TAKE A VOTE!


  Do you feel Industrialization &
  Reform moved us closer or
  farther away from our founding
  ideals?
PERIOD 1
PERIOD 2
PERIOD 3
AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER


Unit # 2
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
1) What considerations should guide the
  development of American foreign policy?

2) When should the ...
R.A.P. School Fight
     One day at school you notice a huge ring of students jostling
    and pushing. As you get closer,...
Warm up/Wrap Up
   1. Which foreign policy stance has the United
    States appeared to favor the most? The least?
   2....
R.A.P.-Visual Metaphors

   R.A.P. Under what circumstances is it
    appropriate for the United States to
    intervene ...
Wrap up:
1.   Where on the foreign policy spectrum from
     “Isolationism” to “Imperialism” did U.S. foreign
     policy ...
REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM

America as a World
Power
KEY TERMS

 Isolationism
 Collective Security

 Internationalism

 Imperialism

 Protectorate – Area protected and pa...
REASONS FOR U.S. IMPERIALISM

 1) Global Competition
 2) Cultural Superiority
 3) Military Power
 4) New Markets
GLOBAL COMPETITION

      Competition with European countries
      Africa and Asia seen as main targets
          Only...
CULTURAL SUPERIORITY

    Social Darwinism racial superiority
    America‟s duty to “Christianize and Civilize”
    Ide...
Take up the White Man's burden--
                                           Send forth the best ye breed--
               ...
Whose
“burden” do
 you think it
     is?
“IT SEEMS TO ME THAT GOD, WITH
   INFINITE WISDOM AND SKILL, IS
TRAINING THE ANGLO-SAXON RACE FOR
   AN HOUR SURE TO COME ...
NAVAL BASES
   Alfred T. Mahan – encourage U.S. to build
    its naval power (compete with world
    powers)
     Great ...
NEW MARKETS

   Surplus of goods
    creating need for
    new markets
    throughout the world
    (raw materials and
  ...
ALASKA
    Purchased in 1867
      William Seward, U.S. Secretary of State
      Called “Seward‟s Folly”

  U.S. bough...
HAWAII

 Vital for food
  (sugar), supplies, and fuel
  (Pearl Harbor)
 Spread Christianity
 Issues of “duty free”
  st...
HAWAII (CON’T)

                    American Sugar
                     planters want it to be
                     annex...
SAMOA



  Important for refueling
  U.S. promises to help with disputes
   among other countries
  Divided among Germa...
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR




 America as a World Power
EVENTS LEADING UP TO WAR

            U.S. attempts to buy Cuba
             from Spain
            Cuban War for Indepe...
CAUSES OF THE WAR

Major Causes
1) Yellow Journalism

2) De Lome Letter

3) Sinking of the „U.S.S. Maine‟

Minor Causes
1....
YELLOW JOURNALISM
   Sensational stories about Spanish
    atrocities towards the Cubans
     “Butcher Weyler”
     Sto...
“Remember the Maine”

 Like Pearl Harbor during
WWII, this slogan is at the
center of American public
support over the Spa...
DE LOME LETTER
   Enrique Dupuy de
    Lome  Spanish
    minister to the U.S.
   Letter criticized the
    President
  ...
Dupuy de Lome Letter


“. . . it shows once more
what McKinley is: weak
and catering to the
rabble, and, besides, a
low po...
SINKING OF THE U.S.S. MAINE

  Battleship sent in to escort American
   citizens and protect property
  Feb. 15, 1898  ...
America Attacked by foreign
powers
•U.S.S. Maine
•Lusitania (British ship a/
Americans)
•Pearl Harbor
•Twin Towers („93)
•...
Before




After
The Pacific     The Caribbean

      Theaters of War
WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES

 First battle in the Philippines
 Commodore George Dewey attacks the
  Spanish fleet
WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES

   Spanish are easily
    defeated
   U.S. receives help
    from Filipino rebels
      led by ...
WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN

                Rough Riders  cavalry
                 group led by Theodore
                 Roos...
TREATY OF PARIS

 December 10, 1898
 Terms
     Cuba is given independence
     Guam and Puerto Rico given to the U.S....
New U.S. “spheres of influence”
EFFECTS ON NEW AREAS

   Puerto Rico
     Foraker  Act (1900)  Set up gov‟t where U.S.
      had a great deal of influe...
EFFECTS ON THE PHILIPPINES


 U.S. acts much like the
  Spanish in the Philippines
 Emilio Aguinaldo leads
  rebellion a...
We could not leave them to themselves –
they were unfit for self-government, and
would soon have anarchy and misrule worse...
•Aguinaldo issued a proclamation of independence in
January 1899 – declaring the Philippines a republic
•USA ignored the p...
•Occasional fighting continued for years
•During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in
WWII, Aguinaldo made an inf...
The United States into the 21st Century

  Victory in the Spanish-American War touched off a new era in the
  United State...
THE UNITED STATES
     IN ASIA




 America as a World Power
           Unit
BEGINNING OF TRADE
   China being split by European powers
     Spheres  of Influence – only one nation can trade
      ...
CONFLICT

            Chinese want to preserve
             traditional culture
            Mixed perceptions of
       ...
OPEN DOOR NOTES

   Letters to share trading rights w/ the U.S.
     John Hay (Sec. Of State for McKinley)
     Agreed ...
BOXER REBELLION
   Traditionalist Chinese
    become angered
     Attack and murder
      missionaries, other
      fore...
DESCRIPTION FROM ONE FOREIGNER ABOUT THE BOXER REBELLION

 “THEIR YELLS WERE DEAFENING, WHILE THE ROAR OF GONGS, DRUMS
  A...
JAPAN
         1852  Commodore
          Matthew Perry sent to
          Japan to open trade
         Conflicts
       ...
Matthew Perry and
Japanese images of
American arrival
RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR
   Japan wanted to expand its influence
     Become  a world power
     Need for resources

 Take M...
ROOSEVELT AND THE TREATY
   Roosevelt wants both   “it could possibly mean a struggle
                            between...
UNITED STATES IN LATIN AMERICA

America as a World
Power
BACKGROUND

   Monroe Doctrine –
    U.S. opposes any
    European involvement
    in Western
    Hemisphere (1823)
   I...
U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN
                 LATIN AMERICA

 Big Stick Diplomacy (Roosevelt)
   Roosevelt Corollary to the Mo...
BIG STICK DIPLOMACY

   “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” ~TR
   Believed that the U.S. had to build up a strong
   ...
A LATIN AMERICAN POLICE FORCE
   Roosevelt Corollary – Says that US will intervene in
    any Latin American country whos...
DOLLAR & MORAL DIPLOMACY

