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Class Presentation slides for the Third Quarter of Physical Science 50, Spring Semester 2009

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  1. 1. Light Waves
  2. 2. X-rays 3 x 108m/s  F = c / = 2.19 x 10-10m = 1.37 x 1018 Hz
  3. 3. Radio Waves Live 105: 105.3 MHz 3 x 108m/s = c / f = 105.3 x 106 Hz = 2.85 m
  4. 4. Red Light = 728 nm  = 7.28 x 10-7m 3 x 108m/s 7.28 x 10-7m f = c/ = 4.12 x 1014 Hz =
  5. 5. Light Energy Planck’s Law:  E=hf High frequency -> High energy
  6. 6. Properties of Light Reflection:  Specular &  diffuse
  7. 7. Refraction “Bending” of light rays  With a change in media
  8. 8. Light rays and vision
  9. 9. Myopia (Nearsightedness)
  10. 10. Lens Correction
  11. 11. Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
  12. 12. Lens Correction
  13. 13. Refracting Telescope
  14. 14. Refraction
  15. 15. Index of Refraction c n= v 
  16. 16. Refraction due to Temperature “mirages” 
  17. 17. Refraction via (temperature) n (air 0ºC) = 1.0029  n (air 30ºC) = 1.0026  Light travels faster in warm air 
  18. 18. Refractive Index values Material Refractive Index Air 1.0003 Water 1.33 Glycerin 1.47 Oil 1.515 Glass 1.52 Zircon 1.92 Diamond 2.42
  19. 19. Laser Single frequency  Focused  Single direction 
  20. 20. Incandescent Light Bulb Filament heated to glow  All visible light  frequencies All directions 
  21. 21. Wave Vs. Particle? Young’s experiment 
  22. 22. Photoelectric Effect Quanta  E =hxf  High frequency photons  have more energy
  23. 23. Electron Ejection
  24. 24. Bohr model for Hydrogen Niels Bohr  What about more complex atoms? 
  25. 25. Atomic Theory Leucippus & Democritus  4th century BC “indivisible”  eternal, moving
  26. 26. Elements
  27. 27. Aristotle  Continuous matter  Natural motion
  28. 28. Age of Experimentation Lavoisier  (1743 - 1794) Conservation  of matter
  29. 29. Lavoisier “TraiteElementaire  de Chimie” HgO --> Hg + oxygène 
  30. 30. Dalton  Elements made of atoms  All atoms of one element are the same but different than those of other elements  Atoms of different elements can form different combinations with different properties
  31. 31. Compounds Water Hydrogen Peroxide H 2O H 2O 2
  32. 32. Compounds Nitrous oxide Nitrogen Dioxide N 2O NO2
  33. 33. Dalton Atomic masses 
  34. 34. Benjamin Franklin Like charges - Repel  Unlike charges - Attract 
  35. 35. Michael Faraday Ions = Charged atoms 
  36. 36. +/- Charged Particles J.J. Thomson (1897) Cathode rays
  37. 37. The Size of an Electron Millikan (1911)  me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg 1 H atom = 1840
  38. 38. Positive Particle? Rutherford (1907)  particle = He+ nucleus
  39. 39. Neutrons Chadwick (1932)  Neutron = neutral  = “spacer”
  40. 40. Atomic Structure Plum pudding planetary 
  41. 41. Subatomic particles Quarks 
  42. 42. Atomic Number  Atomic Number = # of protons  Atomic Mass = protons + neutrons
  43. 43. Isotopes
  44. 44. Unstable Isotopes
  45. 45. Radioactivity Henri Becquerel 
  46. 46. Radioactivity Marie Sklodowska  and Pierre Curie
  47. 47. Alpha Decay
  48. 48. Beta Decay
  49. 49. Gamma Radiation
  50. 50. Radiation Safety Paper  Al foil  Lead 
  51. 51. Artificial Elements
  52. 52. Rate of Decay: Half Life
  53. 53. Isotope Half Lives Isotope Half Life 4.5 x 109 years U - 238 Pu - 239 24,360 years C - 14 5730 years Co - 60 5.3 years I - 131 8 days 1.63 x 10-4 sec Po - 214
  54. 54. Medical Radioisotopes  99Tc and 123I
  55. 55. Technetium Half life 99Tc half life = 6 hours If 10 g injected into a patient, how much is left after 24 hrs? 24 hrs = 4 x 6 hrs = 4 half lives 10 g -> 5 g -> 2.5 g -> 1.25 g -> 0.625 g
  56. 56. Radiocarbon Dating Atomic Clock 
  57. 57. Radiocarbon Dating
  58. 58. Shroud of Turin
  59. 59. Ice Man (Ötzi)
  60. 60. Nuclear Fission Otto Hahn &  Lise Meitner
  61. 61. Chain Reaction
  62. 62. Fission Energy Control rods  = moderators usually Boron, Carbon Keep reaction  under control
  63. 63. Manhattan Project
  64. 64. US Fission Reactors
