Wwii atlantic


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Wwii atlantic

  1. 1. The War for Europe and North Africa Chapter 17, Section 2
  2. 2. The United States and Britain <ul><li>After Pearl Harbor - the United States and Britain meet </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill made the journey to meet with Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill urges Roosevelt to start in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler was a bigger threat </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Battle of the Atlantic <ul><li>Hitler began submarine attacks on the East Coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Limit supplies reaching Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany appeared to be succeeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 months into 1942 - 681 Allied ships had been destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The US began sending convoys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airplanes accompanied ships to detect U-Boats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberty ships were built - allowed fleet to outnumber Germans and defeat them </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Battle of Stalingrad <ul><li>Winter forced Germany to remain in Moscow and Leningrad in 1941-1942 </li></ul><ul><li>Spring/Summer - Germans went south in order to capture oil fields and destroy Stalingrad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key industrial city </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luftwaffe (German Air Force) bombed the town nightly </li></ul><ul><li>Russian officers saw potential for failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to bomb factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin insisted that they finish </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Battle of Stalingrad <ul><li>Germans were resilient </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of September - controlled 90% of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Winter came and the Soviets used it to their advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets surrounded the city </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler urged the Germans to continue </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans surrendered on January 31st, 1943 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,100,000 Soviet soldiers died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than the total number of American deaths in the entire war. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Turning point in the war - Soviets went on the offensive and moved West </li></ul>
  6. 6. North African Front <ul><li>The Americans and the British opened a new operation - North Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis-controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the troops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Troops arrived in Casablanca, Oran and Algiers in North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Afrika Korps surrendered in May 1943 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Italian Campaign <ul><li>Meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt - “ unconditional surrender ” </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to attack Italy before launching attach across the English Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Captured Sicily in 1943 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Italian people were extremely disappointed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced Mussolini to resign </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was still determined to defeat the Allies in Italy - before they got to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bloody Anzio” - 4 months, 25,000 Allied casualties & 30,000 Axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Success in 1945 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Heroes in Combat <ul><li>Tuskegee Airmen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American - 99th Pursuit Squadron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw first success in Italy - continued distinguished service throughout the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buffaloes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African American - 92nd Infantry Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won More than 200 medals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexican-Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Congressional Medal of Honor winners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An all-Chicano unit became one of the most decorated of the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100th Battalion was most decorated unit in U.S. history </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. D-Day/Normandy <ul><li>General Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized 3 million troops ( American, British and Canadian ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planned attack on Normandy in France </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a phantom army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent orders to attack Calais (150 miles away) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler sent troops to protect the port </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 6, 1944 </li></ul>
  10. 10. D-Day/Normandy <ul><li>Shortly after midnight, three divisions parachuted behind enemy lines </li></ul><ul><li>Largest land-sea-air attack in army history </li></ul><ul><li>German retaliation was brutal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omaha Beach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7 days of fighting secured 80 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Additional supplies and troops arrived within a month </li></ul><ul><li>General Omar Bradley ordered land and air attack at St. Lo in order for General Patton to advance his troops </li></ul>
  11. 11. D-Day/Normandy <ul><li>Two days after Patton’s troops attacked, Paris was liberated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four years of occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By September 1944 , Allies freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Battle of the Bulge <ul><li>October 1944, Americans captured Aachen </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler sent troops to recapture Belgian port of Antwerp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped to disrupt supply lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>December 16th - Hitler broke through American defenses </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks drove 60 miles into Allied territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a “ bulge ” in the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured 120 American GIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killed in a large field </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Battle of the Bulge <ul><li>Battle continued for a month </li></ul><ul><li>Germans were pushed back - lost men, supplies </li></ul><ul><li>There wasn’t much the Nazis could do but retreat </li></ul>
  14. 14. Liberation of Death Camps <ul><li>Allied troops in the East moved into the German heartland </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet troops were the first to see a Nazi death camp in July, 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>SS Guards attempted to burn, destroy evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets found crematorium and storehouses in addition to a thousand starving prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Americans would liberate camps later in the war </li></ul>
  15. 15. Unconditional Surrender <ul><li>April 25, 1945 - Soviets in Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler committed suicide on April 30th - a day after marrying Eva Braun </li></ul><ul><li>On May 8, 1945 - Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich </li></ul><ul><li>V-E Day = Victory in Europe Day </li></ul>
  16. 16. Roosevelt’s Death <ul><li>President Roosevelt was elected for a fourth term </li></ul><ul><li>On April 12, 1945 - President Roosevelt suffered a stroke and died </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Truman became president </li></ul>