   William H. Taft
       Dollar Diplomacy – urge banks and business to invest
        in Lati...
GREAT WHITE FLEET
   Roosevelt sends U.S.
    navy on a global cruise
   16 white battleships to
    show that U.S. is a...
THE PANAMA CANAL
 1880 – French company begins work on
  a canal across Panama
   Ferdinand de Lesseps (same man who
   ...
Ferdinand De Lesseps
   Builder of the Suez
 Canal and hired by the
French to build the Canal
       in Panama
AMERICAN MOTIVATIONS

1)   Boost the nation‟s economy
2)   2) Shorten journey b/w eastern factories and
     Asian markets
REVOLUTION IN PANAMA


   French (Bunau-Varilla) help the Panamanians rebel
       They want out.
   Roosevelt supports...
BUILDING THE CANAL
   Problems
       Disease-carrying mosquitoes
        (yellow fever, malaria)
       Humidity
    ...
Yellow Fever trouble spots today.
     Panama is still included.
South America               Africa
SIGNIFICANCE OF CANAL

                    50 mile canal
                    Trip was 8,000 miles
                     s...
The Inauguration
of the Canal Zone
   – S.S. Ancon
WORLD WAR I

America as a World Power Unit
EUROPE BEFORE WAR
 Fewer nations than today
 All nations have national self-
  interests
       hegemony = power
 Balk...
Nationalities of Europe (1914)
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

   The “sick man” of
    Europe
   Mediocre
    military, industrial
    economy
   An empire whose
  ...
The Austro-Hungarian Empire
   Many different ethnic groups
FRANCE

            First place in no
             category, last place in
             no category
            Only Rep...
GERMANY

             Unified in 1871
             Most Industrialized
             Most Feared Army
             Cult...
GREAT BRITAIN

                   Greatest Naval Power
                   Greatest Empire
                   Fairly Goo...
ITALY

           Newcomer
            (Unification in 1860s)
           Relatively poor and
            underdeveloped
...
OTTOMAN EMPIRE
RUSSIA

   Europe‟s Slow Giant
   Enormous Population and Natural Resources
   Ethnic tensions with Germany
   Territo...
LONG TERM CAUSES OF THE WAR

M   Militarism
A  Alliances

I  Imperialism

N  Nationalism
(M)ILITARISM
                            Definition –
                             development of armed
                 ...
(A)LLIANCES

 Triple Entente – France, Great Britain and
  Russia (a.k.a. the “allies”)
 Triple Alliance – Germany, Aust...
Otto Von Bismarck (1815-1898) –
 Considered the founder of the
German Empire and architect of
       the Alliance System

...
Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) –
        Emperor of Germany




Wilhelm led Germany through World
     War I and gave up th...
(I)MPERIALISM

 Definition - Building of empires
  economically and politically (not
  exclusive to the US)
 Colonies pr...
(N)ATIONALISM

 Definition – devotion to the interests
  and culture of one’s nation
 Social Darwinism and ethnic differ...
THE ASSASSINATION OF
ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND
&
THE JULY CRISIS
ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND




   Heir to the throne
    of Austria-
    Hungary
     Nephew   of the
      current king –
DANGEROUS TO SERBIA

   Would have granted
    Southern Slavs
    autonomy (self-rule)
    but couldn‟t let them
    be i...
JUNE 28, 1914      Franz Ferdinand visits
                    Sarajevo, Bosnia on a
                    goodwill tour
   ...
Last photo of Archduke and Princess alive – leaving city
                hall after their banquet.
BAD CHOICE…      Gavrilo Princip and
                  “Black Hand” gang
                  shot Ferdinand
               ...
Princip as he is arrested and before he can shoot
                      himself
GAVRILO PRINCIP:
FACTS:
(1) WANTED TO FREE BOSNIA FROM THE RULE OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND
MAKE IT PART OF SERBIA ONCE AGAIN

...
Archduke and Princess lying in state
JULY CRISIS

   Austria confers with Germany for almost 1 month
   Germany offers unlimited and unconditional support
RUSSIA’S ROLE
   Austria tries to provoke Serbia into war
       July 23 – delivered 24 point ultimatum
            Ser...
FURTHER DECLARATIONS OF WAR

 August 1 – Ger. Declares war on Russia
 August 3 – Ger. Declares war on France
     Itali...
WHERE IS AMERICA?
 U.S. is officially neutral
 Individuals are divided on who they
  should support (or to support any
 ...
INTERVENTIONISTS                            ISOLATIONISTS

   Split ties due to immigration              Socialists crit...
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA

  Sailing from New York to England
   (carrying civilians and munitions)
  May 7, 1915

  Sun...
LUSITANIA


 1,198 killed (128 Americans)
 Wilson demands an apology, money, and
  commitment not to use submarines
 Ge...
THE SUSSEX PLEDGE
                       German U-boat sinks
                        French liner “Sussex”
              ...
ZIMMERMANN NOTE
        Arthur Zimmermann – German
         ambassador to Mexico
        If Mexico joins a German
      ...
ELECTION OF 1916




 Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) –
 Charles Evans Hughes (Republican)
 Wilson narrowly wins election as ...
THE ELECTORAL RESULTS
THE FINAL STRAW
                           “It is a war against all
                                 nations…the
 Wilson ...
RECRUITING & RAISING AN ARMY
   Selective Service Act (May 1917)
     Required all men between 21-30 to
      sign up fo...
THE AMERICAN IMPACT
                   Mass Production
                     1) ship workers exempt
                     ...
AMERICAN ARRIVAL
 Europe had been at war for more than 2 years
  already.
 Convoy system  warships guard troop carriers...
General John J.
 Pershing, leader of the
 American Expeditionary
        Forces


Pershing fought in both the
Spanish Amer...
The American Expeditionary
  Forces, or “Doughboys”
The trench system of the Western Front stretched for
400 miles from the North Sea on the coast of Belgium
              to...
THE TRENCHES

 Systems of digging out the ground to protect
  army
 Both sides utilize the trenches

 Life in the trenc...
BBC Trenches
Image of soldiers “going over the top” – meaning to
climb over the trenches and charge across “no man‟s
land”
LIFE IN THE TRENCHES

                Disease runs rampant through
                 the trenches
                Rats in...
TRENCHES (CON’T)

 Trench warfare creates a stalemate in
  France that neither army can break
 Combined with the new tec...
Soldiers fixing
     bayonets
  preparing to go
“over the top” and
 charge the other
     trenches.
Machine gun fire
 from...
Water-filled trench at Passchendaele




