, the action begins and ends at the same point. Equilibrium (text begins here) Climax resolution Trigger Disequilibrium • A popular variation of this narrative structure is the flashback where the narrative begins at the climax and then seeks to illustrate how this point was reached.
  5. 5. Narrative Structure: NON- LINEAR • Non-linear narratives are structured seemingly randomly, but as each scene unfolds it will gradually order the events. equilibrium ‘zone of disequilibrium’ equilibrium • Flash forward and even reverse telling of events are methods of structuring story time. • Note: Not all narratives end in equilibrium.
  6. 6. The Narrative Equation • In the media, the term narrative is understood to include the story, it’s construction and the relationship between the audience and the text. Story Elements Production Elements Audience • All of the elements that create a narrative are as important as each other. • It is important to think of the elements both individually and in conjunction with each other.
  7. 7. Story Elements Non-technical elements that contribute to the structure of the film. • Setting • Time Period • Characters – Establishment – Development – Relationships • Narrative possibilities • Multiple storylines – Links between – Effects on each other • Narrative progression • Structuring of time – Order, duration, frequency – Contraction and expansion – Linear and non-linear • Cause and Effect – Character motivation • Point(s) of view – Character – Other • Genre
  8. 8. Production Elements Technical elements that contribute to the construction of the film. • Camera – Shot types – Movement – focus • Film stock/ Video • Lighting – Naturalistic – Expressive – Types • Visual Composition • Acting • Sound – Diegetic and nondiegetic – Dialogue – Music – Sound effects • Editing – – – – Vision Sound Design Styles • Special effects
  9. 9. Audience Elements The audience’s role in the narrative experience. • Expectation – Advertising – Reviews – Word of mouth • Experience and knowledge of: – – – – Genre Director Actors Production Values • Reception context – Location – Purpose for seeing text – Cost