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Rhythm in Poetry

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from: http://facultyweb.wcjc.edu/users/jonl/documents/ROPPPT.ppt

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Rhythm in Poetry

  1. 1. TheThe RhythmRhythm ofof Poetry:Poetry: Syllable - Poetic feet - MeterSyllable - Poetic feet - Meter
  2. 2. Syllables • English words have clear syllables. • We can usually divide words into syllables easily. • We can also determine which syllables to emphasize, or “stress” in each word.  For example: • Angel = AN-gel  (not an-GEL) • Complete = com-PLETE  (not COM-plete)
  3. 3. More Syllables • poem = PO-em…….(1 stressed + 1 unstressed) • poetry = PO-e-try…….(1 stressed + 2 unstressed) • relief = re-LIEF……. (1 unstressed + 1 stressed) • recommend = re-com-MEND……. (2 unstressed + 1 stressed) • discomfort = dis-COM-fort… (1 unstressed + 1 stressed + 1 unstressed) • entertainment = en-ter-TAIN-ment (2 unstressed + 1 stressed + 1 unstressed)
  4. 4. Scansion • (1) the act of scanning, or analyzing poetry in terms of its rhythmic components • (2) the graphic representation, indicated by marked accents, feet, etc., of the rhythm of a line or lines of verse – You may have seen scansion marks like the following: The curved lines are “unstressed” syllables while the straight slashes are “stressed”
  5. 5. Poetic Meter • Meters are the rhythms within poems. • Meters are the arrangement of stressedstressed/unstressed syllables to occur at apparently equal intervals. • Metered verse has prescribed rules as to the number and placement of syllables used per line.
  6. 6. Poetic Foot • A poetic footA poetic foot is a repeated sequence of rhythm comprised of two or more stressed and/or unstressed syllables. • Poetic meterPoetic meter is comprised of poetic feetpoetic feet
  7. 7. Five main patterns to poetic feet: 1. Iambic 2. Trochaic 3. Anapestic 4. Dactylic 5. Spondaic
  8. 8. Iambic patternIambic pattern • 1 unstressed syllable followed by 1 stressed syllable • EXAMPLES:EXAMPLES: – repose (re-POSEPOSE) – belief (be-LIEFLIEF) – complete (com-PLETEPLETE)
  9. 9. Trochaic PatternTrochaic Pattern • 1 stressed syllable1 stressed syllable followed by 1 unstressed syllable • EXAMPLES:EXAMPLES: – garland (GAR-land) – speaking (SPEAK-ing) – value (VAL-ue)
  10. 10. Anapestic patternAnapestic pattern • 2 unstressed syllables followed by 1 stressed syllable • EXAMPLES:EXAMPLES: – on the roadroad – interrupt (in-ter-RUPTRUPT) – unabridgedbridged, contradictdict, engineereer, masqueraderade, Galileelee
  11. 11. Dactylic patternDactylic pattern • 1 stressed syllable1 stressed syllable followed by 2 unstressed syllables • EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE: – happiness (HAP-pi-ness) – galloping (GAL-lop-ing) – forfortunate, SatSaturday, dafdaffodil, murmurmuring, rhaprhapsody
  12. 12. Spondaic PatternSpondaic Pattern • All syllables have equal stress • EXAMPLE:EXAMPLE: – Heartbreak – “Out, out…” – "pen-knife," "ad hoc," "heartburn"
  13. 13. The Iambic foot • The iamb = (1 unstressed syllable + 1 stressed syllable) is the most commonmost common poetic foot in English verse. • iambic foot examples:iambic foot examples: – behold – destroy – the sun (articles such as “the” would be considered unstressed syllables) – and watch (conjunctions such as and would be considered unstressed syllables)
  14. 14. Lines containing iambic feetiambic feet • Behold / and watch / the sun / destroy / and grow (5 iambs) • When I / do COUNT / the CLOCK / that TELLS / the TIME [Shakespeare’s Sonnet 12] (5 iambs) • Shall I / compare /thee to / a sum / mer's day? [Shakespeare’s Sonnet 12] (5 iambs) • Come live/ with me/ and be/ my love (4 iambs) (poem by Christopher Marlowe)
  15. 15. Trochaic poem:Trochaic poem: a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's “The Song of Hiawatha” By the / shores of / Gitche / Gumee, By the / shining / Big-Sea /-Water, Stood the / wigwam / of No / komis, Daughter / of the / Moon, No / komis. Dark behind it rose the forest, Rose the black and gloomy pine-trees, Rose the firs with cones upon them; Bright before' it beat the water, Beat the clear and sunny water, Beat the shining Big-Sea-Water.
  16. 16. Anapestic poetry: 2 unstressed syllables + 1 stressed one Limericks contain anapestic meter (in blue) A Limerick by Edward Lear: There was / an Old Man / with a beard, Who said, "It is just / as I feared! Two Owls / and a Hen, Four Larks / and a Wren, Have all / built their nests / in my beard!"
  17. 17. Dactylic poem: 1 stressed + 2 unstressed Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson Half a league, / half a league, Half a league / onward, All in the / valley of / Death Rode the / six hundred. "Forward, the / Light Brigade! Charge for the / guns!" he said: Into the / valley of / Death Rode the / six hundred.
  18. 18. SpondaicSpondaic Poem: 2 equal syllables • Because of this nature of the spondee, a serious poem cannot be solelya serious poem cannot be solely spondaicspondaic. • It would be almost impossible to construct a poem entirely of stressed syllablesentirely of stressed syllables. • Therefore, the spondee usuallyusually occurs within a poemoccurs within a poem having another dominant rhythm scheme.
  19. 19. Combinations of Poetic Feet • OneOne foot per line: monometermonometer • TwoTwo feet per line : dimeterdimeter • ThreeThree feet per line : trimetertrimeter • FourFour feet per line : tetrametertetrameter • FiveFive feet per line : pentameterpentameter • SixSix feet per line : hexameterhexameter
  20. 20. Type + Number = Meter Types of Poetic Feet • Iambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed) • Trochaic (1 stressed + 1 unstressed) • Anapestic(2 unstressed + 1 stressed) • Dactylic (1 stressed + 2 unstressed) • Spondaic (all syllables equal) Number of feet per line • Monometer • Dimeter • Trimeter • Tetrameter • Pentameter • Hexameter
  21. 21. Meters & Feet •Q:Q: If a poem had 1 foot per line1 foot per line, and the foot was iambiciambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? •A:A: Iambic monometermonometer
  22. 22. Meters & Feet •Q:Q: If a poem had 2 feet per line2 feet per line, and the foot was iambiciambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? •A:A: Iambic dimeterdimeter
  23. 23. Meters & Feet •Q:Q: If a poem had 3 feet per line3 feet per line, and the foot was iambiciambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? •A:A: Iambic trimetertrimeter
  24. 24. Meters & Feet •Q:Q: If a poem had 4 feet per line4 feet per line, and the foot was iambiciambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? •A:A: Iambic tetrametertetrameter
  25. 25. Meters & Feet •Q:Q: If a poem had 5 feet per line5 feet per line, and the foot was iambiciambic (1 unstressed + 1 stressed), what type of poem would it be? •A:A: Iambic pentameterpentameter
  26. 26. Meters & Feet •Q:Q: If a poem had 3 feet per line3 feet per line, and the foot was trochaictrochaic (1 stressed +1 unstressed), what type of poem would it be? •A:A: Trochaic tetrametertetrameter
  27. 27. Go ahead…Go ahead… experiment withexperiment with different metric stylesdifferent metric styles in your own poetry!in your own poetry! End of presentation.

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