Aerial view of trench network near Villecey
THE DAILY GRIND
1. Clean Rifle
2. Eat Breakfast (unofficial truce)
3. Complete Daily Chores -refilling of
  sandbags, repa...
WEAPONS OF WAR
America as a World Power
MACHINE GUN
   Modified during World War I (most effective
    weapon)
     Up   to 600 rounds/minute
 Considered “weap...
Above and to the right : German made WWI Bergmann MP18
                          machine gun
       Below: U.S. made WWI B...
FLAMETHROWER
                 Psychological
                 weapon of terror
                Idea to launch
           ...
Most WWI flamethrowers were operated in teams and one person
                   carried a pack of fuel
TANKS                           AIRPLANES

   Caterpillar treads         First used in WWI
   Constructed w/ steel     ...
WWI style tank with caterpillar tracks
Left: Typical WWI airplane
                            Below: WWI style seaplane




   Below: WWI style
bomber, not used ...
Left: WWI biplanes flying in
                                   formation




   Right: Airplane with
camera mounted to se...
Manfred Von Richthofen a.k.a. “Red Baron” –
                                      leading German pilot with 80 victories

...
Above: Air ships were
relatively new to the scene
and used for scouting and
 eventually to drop bombs
   Right: Anti-Air G...
WWI style searchlights used to find
airplanes.
 Radar would not be used until the
       Second World War
POISON GAS
   Physical and psychological weapon
   First used by the French
      Chlorine fog – suffocates (choking
  ...
Casualties From Gas - The Numbers

Country              Total Casualties   Death

Austria-Hungary          100,000        ...
Gas masks for man and horse
                                                  demonstrated by American soldier
  World War...
A MENTAL WAR
   Mental Illness
     ShellShock – called Post Traumatic
      Stress Disorder today
     Thousands were ...
MEDICINE BREAKTHROUGHS
 Treating wounds and injury becomes more
  advanced (along w/ fighting infection)
 Use of rehabil...
THE AMERICAN HOMEFRONT




America as a World Power Unit
GOALS OF HOMEFRONT ORGANIZATIONS

   Raising money for
    the war



   Gaining public
    support for the war
PAYING FOR THE WAR

                   $35.5 billion spent on
                    the war
                      1/3   fr...
AMERICAN INDUSTRY


   War Industries Board
     Encourage mass production
     Eliminate waste
     Set up production...
CONSERVATION OF
RESOURCES
   Food Administration
       Herbert Hoover
       Set crop prices and
        regulate food...
PATRIOTISM & PROPAGANDA
   Committee on Public Information
     Promote   the war to American public
        Posters,  ...
William Tyler Page

•Writes American‟s
Creed”
•Part of an essay
contest
ENSURING LOYALTY



   Espionage Act (1917)
     Punished anyone found guilty of helping the
      enemy, hindering recr...
WERE THOSE NEW LAWS
CONSTITUTIONAL?
   Do you think that the Sedition Act and
    Espionage Act violate the Constitution ...
Eugene V. Debs – an
 outspoken opponent of the
 war effort – was given a 10
 year sentence for speaking
out against the wa...
Citizens collect books from the
 Chicago Public Library to send
over to soldiers fighting in Europe
America as a World Power

THE END OF WAR, 14 POINTS, AND
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
END OF THE WAR
   Russia pulls out of war in 1917
   Germans concentrate forces and make a push on
    the western front...
•November
11, 1918 
Armistice day
(cease fire)
•48,000 U.S.
dead in
battle, 62,000 of
disease
•22 Million total
deaths in...
HOW TO SOLVE THE PEACE???


   What were the long-      How should a peace
    term and immediate        treaty have res...
WILSON’S 14 POINTS
 •January 1918
   •Wilson presents his plan for peace
   (Intended end the causes that had
   begun the...
Ideals in Wilson‟s Fourteen Points
1. Self determination (personal independence) of all peoples
2. Arms reduction
3. Non-p...
What did
 Wilson hope
the League of
Nations would
 accomplish?
PEACE IN PARIS
   United States - primarily concerned with maintaining
    world peace
       Woodrow Wilson
   France ...
From the left:
   David Lloyd
 George of Great
 Britain, Orlando
         of
Italy, Clemenceau
   of France and
   Wilson ...
Treaty of Versailles

•Germany
blamed, demilitarized, forc
ed to pay reparations ($33
billion)
•Treaty written without
Ger...
Treaty of Versailles
•Map altered with little regard for ethnic or
true national boundaries
   •Poland created out of Germ...
Great Britain “forgot”
 about its promises
     to both Arab
 Muslims and Jews
     to create an
    independent
 homeland...
DISAGREEMENT OVER THE LEAGUE

   No L.O.N.                       For the L.O.N.
       Fear of war w/out              ...
WILSON AND THE LEAGUE
   Wilson attempted to convince the American public
    and U.S. Congress to pass a treaty allowing...
Wilson tours America to convince the
 citizens of the League of Nations
The Ideal versus Real League of
The Ideal League
                         Nations League in Practice
                     ...
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America as a World Power Unit Notes

