PSC 125
The History of Science

  Prehistory to 1900
Prehistoric Science
 Observation

 Knowledge Acquisition

 Technology
Humanoid to Human
Homo Neanderthalis
Great Leap Forward
Art in Prehistory
 Fertility sculpture
  Venus of Willendorf


     ~ 22,000 BC


     Limestone tinted
      with Red Oc...
ART IN PREHISTORY
 CAVE PAINTING
  LASCAUX,
    ALTAMIRA
     COSQUER

  PIGMENTS:
    Charcoal
    Hematite
    Limonite
Metallurgy
 Copper Age

 Bronze Age
  Alloy
Neolithic Revolution
Why There?
 Access to Fresh Water

 Temperate Climate

 Native plants, animals
Why Change?
 Large Animal extinction

 Carrying Capacity

 Climate shifts

 Population growth
Neolithic Revolution
• Domestication of plants and animals
     mainly in resource - rich areas

• Emergence of trade soci...
New Necessities
 Storage

 Textiles

 Structure materials
When/Where did this occur?
SW Asia      8500 BC   Wheat, peas    Goats, Sheep

China        7500 BC   Rice, Millet   Pigs,...
How Do we Know?
 EVIDENCE:

 Geological

 Atomic

 Biological
Radioisotope Analysis


                     Carbon Dating
               14




             Argon/Potassium

         ...
Carbon Isotopes
The Ice Man (Otzi)
Shroud of Turin
Half Life
Elements of Civilization
 Development of Agriculture
     irrigation systems, Trade

 Monuments

 Writing systems

 Ma...
Monuments
 Ziggurat of ur



 Pyramids
Monuments
 BEIJING




 HARAPPA
STONEHENGE
Writing Systems
       Pictures

       Pictograms

   syllabic systems

ALPHABETIC SYSTEMS
Numerical Systems
Vigesimal (Base 20)
Astronomy
Navigation
Circumpolar stars
Fertile Crescent
Cuneiform
Hammurabi
 Legal Code

 Diagnosis/
  Treatment

 Magic vs. Medicine

 Fee Schedules
Mathematics
 Sexigesimal (Base 60)
Astronomy
Wanderers
The 7-day Week
                                          Wednesday
                               Tuesday                T...
The Ancient World
Ancient Egypt
Pyramid orientation
Sopdet
Hieroglyphs
Rosetta Stone
Egyptian Calendars

• 360 day + 5 festival
       days


• Rising of Sopdet
Mathematics

Decimal system


No zero value
Math Problems
Geometry

“Sacred ratio”

Φ=1.61803398874989484820458683436563
811772030917980576286213544862270526
0462818902449707207204...
Egyptian Medicine

Sekhmet
Medicine
Embalming
Afterlife




    Hapi, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef, Imseti
Alchemy

• Emerald Tablet
      (Hermetica)
The Central Kingdom
Calendar
LUNAR MANSIONS
The heavens

White Road - Moon’s path


Yellow Road - Sun’s path


Red Road - Equator
Astronomy


Celestial Palaces:
      Fire Star
      Bird Star
      Seven Sisters
      Empty Sky
Celestial Stems

Five Elements/Principles

x


Two (Yin/Yang)
Decimal System
Pictograms
Herbalism Tradition

300+ plants

36 minerals
Indus Valley

Harappa




Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa
Mohenjo-Daro
Indus Script
 Jar      Priest

 Man      Servant

 Spear    Warrior

          Fish or Star
 Fish

 Bearer   Officer
THE AMERICAS
Monuments
Agriculture
Monuments

Chichen Itza




Macchu Picchu
Olmec Script
Calendar Stone
Mediterranean World
Greece
Mycenae
Ionian Dawn

 Miletus

 Materialism

 Myth to
  cosmology
Thales
                   (640 - 546 BC)

 Water

 Eclipse 585 BC

 First Proof
  (Geometry)
Anaximander
                 (611 - ?? BC)

 Apeiron
  (chaos)

 Ceaseless Motion

 Curved Earth
  suspended in Air
Anaximenes
                     (585 - 525 BC)

 Mist
  Rarefaction
  Condensation


 Flat Earth

 Pure Atoms force
  o...
Heraclitus vs. Parmenides




                       Flux = Illusion
CHANGE/FLUX

Earth’s Axis
                       Fini...
Eleatic School
 Greek Colony

 LOGIC

 ZENO

 Xenophanes
Pythagoras
Pythagoreans
 “EVERYTHING IS
  NUMBER”
Irrational Numbers
 “Inexpressibles”



