“Genres are created through a process of repetition andrecognition leading to anticipation and expectation.”Graham Burton (2000)GENRE THEORY
Genre & Expectation• As genres become establishedaudiences begin to havecertain expectations• Every genre containsgeneric conventions thataudiences would expect andgain gratification from• ‘Sin City’, ‘Fish Tank’ &‘District 9’ rely upon differingconventions relating to theirspecific genre
Why do We Like Genre?Genre texts are successful because AUDIENCES like their…- Familiarity (like a warm blanket!)- They give us an informed choicePRODUCERS of media texts likethem as they..- Give them a blueprint or toolbox to use and experiment with- They have a proven popularity - so they can (almost always)guarantee some success- They can target their audience more easily - marketing campaignsetc…
How Genres ChangeAll genre texts combine…• “The familiar and theunexpected” (G.Burton 2000)• The “same but different”(Nick Lacey 1999)
How Genres Change• Repetition of the conventions could lead toboredom. To keep us interested producersoffer us what we know with a twistThis can be …- Hybridity- New Techniques- Modern Social Issues- Different characters
GENRE• Hybridity/Hybrid: The fusion or combination ofdifferent genre styles• Repetition and Difference: Most media textshave a pattern of repetition and difference. Theyhave identifiable similarities, but also containnew elements or similar elements used in newways.
Steve Neale‘Genres are instances of repetition anddifference’. He adds that difference isabsolutely essential to the economy of genre’ :mere repetition would not attract an audience.
What do genres mean for audiences?Audiences...- can select texts based on their genre.-have expectations about a text based on its genre, allowing them todraw pleasures from its conventions, such as repeated narratives.However, pleasure can also be drawn from differences- identify with repeated elements in generic texts and may shapetheir own identity in response.
What do genres mean for producers?Producers…- market texts according to genre because an audience of fans ofthat genre has already been established.- standardise production practices according to genre conventions.- subscribe to established conventions but also allow creativity withina given format to keep the genre fresh/modern.
GENRE CONCLUSIONS• Genres have a certain amount of predictability and repeatedelements, which make them distinctive and which help todefine them.• All genres have a portfolio of key elements (conventions)from which they are composed.• Not all examples of a genre will have all the elements all thetime.• It is these elements which make up the formula or arepetition of elements of a given genre.• Genres can be combined to create new forms or Hybrids