  1. 1. TAKE A VOTE! Do you feel Industrialization & Reform moved us closer or farther away from our founding ideals?
  2. 2. PERIOD 1
  3. 3. PERIOD 2
  4. 4. PERIOD 3
  5. 5. AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER Unit # 2
  6. 6. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1) What considerations should guide the development of American foreign policy? 2) When should the United States go to war? 3) What responsibilities do people with power have to those people who have less power? 4) Did America‟s emergence as a world power move it closer or further away from its founding ideals?
  7. 7. R.A.P. School Fight One day at school you notice a huge ring of students jostling and pushing. As you get closer, you hear some of the students yelling, “Fight!” Like the rest, you want to see what is happening. Finally finding a vantage point, you see two students threatening one another. One is a good friend; the other is a former friend and current enemy who owes you money. What will you do?  1. Turn away and leave because the fight does not concern you and getting involved will only mean trouble.  2. Convince a couple of friends to help you separate the two students before they hurt each other.  3. Get into the fight on your friend‟s side and punch out the former friend who owes you money since he deserves it.  4. Punch out both students to show the rest of the school who is the toughest kid at Unami.
  8. 8. Warm up/Wrap Up  1. Which foreign policy stance has the United States appeared to favor the most? The least?  2. Do you notice any patterns in U.S. foreign policy over the course of U.S. history?  3. What do you think might explain the constant shifting of U.S. foreign policy from one stance to another?  4. Why do you think the United States began taking a more active role in world affairs in the twentieth century?  5. Where on the foreign policy spectrum should the United States position itself today? Explain.
  9. 9. R.A.P.-Visual Metaphors  R.A.P. Under what circumstances is it appropriate for the United States to intervene in the affairs of another country? 1 paragraph response.  Complete a sample metaphor: Being a student at Unami is like… Being a citizen of the United States is like…  The United States foreign policy today is like…
  10. 10. Wrap up: 1. Where on the foreign policy spectrum from “Isolationism” to “Imperialism” did U.S. foreign policy fall around the turn of the century? 2. What motivated U.S. leaders to be so active in the affairs of other countries during this era? 3. How did the people of other nations feel about U.S. interventions? 4. Did their feelings influence the behavior of U.S. leaders? Why or why not? 5. Are you proud or ashamed of U.S. foreign policy around the turn of the century?
  11. 11. REASONS FOR IMPERIALISM America as a World Power
  12. 12. KEY TERMS  Isolationism  Collective Security  Internationalism  Imperialism  Protectorate – Area protected and partially controlled by another nation
  13. 13. REASONS FOR U.S. IMPERIALISM 1) Global Competition 2) Cultural Superiority 3) Military Power 4) New Markets
  14. 14. GLOBAL COMPETITION  Competition with European countries  Africa and Asia seen as main targets  Only two African countries remain independent  Theodore Roosevelt‟s desire to be a world power  This is what world powers do “As one of the great nations of the world, the United States What does this must not fall out of the line of mean??? march.” ~ U.S. Senator
  15. 15. CULTURAL SUPERIORITY  Social Darwinism racial superiority  America‟s duty to “Christianize and Civilize”  Idea that God had willed the United States to be greater than all other nations (Manifest Destiny)  Rudyard Kipling‟s, “White Man‟s Burden”  Josiah Strong‟s, “Our Country”
  16. 16. Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Man's burden-- In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain To seek another's profit, And work another's gain. Take up the White Man's burden-- The savage wars of peace-- Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest The end for others sought, According to Kipling, what is the “white Watch sloth and heathen Folly man‟s burden?” Bring all your hopes to nought.
  17. 17. Whose “burden” do you think it is?
  18. 18. “IT SEEMS TO ME THAT GOD, WITH INFINITE WISDOM AND SKILL, IS TRAINING THE ANGLO-SAXON RACE FOR AN HOUR SURE TO COME IN THE WORLD'S FUTURE.” ~ JOSIAH STRONG FROM “OUR COUNTRY”
  19. 19. NAVAL BASES  Alfred T. Mahan – encourage U.S. to build its naval power (compete with world powers)  Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia  Need for naval bases for fuel stations throughout the world  Throughout the Pacific
  20. 20. NEW MARKETS  Surplus of goods creating need for new markets throughout the world (raw materials and foreign trade)  New investment
  21. 21. ALASKA  Purchased in 1867  William Seward, U.S. Secretary of State  Called “Seward‟s Folly”  U.S. bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million  Equates to 2 cents / acre  Rich in natural resources (ANWR debate) The Inflation Calculator
  22. 22. HAWAII  Vital for food (sugar), supplies, and fuel (Pearl Harbor)  Spread Christianity  Issues of “duty free” status  Queen Liliuokalani – wanted to rid American influence (“Hawaii for the Hawaiians”)
  23. 23. HAWAII (CON’T)  American Sugar planters want it to be annexed  Not have to pay tax  Business groups, aided by the Marines overthrow the gov‟t  Becomes a territory until 1959 (50th state)
  24. 24. SAMOA  Important for refueling  U.S. promises to help with disputes among other countries  Divided among Germany and the United States (almost led to war)
  25. 25. SPANISH AMERICAN WAR America as a World Power
  26. 26. EVENTS LEADING UP TO WAR  U.S. attempts to buy Cuba from Spain  Cuban War for Independence  Ledby Jose Marti (Cuban poet)  American opinion split  Spanish Response  ValerianoWeyler (Spanish General) beats rebellion and imprisons thousands of Cubans
  27. 27. CAUSES OF THE WAR Major Causes 1) Yellow Journalism 2) De Lome Letter 3) Sinking of the „U.S.S. Maine‟ Minor Causes 1. Support of Monroe Doctrine 2. Desire for Empire 3. Belief in American Superiority
  28. 28. YELLOW JOURNALISM  Sensational stories about Spanish atrocities towards the Cubans  “Butcher Weyler”  Stories of poisoned wells and killing children  William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer fuel the war “You furnish the pictures and I‟ll furnish the war.” ~ Hearst
  29. 29. “Remember the Maine” Like Pearl Harbor during WWII, this slogan is at the center of American public support over the Spanish- American War
  30. 30. DE LOME LETTER  Enrique Dupuy de Lome  Spanish minister to the U.S.  Letter criticized the President  Called him “weak” and insulted greatly  Letter is stolen and leaked to New York Journal  De Lome is forced to resign, Spanish embarrassed and Americans angry
  31. 31. Dupuy de Lome Letter “. . . it shows once more what McKinley is: weak and catering to the rabble, and, besides, a low politician, who desires to leave a door open to me and to stand well with the jingoes of his party.”
  32. 32. SINKING OF THE U.S.S. MAINE  Battleship sent in to escort American citizens and protect property  Feb. 15, 1898  ship blows up in Havana Harbor (260 men killed)  Debate over the reason for the ship exploding still exists (newspapers blame the Spanish angering Americans more)  April 20, 1898  U.S. declares war on Spain