 Immortality
PYTHAGOREAN MUSIC
Harmonics
Pythagorean Astronomy
 Spherical Earth



 Earth &
  Counter-Earth
Democritus
                   (460 - 370 BC)

 Atomist

 “Laughing
  philosopher”

 Human Evolution via
  trial & Error
Empedocles
                 (490 - 430 BC)

 4 Roots



 Two Forces

 Natural
  selection
Clepsydra
 “Water-Stealer”
The End of Empedocles
 “To the elements it
  came from
  Everything will return.
  Our bodies to earth,
  Our blood to wa...
Elements


 All Things
  are a combination
  of the 4 roots
Greek Medicine
 Temple medicine

 Asclepios
  physician -> God
Alcmaeon of Croton

 Cnidos

 Dissection

 Pythagorean?

 Brain = center
  of sensory Function
Hippocratic Medicine
 School of Cos

 Observation:
  dreams
  astrological sign
  body fluids
Humors
 Balance

 of

 Black Bile
 Yellow Bile
 Blood
 Phlegm
Hippocrates of Cos
 Father of
  Professional
  Medicine
Case Histories

Therapy
Cause of Disease
 Role of Weather

 Abortion Ban

 Dissection
Hippocratic Oath
 “I will prescribe
  regimens for the good
  of my patients
  according to my ability
  and my judgment ...
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  1. 1. PSC 125 The History of Science Prehistory to 1900
  2. 2. Prehistoric Science  Observation  Knowledge Acquisition  Technology
  3. 3. Humanoid to Human
  4. 4. Homo Neanderthalis
  5. 5. Great Leap Forward
  6. 6. Art in Prehistory  Fertility sculpture Venus of Willendorf ~ 22,000 BC Limestone tinted with Red Ocher
  7. 7. ART IN PREHISTORY  CAVE PAINTING LASCAUX, ALTAMIRA COSQUER PIGMENTS: Charcoal Hematite Limonite
  8. 8. Metallurgy  Copper Age  Bronze Age Alloy
  9. 9. Neolithic Revolution
  10. 10. Why There?  Access to Fresh Water  Temperate Climate  Native plants, animals
  11. 11. Why Change?  Large Animal extinction  Carrying Capacity  Climate shifts  Population growth
  12. 12. Neolithic Revolution • Domestication of plants and animals mainly in resource - rich areas • Emergence of trade societies • Diet: Protein –> Carbohydrate • Reduction of Biodiversity
  13. 13. New Necessities  Storage  Textiles  Structure materials
  14. 14. When/Where did this occur? SW Asia 8500 BC Wheat, peas Goats, Sheep China 7500 BC Rice, Millet Pigs, Silkworms S. America 3500 BC Potato Manioc Central US 2500 BC Sunflowers Sahel 5000 BC Sorghum Fowl Egypt 6000 BC Figs Donkey, CAT India 7000 BC Sesame Cattle
  15. 15. How Do we Know?  EVIDENCE: Geological Atomic Biological
  16. 16. Radioisotope Analysis Carbon Dating  14  Argon/Potassium  Tritium
  17. 17. Carbon Isotopes
  18. 18. The Ice Man (Otzi)
  19. 19. Shroud of Turin
  20. 20. Half Life
  21. 21. Elements of Civilization  Development of Agriculture irrigation systems, Trade  Monuments  Writing systems  Mathematics  Astronomy calendars, navigation
  22. 22. Monuments  Ziggurat of ur  Pyramids
  23. 23. Monuments  BEIJING  HARAPPA
  24. 24. STONEHENGE
  25. 25. Writing Systems Pictures Pictograms syllabic systems ALPHABETIC SYSTEMS
  26. 26. Numerical Systems Vigesimal (Base 20)
  27. 27. Astronomy
  28. 28. Navigation
  29. 29. Circumpolar stars
  30. 30. Fertile Crescent
  31. 31. Cuneiform
  32. 32. Hammurabi  Legal Code  Diagnosis/ Treatment  Magic vs. Medicine  Fee Schedules
  33. 33. Mathematics  Sexigesimal (Base 60)
  34. 34. Astronomy
  35. 35. Wanderers
  36. 36. The 7-day Week Wednesday Tuesday Thursday English Sunday Monday Friday Saturday Dimanche Mercredi French Lundi Mardi Jeudi Vendredi Samedi Spanish Domingo Miercoles Lunes Martes Jueves Viernes Sabado Italian Domenica Mercoledi Luedi Martedi Giovedi Venerdi Sabato Donnerstag Sonntag Mittwoch Dienstag German Montag Freitag Samstag Donderstag Zondag Woensdag Maandag Dutch Dinstag Vrijdag Zaterdag