  65. 65. Three Mile Island (TMI) 1979
  66. 66. Chernobyl 1986
  67. 67. Breeder Reactor
  68. 68. Fast Breeder Reactions
  69. 69. Radioactive Waste
  70. 70. Fusion
  71. 71. Fusion into Heavier Elements
  72. 72. Fission vs. Fusion High energy higher energy Radioactive waste no radioactivity Need fissionable small common nuclei atoms Currently used need solar conditions
  73. 73. Cold Fusion (1989) Fleischman/Pons (Utah)
  74. 74. Cold Fusion
  75. 75. Cold Fusion (2005)  Naranjo, Gimzewski & Putterman  Using a strong Electric Field
  76. 76. Tokamak reactor
  77. 77. Chemical Reactions Proton Transfer Electron Transfer H+ e- acids/bases reduction/oxidation
  78. 78. Proton Transfer  Acid: Sour taste, corrosive Releases H+  Base (alkaline): bitter, corrosive Accepts H+
  79. 79. Identifying Acids, Bases 2 HBr + CaO --> H2O + CaBr2
  80. 80. Identifying Acids, Bases 2 HBr + CaO --> H2O + CaBr2 ACID BASE All proton transfer reactions must have BOTH an acid and a base
  81. 81. Amphoteric Compounds H2O + HCl --> H3O+ + Cl– H2O + NH3 --> OH– + NH4+
  82. 82. pH “pouvoir hydrogène” pH = – log10 [H+] Acid: excess H+,low pH Base:H+ deficit, high pH
  83. 83. pH scale Low pH acid pH = 7 neutral High pH basic
  84. 84. “pH Balanced”
  85. 85. Buffers Combination of acid/  base form designed to keep pH at set level
  86. 86. Antacids
  87. 87. Excess Stomach Acid Overindulgence  Skipping meals  Stress 
  88. 88. Antacid = Mild Base Sodium Bicarbonate  NaHCO3 NaHCO3 + HCl ---> H2CO3 ---> carbonic acid CO2 + H2O
  89. 89. Sodium - Free? Hypertension 
  90. 90. Alka Seltzer NaHCO3 + aspirin + citric acid 
  91. 91. Calcium Carbonate Twice the acid relief!  CaCO3 + 2 HCl ---> H2CO3 ---> CO2 + H2O
  92. 92. Milk of Magnesia  No gas Mg(OH) 2 + 2 HCl -> 2 H2O + MgCl2  High dose = laxative
  93. 93. Acid Rain Rainfall with  ph < 5.5 Normal rain  is mildly acidic due to H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
  94. 94. Locations
  95. 95. Causes Impurities in fossil fuels: N, S (+ O2) NOx, SOx
  96. 96. Effects of Acid Rain Limestone, marble erosion 
  97. 97. Effects of Acid Rain
  98. 98. Chemical Reactions Proton Transfer Electron Transfer H+ e- acids/bases reduction/oxidation
  99. 99. Electron Transfer  Oxidation electron loss  Reduction electron gain
  100. 100. Electron Transfer  Oxidation electron loss 2 Ag --> 2 Ag+ + 2 e-  Reduction electron gain silver tarnishing S + 2 e- --> S2-
  101. 101. Electron Transfer  Oxidation Oxygen gain C + O2 --> CO2 NH4+ --> N2 (rocket fuel) Hydrogen loss  Reduction ClO4- --> Cl2 (rocket fuel) Oxygen loss Hydrogen gain C18H34O2 --> C18H36O2 unsat Oleic acid sat Stearic acid
  102. 102. Safety Matches Red 3 S + 2 KClO3 -> 2 KCl + 3 SO2 ox
  103. 103. Biological Redox Alcohol metabolism 
  104. 104. Alcohol Metabolism Liver Aldehyde alcohol oxidase dehydrogenase Acetic acid
  105. 105. Hangover Nausea  Headache  Sensitivity to  light, sound
  106. 106. Batteries Daniell cell: Cu and Zn
  107. 107. Battery Operation Anode: oxidation Zn -> Zn2+ + e- Cathode: where reduction occurs MnO2 + e- Mn2O3
  108. 108. Alkaline Batteries Anode: Manganese Cathode: Zinc
  109. 109. Rechargeable Batteries Ni-cad  Cd -> Cd2+ + e- NiO2 + e- ->NiO
  110. 110. NiMH batteries Higher capacity  Longer lifetime  NiOOH -> Ni(OH)2 (Ni+/Ni2+ oxidation)  M+H- -> M (reduction)
  111. 111. Lead-Acid Batteries Pb + SO42- -> PbSO4 + 2e- PbO2 + 4 H+ + SO42- + 2e- -> PbSO4 + H2O
  112. 112. Corrosion Fe -> Fe2+ oxidation O2 -> OH- reduction
  113. 113. Statue of Liberty Gift from France 1876
  114. 114. Renovation (1986)
  115. 115. Capturing Light Louis Daguerre 
  116. 116. Exposure Silver salts: AgBr or AgI  Light + 2 Ag+ X- 2 Ag+* + X2
  117. 117. Development Ag+* + C6H6O2 Ag + HBr + C6H4O2 Use Acid to Stop this process
  118. 118. Fixing Removes excess insoluble Silver:  Ag+ + S2O32- Ag(S2O3)-  HYPO
  119. 119. Color Photography Light + Ag+ + Dye -> Ag+* + Dye* 
  120. 120. Instant Photography Polaroids 

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