  33. 33. America Attacked by foreign powers •U.S.S. Maine •Lusitania (British ship a/ Americans) •Pearl Harbor •Twin Towers („93) •Twin Towers (9/11)
  34. 34. Before After
  35. 35. The Pacific The Caribbean Theaters of War
  36. 36. WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES  First battle in the Philippines  Commodore George Dewey attacks the Spanish fleet
  37. 37. WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES  Spanish are easily defeated  U.S. receives help from Filipino rebels  led by Emilio Aguinaldo  Spanish surrender at Manila Filipino rebel Emilio Aguinaldo
  38. 38. WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN  Rough Riders  cavalry group led by Theodore Roosevelt  Gain fame at Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill (Cuba)  Spanish easily defeated in Cuba  Soon after they are defeated in Puerto Rico
  39. 39. TREATY OF PARIS  December 10, 1898  Terms  Cuba is given independence  Guam and Puerto Rico given to the U.S.  Spain sells Philippines to U.S. for $20 million  Actual war lasts a total of 15 weeks  361 American deaths, 2,061 of food poisoning and disease  Sec. of State John Hay calls the war, “a splendid little war.”
  40. 40. New U.S. “spheres of influence”
  41. 41. EFFECTS ON NEW AREAS  Puerto Rico  Foraker Act (1900)  Set up gov‟t where U.S. had a great deal of influence  Puerto Ricans have been granted U.S. citizenship  Cuba Amendment  gives the U.S. far more  Platt power in Cuba and right to intervene  Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (Marine base)
  42. 42. EFFECTS ON THE PHILIPPINES  U.S. acts much like the Spanish in the Philippines  Emilio Aguinaldo leads rebellion against U.S. (guerilla tactics)
  43. 43. We could not leave them to themselves – they were unfit for self-government, and would soon have anarchy and misrule worse than Spain’s was . . . There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them… -President William McKinley
  44. 44. •Aguinaldo issued a proclamation of independence in January 1899 – declaring the Philippines a republic •USA ignored the proclamation and proceeded to suppress the independence movement •Vicious fighting lasted for 3 years: •4,000 American soldiers KIA •3,000 American soldiers wounded •16,000 Filipino soldiers KIA •200,000 Filipino civilians killed
  45. 45. •Occasional fighting continued for years •During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in WWII, Aguinaldo made an infamous radio address in support of the Japanese (referring to them as liberators) •Aguinaldo was imprisoned by the USA (in his trial as a collaborator, he testified that the Japanese forced him to make the address) •The Philippines were granted independence in 1946
  46. 46. The United States into the 21st Century Victory in the Spanish-American War touched off a new era in the United States. Its role in world affairs forever changed; the United States became involved in many foreign conflicts over the next century.  1917 = WWI  1941 = WWII  1950 = Korea  1964 = Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Vietnam  1991 = Persian Gulf War (invasion of Kuwait)  2001 = Invasion of Afghanistan (to depose the Taliban)  2003 = Invasion of Iraq (to depose Saddam Hussein)
  47. 47. THE UNITED STATES IN ASIA America as a World Power Unit
  48. 48. BEGINNING OF TRADE  China being split by European powers  Spheres of Influence – only one nation can trade in a specific area  Increase of trade w/ the U.S.  American missionaries sent to China  Chinese workers come to America to work on railroads “The Empress of China” trading goods b/w the U.S. and China
  49. 49. CONFLICT  Chinese want to preserve traditional culture  Mixed perceptions of China  exotic, backward and immoral  Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)  suspends Chinese immigration
  50. 50. OPEN DOOR NOTES  Letters to share trading rights w/ the U.S.  John Hay (Sec. Of State for McKinley)  Agreed to by foreign powers, but not happy
  51. 51. BOXER REBELLION  Traditionalist Chinese become angered  Attack and murder missionaries, other foreigners, and Chinese converts  Hundreds of foreigners die, thousands of Chinese die in fighting  Rebellion eventually put down and shaky relations with China continue
  52. 52. DESCRIPTION FROM ONE FOREIGNER ABOUT THE BOXER REBELLION “THEIR YELLS WERE DEAFENING, WHILE THE ROAR OF GONGS, DRUMS AND HORNS SOUNDED LIKE THUNDER… THEY WAVED THEIR SWORDS AND STAMPED ON THE GROUND WITH THEIR FEET. THEY WORE RED TURBANS, SASHES, AND GARTERS OVER BLUE CLOTH. WHEN THEY WERE ONLY TWENTY FEET FROM OUR GATE, THREE VOLLEYS FROM THE RIFLES OF OUR SOLDIERS LEFT MORE THAN FIFTY DEAD UPON THE GROUND.”
  53. 53. JAPAN  1852  Commodore Matthew Perry sent to Japan to open trade  Conflicts  Japanese immigrants begin coming to the West Coast  Gentlemen‟s Agreement  restriction on immigration  Japan begins to adopt western ideas and becomes an industrial nation
  54. 54. Matthew Perry and Japanese images of American arrival
  55. 55. RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR  Japan wanted to expand its influence  Become a world power  Need for resources  Take Manchuria, Korea and attack Russia  Japanese have great success (1st time an eastern nation defeated a western power)  President Roosevelt intervenes to settle conflict
  56. 56. ROOSEVELT AND THE TREATY  Roosevelt wants both “it could possibly mean a struggle between them (Japan) and us in to have open door the future” ~ Roosevelt policy w/ China foreshadowing  Roosevelt fears Japanese power  Treaty at Portsmouth, NH (1905)  Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize
  57. 57. UNITED STATES IN LATIN AMERICA America as a World Power
  58. 58. BACKGROUND  Monroe Doctrine – U.S. opposes any European involvement in Western Hemisphere (1823)  Interested in protection within own region  Concerned about potential canal zone  Economic interests
  59. 59. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA  Big Stick Diplomacy (Roosevelt)  Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine  Dollar Diplomacy (Taft)  Moral Diplomacy (Wilson)
  60. 60. BIG STICK DIPLOMACY  “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” ~TR  Believed that the U.S. had to build up a strong military  Military sphere of influence  The military would provide the “threat” of force in order to protect American interests  The threat would allow America to back up its word
  61. 61. A LATIN AMERICAN POLICE FORCE  Roosevelt Corollary – Says that US will intervene in any Latin American country whose stability was in question (get rid of European influence)  Military sphere of influence  Examples: Venezuela, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti  Mixed Opinions
  62. 62. DOLLAR & MORAL DIPLOMACY  William H. Taft  Dollar Diplomacy – urge banks and business to invest in Latin America  Economic sphere of influence  Woodrow Wilson  Wilson was more an anti-imperialist  Thought using money or force would hurt the U.S. and Latin America  Promote democratic gov‟ts
  63. 63. GREAT WHITE FLEET  Roosevelt sends U.S. navy on a global cruise  16 white battleships to show that U.S. is a power in the Pacific and the world