  37. 37. The Ancient World
  38. 38. Ancient Egypt
  39. 39. Pyramid orientation
  40. 40. Sopdet
  41. 41. Hieroglyphs
  42. 42. Rosetta Stone
  43. 43. Egyptian Calendars • 360 day + 5 festival days • Rising of Sopdet
  44. 44. Mathematics Decimal system No zero value
  45. 45. Math Problems
  46. 46. Geometry “Sacred ratio” Φ=1.61803398874989484820458683436563 811772030917980576286213544862270526 0462818902449707207204 189391137484754088075386891752126633 862223536931793180060766726354433389 086595939582905638322661 319928290267880675208766892501711696 207032221043216269548626296313614438 149758701220340805887954454…
  47. 47. Egyptian Medicine Sekhmet
  48. 48. Medicine
  49. 49. Embalming
  50. 50. Afterlife Hapi, Duamutef, Qebehsenuef, Imseti
  51. 51. Alchemy • Emerald Tablet (Hermetica)
  52. 52. The Central Kingdom
  53. 53. Calendar
  54. 54. LUNAR MANSIONS
  55. 55. The heavens White Road - Moon’s path Yellow Road - Sun’s path Red Road - Equator
  56. 56. Astronomy Celestial Palaces: Fire Star Bird Star Seven Sisters Empty Sky
  57. 57. Celestial Stems Five Elements/Principles x Two (Yin/Yang)
  58. 58. Decimal System
  59. 59. Pictograms
  60. 60. Herbalism Tradition 300+ plants 36 minerals
  61. 61. Indus Valley Harappa Mohenjo-Daro
  62. 62. Harappa
  63. 63. Mohenjo-Daro
  64. 64. Indus Script Jar Priest Man Servant Spear Warrior Fish or Star Fish Bearer Officer
  65. 65. THE AMERICAS
  66. 66. Monuments
  67. 67. Agriculture
  68. 68. Monuments Chichen Itza Macchu Picchu
  69. 69. Olmec Script
  70. 70. Calendar Stone
  71. 71. Mediterranean World
  72. 72. Greece
  73. 73. Mycenae
  74. 74. Ionian Dawn  Miletus  Materialism  Myth to cosmology
  75. 75. Thales (640 - 546 BC)  Water  Eclipse 585 BC  First Proof (Geometry)
  76. 76. Anaximander (611 - ?? BC)  Apeiron (chaos)  Ceaseless Motion  Curved Earth suspended in Air
  77. 77. Anaximenes (585 - 525 BC)  Mist Rarefaction Condensation  Flat Earth  Pure Atoms force others Downward
  78. 78. Heraclitus vs. Parmenides Flux = Illusion CHANGE/FLUX Earth’s Axis Finite Universe
  79. 79. Eleatic School  Greek Colony  LOGIC  ZENO  Xenophanes
  80. 80. Pythagoras
  81. 81. Pythagoreans  “EVERYTHING IS NUMBER”
  82. 82. Irrational Numbers  “Inexpressibles”  Immortality
  83. 83. PYTHAGOREAN MUSIC
  84. 84. Harmonics
  85. 85. Pythagorean Astronomy  Spherical Earth  Earth & Counter-Earth
  86. 86. Democritus (460 - 370 BC)  Atomist  “Laughing philosopher”  Human Evolution via trial & Error
  87. 87. Empedocles (490 - 430 BC)  4 Roots  Two Forces  Natural selection
  88. 88. Clepsydra  “Water-Stealer”
  89. 89. The End of Empedocles  “To the elements it came from Everything will return. Our bodies to earth, Our blood to water, Heat to fire, Breath to air. “
  90. 90. Elements  All Things are a combination of the 4 roots
  91. 91. Greek Medicine  Temple medicine  Asclepios physician -> God
  92. 92. Alcmaeon of Croton  Cnidos  Dissection  Pythagorean?  Brain = center of sensory Function
  93. 93. Hippocratic Medicine  School of Cos  Observation: dreams astrological sign body fluids
  94. 94. Humors  Balance of Black Bile Yellow Bile Blood Phlegm
  95. 95. Hippocrates of Cos  Father of Professional Medicine Case Histories Therapy
  96. 96. Cause of Disease  Role of Weather  Abortion Ban  Dissection
  97. 97. Hippocratic Oath  “I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone.  I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked”

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