  64. 64. THE PANAMA CANAL  1880 – French company begins work on a canal across Panama  Ferdinand de Lesseps (same man who built the Suez Canal)  After a decade, the canal was canceled (disease and terrain)  20,000 dead in 9 years (French give up)
  65. 65. Ferdinand De Lesseps Builder of the Suez Canal and hired by the French to build the Canal in Panama
  66. 66. AMERICAN MOTIVATIONS 1) Boost the nation‟s economy 2) 2) Shorten journey b/w eastern factories and Asian markets
  67. 67. REVOLUTION IN PANAMA  French (Bunau-Varilla) help the Panamanians rebel  They want out.  Roosevelt supports Varilla by sending a warship (U.S.S. Nashville)  With support from U.S., rebellion is successful  U.S. recognizes Panama as a new nation  Many believe it is a violation of Colombian rights (eventually pay them $25 million)
  68. 68. BUILDING THE CANAL  Problems  Disease-carrying mosquitoes (yellow fever, malaria)  Humidity  Frequent accidents  William Gorgas – sent to Panama to reduce death from disease  The Size  More than 43,000 workers at one time  61 million pounds of dynamite  Completed in 1914 (5,600 workers die from disease)
  69. 69. Yellow Fever trouble spots today. Panama is still included. South America Africa
  70. 70. SIGNIFICANCE OF CANAL  50 mile canal  Trip was 8,000 miles shorter  Gateway between the Atlantic and Pacific  “The Land Divided, the World United”  One of the two most important canals in the world
  71. 71. The Inauguration of the Canal Zone – S.S. Ancon
  72. 72. WORLD WAR I America as a World Power Unit
  73. 73. EUROPE BEFORE WAR  Fewer nations than today  All nations have national self- interests  hegemony = power  Balkan Peninsula is constantly unstable  Many nationalities  Great reliance on Alliance system  Belief that war would be quick and victorious
  74. 74. Nationalities of Europe (1914)
  75. 75. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY  The “sick man” of Europe  Mediocre military, industrial economy  An empire whose best days were a century or two past  Biggest Problem: Ethnic Tensions
  76. 76. The Austro-Hungarian Empire Many different ethnic groups
  77. 77. FRANCE  First place in no category, last place in no category  Only Republic  Up until 1815 enjoyed hegemony in Europe  Relatively large, wealthy, and powerful  Jittery about Germany
  78. 78. GERMANY  Unified in 1871  Most Industrialized  Most Feared Army  Cultural Clashes and Rivalry with Russia and France  Fairly autocratic rule by Kaiser Wilhelm II
  79. 79. GREAT BRITAIN  Greatest Naval Power  Greatest Empire  Fairly Good Relations with All Nations  Most Stable Government  Relatively Small Population  Industrialized, but eclipsed by Germany
  80. 80. ITALY  Newcomer (Unification in 1860s)  Relatively poor and underdeveloped compared to other major powers  Relative loser in imperialist land-grab  Looking for Legitimacy
  81. 81. OTTOMAN EMPIRE
  82. 82. RUSSIA  Europe‟s Slow Giant  Enormous Population and Natural Resources  Ethnic tensions with Germany  Territorial tensions with Austria-Hungary  Fearful of Revolution
  83. 83. LONG TERM CAUSES OF THE WAR M  Militarism A  Alliances I  Imperialism N  Nationalism
  84. 84. (M)ILITARISM  Definition – development of armed forces and their use as a diplomatic tool  Military spending to defend empires; everybody wanted a stronger military than their competition European competition for the greatest navy and  By 1890 – Great Britain is most advanced greatest naval power; technology Germany is greatest land power  Other countries quickly
  85. 85. (A)LLIANCES  Triple Entente – France, Great Britain and Russia (a.k.a. the “allies”)  Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria- Hungary and Italy (a.k.a. the “central powers”)  Purpose was to maintain the balance of power and stop war from occurring  The system primarily set up by Otto Von Bismarck (German statesman)
  86. 86. Otto Von Bismarck (1815-1898) – Considered the founder of the German Empire and architect of the Alliance System Bismarck helped to maintain the balance of power in Europe, but was forced to resign from German government in 1890 by William II.
  87. 87. Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) – Emperor of Germany Wilhelm led Germany through World War I and gave up the throne in 1918. Fled to Holland and lived there till his death. Very much an advocate of German nationalism
  88. 88. (I)MPERIALISM  Definition - Building of empires economically and politically (not exclusive to the US)  Colonies provide raw materials, markets, and extension of power  Leads to competition and increased militarism  All nations begin to extend their influence throughout the “third world”
  89. 89. (N)ATIONALISM  Definition – devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation  Social Darwinism and ethnic differences  Leads to competition and rivalry among European countries  Pan-Slavism  A united country of Slavic people protected by Russia (leads to outbreak of war)
  90. 90. THE ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND & THE JULY CRISIS
  91. 91. ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND  Heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary  Nephew of the current king –
  92. 92. DANGEROUS TO SERBIA  Would have granted Southern Slavs autonomy (self-rule) but couldn‟t let them be independent  Ended possible revolution in Bosnia and reunification with Serbia
  93. 93. JUNE 28, 1914  Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo, Bosnia on a goodwill tour  200th anniversary of A-H‟s rule over Bosnia
  94. 94. Last photo of Archduke and Princess alive – leaving city hall after their banquet.
  95. 95. BAD CHOICE…  Gavrilo Princip and “Black Hand” gang shot Ferdinand while he visited Sarajevo
  96. 96. Princip as he is arrested and before he can shoot himself
  97. 97. GAVRILO PRINCIP: FACTS: (1) WANTED TO FREE BOSNIA FROM THE RULE OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND MAKE IT PART OF SERBIA ONCE AGAIN (2) MURDERED ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND HIS PREGNANT WIFE SOPHIA (3) HIS PURPOSE WAS TO SEND A MESSAGE TO AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND PROMOTE NATIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION (4) THE ASSASSINATION WAS PLANNED AND SUPPORTED BY THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT Question: Is Gavrilo Princip a terrorist or freedom fighter?
  98. 98. Archduke and Princess lying in state
  99. 99. JULY CRISIS  Austria confers with Germany for almost 1 month  Germany offers unlimited and unconditional support
  100. 100. RUSSIA’S ROLE  Austria tries to provoke Serbia into war  July 23 – delivered 24 point ultimatum  Serbia submits to all but 1 condition  A-H can‟t come into Serbia to investigate  July 28 A-H declares war on Serbia  Felt bound to help defend Serbia (Pan- Slavism)  July 30-31 – Russia mobilized against A-H and Germany – also asked France to mobilize  July 31 – A-H mobilized against Russia  Germany began to mobilize and gave Russia a 12 hr. deadline to stop their mobilization  Russia refused to stop
  101. 101. FURTHER DECLARATIONS OF WAR  August 1 – Ger. Declares war on Russia  August 3 – Ger. Declares war on France  Italians were left out of loop  Claim ignorance and insult  Brit. Fears a Ger. victory  August 4 – Brit. Joins France and Russia  IncludesCanada, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland…
  102. 102. WHERE IS AMERICA?  U.S. is officially neutral  Individuals are divided on who they should support (or to support any nation at all)
  103. 103. INTERVENTIONISTS ISOLATIONISTS  Split ties due to immigration  Socialists criticize war  Support Germany  Conflict over markets and  German ancestry economic control  Irish looking to gain  U.S. should be an example independence from Britain peace  Support Britain  William Jennings Bryan  Common culture, language, and legal  Fear of families system experiencing horrors of war  German attack on Belgium  Economic ties w/ British AMERICAN NEUTRALITY
  104. 104. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA  Sailing from New York to England (carrying civilians and munitions)  May 7, 1915  Sunk by a German U-Boat
  105. 105. LUSITANIA  1,198 killed (128 Americans)  Wilson demands an apology, money, and commitment not to use submarines  Germans agree to most; Americans back down and remain neutral
  106. 106. THE SUSSEX PLEDGE  German U-boat sinks French liner “Sussex”  March, 1916  Sussex Pledge  Germans promise not to sink merchant ships without warning and without saving human lives  U.S. Congress agrees to begin building up the army and navy  U.S. is still aiding in the war effort but not yet officially involved in the war
  107. 107. ZIMMERMANN NOTE  Arthur Zimmermann – German ambassador to Mexico  If Mexico joins a German alliance, Germany would help to restore territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona back to Mexico  Note is made public and outrages Americans
  108. 108. ELECTION OF 1916  Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) –  Charles Evans Hughes (Republican)  Wilson narrowly wins election as continues to work for peace  Calls for a “peace without victory”
  109. 109. THE ELECTORAL RESULTS
  110. 110. THE FINAL STRAW “It is a war against all nations…the  Wilson says “the world challenge is to all must be made safe for mankind.” democracy” in his call for war to Congress  Germans continue use of unrestricted submarine warfare  April 6, 1917 – U.S. Congress declares war
  111. 111. RECRUITING & RAISING AN ARMY  Selective Service Act (May 1917)  Required all men between 21-30 to sign up for military service (opposed by many)  Random selection  Later made to include ages 18-45  3 million men drafted  2 more million volunteer  400,000 African Americans serve. Women worked as clerks, nurses, stenographers and radio operators
  112. 112. THE AMERICAN IMPACT  Mass Production  1) ship workers exempt from draft  2) Emphasize importance of ship making  3) Fabrication techniques used  Built elsewhere, but assembled at the shipyard  4) Gov‟t took over some commercial and private ships
  113. 113. AMERICAN ARRIVAL  Europe had been at war for more than 2 years already.  Convoy system  warships guard troop carriers across the Atlantic (soldiers and supplies reach safely)  June 14, 1917 – General John J. Pershing and the American Expeditionary Forces (“Doughboys”)  Fresh and enthusiastic troops  A boost in morale  American forces turn the tide of the war in a time of desperate need
  114. 114. General John J. Pershing, leader of the American Expeditionary Forces Pershing fought in both the Spanish American War and was in charge of tracking down Pancho Villa before the United States headed off to war in Europe
  115. 115. The American Expeditionary Forces, or “Doughboys”
  116. 116. The trench system of the Western Front stretched for 400 miles from the North Sea on the coast of Belgium to the Alps of Switzerland
  117. 117. THE TRENCHES  Systems of digging out the ground to protect army  Both sides utilize the trenches  Life in the trenches was uncomfortable and quite bleak  “no man‟s land”  barren expanse of mud with shell craters and barbed wire
  118. 118. BBC Trenches
  119. 119. Image of soldiers “going over the top” – meaning to climb over the trenches and charge across “no man‟s land”
  120. 120. LIFE IN THE TRENCHES  Disease runs rampant through the trenches  Rats infest the trenches in thousands  Lice cause Trench fever  severe pain followed by deadly fever  Trench foot   Fungal infection of the feet  Caused by cold, wet and unsanitary trenches  Could cause gangrenous conditions and result in amputation.
  121. 121. TRENCHES (CON’T)  Trench warfare creates a stalemate in France that neither army can break  Combined with the new technology of the war, this creates massive casualties that have never been seen before
  122. 122. Soldiers fixing bayonets preparing to go “over the top” and charge the other trenches. Machine gun fire from the other trenches create huge casualties
  123. 123. Water-filled trench at Passchendaele Aerial view of trench network near Villecey
  124. 124. THE DAILY GRIND 1. Clean Rifle 2. Eat Breakfast (unofficial truce) 3. Complete Daily Chores -refilling of sandbags, repair the duckboards, and the draining of trenches. 4. Sleep, write letters, etc. 5. Wait for nightfall (most action happened then)
  125. 125. WEAPONS OF WAR America as a World Power
  126. 126. MACHINE GUN  Modified during World War I (most effective weapon)  Up to 600 rounds/minute  Considered “weapon of mass destruction” (MWD)  Mainly used as a defensive weapon  Problems: (1) immobile (2) overheating (3) frequently jammed
  127. 127. Above and to the right : German made WWI Bergmann MP18 machine gun Below: U.S. made WWI Browning machine gun WITH EVERY WEAPON, EACH NATION HAS ITS OWN MODEL
  128. 128. FLAMETHROWER  Psychological weapon of terror  Idea to launch burning fuel  Used to clear defenders before infantry charge  Later used as extensions from tanks
  129. 129. Most WWI flamethrowers were operated in teams and one person carried a pack of fuel
  130. 130. TANKS AIRPLANES  Caterpillar treads  First used in WWI  Constructed w/ steel mostly as scout planes  Used more to destroy  Machine guns mounted barbed wire defenses for “dogfights” and used  First used in WWI (By for early bombing British in 1916)  Air balloons also used  Still have many weak for scouting areas
  131. 131. WWI style tank with caterpillar tracks
  132. 132. Left: Typical WWI airplane Below: WWI style seaplane Below: WWI style bomber, not used till end of war
  133. 133. Left: WWI biplanes flying in formation Right: Airplane with camera mounted to serve as surveillance of enemy troops
  134. 134. Manfred Von Richthofen a.k.a. “Red Baron” – leading German pilot with 80 victories Eddie Rickenbacker – Leading American pilot with 26 victories
  135. 135. Above: Air ships were relatively new to the scene and used for scouting and eventually to drop bombs Right: Anti-Air Guns
  136. 136. WWI style searchlights used to find airplanes. Radar would not be used until the Second World War
  137. 137. POISON GAS  Physical and psychological weapon  First used by the French  Chlorine fog – suffocates (choking attacks), burns, and blinds victims (yellow-green gas)  Phosgene – caused violent coughing and choking w/ delayed effect (next step up)  Mustard Gas – caused internal and external blisters  Gas attacks receive condemnation (topic of debate for years)
  138. 138. Casualties From Gas - The Numbers Country Total Casualties Death Austria-Hungary 100,000 3,000 British Empire 188,706 8,109 France 190,000 8,000 Germany 200,000 9,000 Italy 60,000 4,627 Russia 419,340 56,000 USA 72,807 1,462 Others 10,000 1,000
  139. 139. Gas masks for man and horse demonstrated by American soldier World War I gas masks – Gas attacks created fear among the troops and were created to break the stalemate
  140. 140. A MENTAL WAR  Mental Illness  ShellShock – called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder today  Thousands were discovered to suffer  Lack of sleep
  141. 141. MEDICINE BREAKTHROUGHS  Treating wounds and injury becomes more advanced (along w/ fighting infection)  Use of rehabilitation  Skin-graft technology to heal face wounds (leads to plastic surgery)  Red Cross Ambulances used
  142. 142. THE AMERICAN HOMEFRONT America as a World Power Unit
  143. 143. GOALS OF HOMEFRONT ORGANIZATIONS  Raising money for the war  Gaining public support for the war
  144. 144. PAYING FOR THE WAR  $35.5 billion spent on the war  1/3 from taxes  Progressive Income  Taxes on tobacco, liquor, and luxury goods  The rest from bonds  “Liberty” and “Victory” Loans
  145. 145. AMERICAN INDUSTRY  War Industries Board  Encourage mass production  Eliminate waste  Set up production quotas and distributed raw materials  Bernard Baruch, set up in 1917  Impact on Labor  American industry grows by 20%  Largely responsible for allied victory in the war  With so many white men off to war, women and
  146. 146. CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES  Food Administration  Herbert Hoover  Set crop prices and regulate food exports  Families conserve food, coal, gas  Daylight savings time  Encourage Americans to plant “victory gardens” to save food for the soldiers
  147. 147. PATRIOTISM & PROPAGANDA  Committee on Public Information  Promote the war to American public  Posters, paintings, cartoons, and speeches  George Creel (former muckraker)  “Star Spangled Banner” sung at many public occasions  “100 percent Americanism”  Support for the war is great
  148. 148. William Tyler Page •Writes American‟s Creed” •Part of an essay contest
  149. 149. ENSURING LOYALTY  Espionage Act (1917)  Punished anyone found guilty of helping the enemy, hindering recruitment, or inciting revolt.  Sedition Act (1918)  Prohibited speech that was “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive about the government, flag, Constitution or armed forces.”
  150. 150. WERE THOSE NEW LAWS CONSTITUTIONAL?  Do you think that the Sedition Act and Espionage Act violate the Constitution of the United States of America?  Schenck v. U.S. – Supreme Court says the Espionage Act is constitutional.  Oliver Wendell Holmes (Supreme Court Justice) says there are cases where the first amendment right of free speech can be limited (cases of clear, and present danger, like wartime)
  151. 151. Eugene V. Debs – an outspoken opponent of the war effort – was given a 10 year sentence for speaking out against the war and draft.
  152. 152. Citizens collect books from the Chicago Public Library to send over to soldiers fighting in Europe
  153. 153. America as a World Power THE END OF WAR, 14 POINTS, AND TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  154. 154. END OF THE WAR  Russia pulls out of war in 1917  Germans concentrate forces and make a push on the western front  U.S. troops arrive just in time  Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, and 2nd Marne  No invasion or decisive battle (war of attrition)
  155. 155. •November 11, 1918  Armistice day (cease fire) •48,000 U.S. dead in battle, 62,000 of disease •22 Million total deaths in Europe ARMISTICE DAY
  156. 156. HOW TO SOLVE THE PEACE???  What were the long-  How should a peace term and immediate treaty have resolved causes of war? these problems? Explain briefly.
  157. 157. WILSON’S 14 POINTS •January 1918 •Wilson presents his plan for peace (Intended end the causes that had begun the war in the first place) •Proposed an international organization called the League of Nations to preserve peace in the world •The 14 points truly express Wilson‟s optimism and idealism
  158. 158. Ideals in Wilson‟s Fourteen Points 1. Self determination (personal independence) of all peoples 2. Arms reduction 3. Non-punishment 4. Formation of the League of Nations 5. Freedom of the Seas 6. No secret treaties 7. Free and open trade
  159. 159. What did Wilson hope the League of Nations would accomplish?
  160. 160. PEACE IN PARIS  United States - primarily concerned with maintaining world peace  Woodrow Wilson  France – punish Germany  Georges Clemenceau  Italy – gain land and spoils of war  Vittorio Orlando  Britain – punish Germany, not as bad as France  David Lloyd George  The “Big Four” have a difficult time compromising on the right course of action for Europe and the world
  161. 161. From the left: David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Wilson of the United States
  162. 162. Treaty of Versailles •Germany blamed, demilitarized, forc ed to pay reparations ($33 billion) •Treaty written without German representation •Anschluss (Combining of Germany and Austria) forbidden forever •League of Nations created but Germany not admitted
  163. 163. Treaty of Versailles •Map altered with little regard for ethnic or true national boundaries •Poland created out of Germany and Russia •France given the Alsace Lorraine province •Czechoslovakia created out of Germany and Austria-Hungary •Yugoslavia created by combining Montenegro, Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, and other small territories •Austria-Hungary broken up •England received mandates territorial holdings in the Middle East from the Ottoman Empire
  164. 164. Great Britain “forgot” about its promises to both Arab Muslims and Jews to create an independent homeland for them in their holy lands
  165. 165. DISAGREEMENT OVER THE LEAGUE  No L.O.N.  For the L.O.N.  Fear of war w/out  Claim that cooperation Congressional approval among nations would  U.S. involvement in create peace issues beyond its  Wilson‟s idea and U.S. concern as a world leader  Henry Cabot Lodge  Franklin Roosevelt
  166. 166. WILSON AND THE LEAGUE  Wilson attempted to convince the American public and U.S. Congress to pass a treaty allowing the League of Nations  Partisanship –rivalry among political parties- defeats the L.O.N.  Wilson collapses from exhaustion and suffers a stroke days later  Congress never passes the treaty  League of Nations begins without the support of the United States
  167. 167. Wilson tours America to convince the citizens of the League of Nations
  168. 168. The Ideal versus Real League of The Ideal League Nations League in Practice The All nations should be members. Not all nations were members (eg. USA and Russia). All nations should be equal partners in the Not equal partners because major powers League. made decisions in the Council. The League should be able to make League structure was weak, disagreement decisions quickly and easily. caused delays. National interests should be second to the Nations were more interested in their OWN league‟s interests. affairs, especially after 1929 with the economic crisis. •Members should obey the League‟s It was ignored (eg. Japan in Manchuria – sanctions: The Moral Sanction. 1931). Offenders could trade with none •The Economic Sanction. League members (eg. Abyssinia Crisis – •The Military Sanction. 1935/6). It wasn't realistic to use violence to stop violence.

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